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STORIES aqA talks. 

ChHpcr DDllKlMl BiUOdD. 

©HTHn>R. t: ft* 
Thr 1AHL6 D*CltHTff(l- 21. «J- 
T y JX Piai BSCB a* UTB, lU^edl 
CUTK WALL. 3«. U, 

Bjr KuriTiTTTi M Sewkli. Pf*w tvnd 

Eii^ £roiT «r Talc cooiplcb} In ■ Uocto votame :— 
HAHnAHit- TKKiTIVALp Ij, id. 

n>nrrc»M pah^onaoe, i^ u. 

By the AathoT of ' Amy Herbert/ 



Th* JOURNAL of a ROME LIFE, By the Amhor of ' Amy 

Satan." PcHL Aid, Bi. «£ AFTEK JJr£: b (cijBel id'TlM JvoxaUflf ji Rami 
Lite.' Bj tbtf HJOfl Aixlht^. Pot Ktc. IBc &f. 

PRINCIPLE'S of EDUCATION, drawn fmro Naturexnd Rgrelation, 

HTSTOKY of the KAftLY CHURCH, fmm th^. Tir^ Preaching ftf 

QoBfUHH for ExUDiDAllcilk Virp. 9rA. u tit. 

NIGHT LESSONS from SCRlPl UKE. By tiie Author of ' Amy 
READINGS for EVERY DAT in LIINT: compiled fhin» ilie 

WfttiDjn of Blikov JvuT TiiuuL Bj kto auu AuEboi. I4eq KdlUoa, 

vntoH tui Pimlou tot Uoaanuaoii I^u. Br m* vot AnUicr. Hgv EdiUoa, 

PfiEPARATIOrr for the HOLY COMMUNION: the Dflvotion« 

— nipjliii di^tBy fntn U« Wot^ 4^ Bi*lipjp JsattfT TtrmB. Qj tba aiiia AMtiLor- 


THOUGHTS for die AGE. By ih^ 
fiOUB QUEiiTIONS of the DAY. 


Author of ' Amy HerWt>' 

By the Author of ' Amy 

ud hJA ; The LIbIM of FiUiaov ; Tha Ajortlw' Cnvt; A* 
CbkBEk aM la Bltoi; I1» Onuli} of QukHUiut?. aad tU finiDi of IM BMb laAa- 

XHAaJMi; BivvlBitoa ComMm wOtt fkvui; TU OnOrvt tm^Mnti ^^ivilkHl 

.Wcrka suitti^le for Young ParawiB, 


A CATECKISM of GRECIAN HISTORY. Edited by iheAutlior I 
of *Amr HoriHrL' iBmo. pru?« iLrnf. 
' In LbU Cftia-IUini «p Iuvt Oiwiltii ht^btir/ hrcD^bi Jiomt kaflHyaaupbt rnLmlr^, bihI Jd 
tibf mnflt aptiTAbEi^ and laDraLliig Unia.' Lnrinpng]. Aij^rov. 

A FIRST HISTORY of GREECE, from the Siege of Tray, B.C. ^ 

r rerueO. Fcp. 0vo. Af. M. 

A CATECHISM of ROMAN HlSrOBY Edited hy the Author \ 

Tlio CHILD'S FlRf>T HISTORY of ROME, from the Foundation 
, of iiomp, n.c. 7^1, To iHip PdU of JoniMlein unAmr TltPi, i,n. To. By 3f Eii H. Sl. 

If &(kvai^L, ILftfldtd IBJlbiuu* F'op. Bro, Si- SJ. 1 

jOlHtNAL KKPT DURING a SUMMER TOUR, fnrthe Children 

"r M Vuiuv^lnhJl: tmm D*i«Di1 ii> libtiLalit uf CuiinUacv, ttinbn tn the aaft\aii, 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR MADE EASY Bj Elizabeth M. Seitell. . 

* The «v;, flImpK uDd DEnUanl ffnmniiiT cf Iflv S«i*r1L' ^^V 

DICTATION EXERCISES; hoing a Neir Engli^ih Spelling- Book 

r unhTlii tfv tlic Byv miiJDr tti4D tbu^ Biif. Br l^uiuavri V. Sswu.l. ILflvt»i] 

■ Filltton, ISrno. ti- 

DICTATION EXERCISES, Second Seriks; a Correapon deuce 

PnooL F^ibtlLi^h'-^"'^ f"* Vonni^ Lprflr*' Hrfio-kl" ; ooiopriiiiiie plaiMot H^>hric1crJlble 
I fBq^b lAtcn ir.-Di trip "oat VTrii'^rT'. wLtli n viaw id (mialii tJie 1'it[iiVb LilTctW in 

BdltJoii. ummi evo. ia. 
CONTRS FACILES; □ Sr?loolion nf Amamng SioTias from Moti^m 

fieni'ti WrliDm, InLondAl w (^isc LltiJp i>lr|a «n tnL«vt In Hpallnp w'^sn fipr 
mr? beginning Id uadfinLBid cVld lAntfUB^r, ■a'l to ppHiaiF ' EntralU CbuLvLb' BAit*d 
bj tbt AuUiE>r trf ' Aiij- IlcrbgrL' OtTlped EilLUmi, Cr^Wa »«■>- ^, t4. 

CONTES et CRITIQUES FRANCAI3 recueillis dea Anteura 

Jfudenvn; e^iKle^honi ihtV^cMn^fil Vlctuf IZ^ffi^ A, Puthuh B, SKlnt-HlMro, 
(T. aUnU-BedTe. uirt K. I'Aini Hdtud by Ue Aaibnr oI^Aidf Uabnn.' Crown 
Sya. U. > 

A CATECHISM af ENGLISH: HISTORY. Edited by the Author 


' £«|]|*H thB Ida] d( a Hftp-Ukt uiwt^rnffiiE of Bn^lib blitory.' 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 



UdlHHr : FUlTtD BT 







Airr BIASRT'' rrtL, 'rhst hibtoat or hdu,' ^riAfrr htttoht or gREEci* 







411 rlgklt nf«ri«d 

-^// /. /Ml 


It HA8 BE£N MT WISH, in undertaking to write a Popular 
Hiatoiy of France, to ^ve Home of the picturesque details of 
the events narrated rb well as the important general outline. 
I have hoped in this way to awaken a more vivid intereet in 
the subject, and to i^ive a more lifelike character to the actions 
of the varioua persona whose lives have influenced the fortunes 
of the great nation so intimately connected with ourselves and 
vet in many respects so widely differing from us. 

The history of Michelet,' the most brilliant of French his- 
torians, has been my chief assistance throughout. There are, 
indeed, many portions of the present volume which can claim no 

greater merit than that of being a free translation from this 

dbtinguished French writer. 

I am also largely indebted to Miss Freer for the anecdotes 
collected in her entertaining * Lives of the French Sovereigns 
&om Henry III. to the Regency of Anne of Austria.* 

1 I UD mnriUiDglj compelled lo my that U. Michelrt'a histoty is quite uoflt 
u tc put into the haodi of lliv joQDg. 


Miee Coatello'H • Life of Anne of Brittany ' and Jamea'a * Life 
of Louis XIY.' have been consulted, and the Memoirs of 
Madame de Motteville, Mademoiselle de MontpenaLer, and 
the Due de St. Simon have also been found moat uaefuL 

But for the ultimate authority as to the main facts I have 
depended upon the ' Student's History of France ' and the his- 
tories of Cardinal de Bonnechose and M. Duruy. 

Should the present volume be found to answer the purpose 
for which it was written, I propose (if life and health be granted 
me) to continue the History down to the present day> 

Ass Cuwr, Bonchttbch: 
Ajiril 18, ]87fl< 



BC. 6S— 400. 


Gftnl beforfl tba RoraBn Conqnaat— CffiBftr'a InvMion -Thft Vercingetorii— 
Quill ConqneTeii— TrwitmaDt by the tlmparors — Deray of (he Empire — 
UiHry of the Peopit— Bagaudes — ConsUntin*— EffirctJ of Eodud Cob- 
qnnl— 'Cbriilianity I 


A.H. 400-011. 

BuLarian InraaioDV— Fmnlu and BarbarijiD Tribes— PbanunoDd^M^r^ 
— ClifTiB — Wara of Cloris — Clovis Rata&a CodiqI — Hia Cnifllty — Cbris 
wd the BiahopB— Dncb of Clovjs 

snccGSHOKs OF OLOvia. 

ID, ftl 1-762. 

The SoccMiOW of Oori* — Klnglj Election— Cbarap de Mhtb— Tbierry — 
Clottire — ChiMeberl — Chlodpiuir— Mnrdw of Chlodomir'a Chiidran — 
Gomire Sole Kiog— Anitnuift — Npusrriit — DiTiniin of ClotAJre'e King- 
doiD — Fredtgondfl—flrannhhtit— Major of tba PiiUw— RemorM of Fre- 
degondfh — OoDtfAQof Bur^Tidj — Oondorald^Chil'iebert of AaBtnaiii— 
Ti-eacberj of Gondotald'i Frienda^Trtatj of Aadalot — Dealh of Freds- 
pjDd*—Th«dpb«t— Battle of Tolbioc— Death of Thieny— Daaih of 
Snmebant — Dsgobort — Denth of Da gnbart— Pepin d'HerialJ*!— Thierry 
Lut Mtforin^iui Kriig — ChHrles Uortel — Sanceu in SpuD — B«lUo 
ofTom— D«AthofCb«rlaMut«l U 



PEFiK IE una (thb BHoaT), ^D. 7fl3-76S- ^^,_ 

DiriuoD of Chfttlea MartelB PosaeMion*— Pojhd 1h Bref— His Tenitoriea — 
Civil DiTiBioDB — PapiD^B Chanv^ter— Support of the Chuich — WdP with 
die LombudA — Doiuuiaa of Pepin — Reduction of AqniiAirie — DcalLj of 
Fflpiule Bnf 2& 


l.D. 75S-B14. 

ChiilfS heA Carloman — Oooqaeet of Lombscdj — War with the Snxoat— 
Saxon Conqneat—AV ill kind — QonTenion — War ia Spaio — Ronc«BTallBB 
—Boland— Conquest of BaTaHana, Avarfl, Ac— Empafot of tho W«i — 
Cnpitulanea — Eccl«iafrticAl Aflain-^BDCoont^meDt ^ren to Art aod 
Leu-ning— Succefl&on to tb« £inpir« — ScandiuATlAn PiraUi — Death of 
Charl«magD« ....... ..... 34 



A.D. 014-840. 

Louis lo I>£boDnaLTe— GoTorament of Louifl— CoiYHiatioD — Empire Dirided 
—Bernard of AquilJiiaa — Entpr^id Juditb —Humiliation of Louis — Ba- 
ballon of his Sone— The Lugenfcld^Loais a i^aoner — Beetomtion— 
DiTieioD of the Empire— Dearh of Louie . . . « ,42 


^D. 840-889. 
BaUlo of Fonteoaj— Oath of StiBsbiug — TVoalj of Verduti — ChArloA le 
Chauro— Hincmflj— Cliurch Doetrioee — Eri^na — Piratee — Regnor Lod- 
brog— Robert ihr SttoBg— Independent Barona-—CoTon)ition of Chulea 
le ChaOTe^His Death— Louie and Carloman — Nortboien — Cherles Le 
Qroi^^iege of Paris — Depoaitian of Chailea le Groe • ■ . - 47 



A..D. 8SB-0a7. 

K^dps-^hatles le Simple — Rollo — TFeatf of Qiaors — Gonoan Empenm — 
Rebellion— Duke Robert — Captivitj of Charlei la Bimpl*— Ralolph — 

COKTUfTS. fiat 


Looifl IV. — JaaIoiuj brtveeo Loaii ud Hn^ \t Blue— Loois » Pri- 
■oDer— CesoioD of I^OD^-Aeciufttiab of Hngh l« BUk — Df«th of Louij 
— IjHhAin— Otho II- It Pans — Pov«r of Eogh Cap*t — Duth of Lo- 
thaut — Loui* V. ........... 53 



Dominion of Hugh Cftpat— Q»*t Firfa — Allodial landa— BmsJlcinm — 
Pnovia— Corr^fi — 2iob1«B — Cborlea of LorraioA — Fuulj of ChulH of 
Lorrulid— Hugh Cupel and thfl Church .'.'.. - 61 



Eip^etation of cho lAst Da;— Plague in AquiUio^ — St. Henrj of Gttmanj 
— Education of Robert^MjHTJ*ip»— Intardi<?t — Church B«3( oration— 
MarriHga with CunftUbce — RoWrt'a MusicaL T^flt^ — His Supentitious 
DeceptiDDB — Persfcmion of H«rftic8 apd Jews — Death of Robert . 61 


A.T>. 1031-llOa. 

FMry I. and Boberl the Magniflcant— Tha Veiin Ceded— Feacfl of God- 
Trace of God^Wilham of Kormaody — H^nrj'i Death — Ri-|ira°<^7 — 
Sonuan Coaqopst of EoglADd — Death of ^Villiam the Cooqii^ror — 
Gr'^n' VII. — Doath of Grogorj— Benr-tdo de MoDlfort nod Philip — 
Pet^r the Hermit — Conncil of Clermoot — loterdiut^ Walter tho Peniiileu 
— Jenua^m Takoo— Oodtzo; d« Boailbn— Death of Philip L . , 09 



4.i>. noa-u37, 

Oiildhood of LomB VI, — Oia DominionB^UiuJife Coodition of the Country 
— EfftctJ of iha CcTiwde — Batlie of Tenchebnii^BrMincviilp — Com- 
iB(iD0 — Robert Wace — Paris— Oriflatnme — Accident to Prinee Philip—' 
Civil Wai jo EDglflod — UartiAge of Princt Louie — Death of Louia VI. 
—Sew OpinioDS — KomiiuilJBt* and Realista — Paris UoiTernilj' — AbeUrd 
— HeJoiaa — Arof^d of Bmcu — St, Bernard— 'Source of iSt Bdrnaid't 
IbAhdc* .... 77 



*,D. 1137-1180. 

AcocMion of LouJA VTI. — QiTfLrrel hftveen Innafeot TI. and Looio — Contro- 
TBfBj b*tir«D Si. Banuird and Abelnrd— Falk of Anjou— S^at* of Palfs- 
tine — CcuDcilat VFAtl&i — S^ond Criuado — Dapartureof Louis — Manual 
ConmeDUB — Progtea of CrusadHs — Manafra of Chriatian Pilgrima — 
Xiouii abd Conrad at Jarusalem — Last Dajs of Soger and Bernard — 
Dirorcft md Ramaniwa of EleaQor — Diaput«i with England — Second 
and Third Mairiaga^PriDcoPhLlip Crowiwd— Dcatb of Lo^iaVII,— H!i 
GoTBrtLEQ^Dt .•.'--, , , , > BS 



A.n. 1180-1233. 
Philip's Man-ingfH-Hfg Fd11<?, DomfFtic and Foreign — Philip'i English 
On«FADcee — Meeting at Qisors— Third Qnuadv— Support of EagLiAh 
Ftiocfls — App^ for GruBade — Saladin — Fred«rick Barbaroua — 
Hichard'a HuriBge— Sir^e of Acre — JenloDeieB of CruMdcTB — Choio* of 
A King — Fhinp> Returp^Allianreof Philip and John — iDgebur^and 
Agnes de Meraaie— Interdict — Submi^flion of Philip — ReBtoratiOD of 
Ingeburga— Death of Agnafl^Murd*r of Prince Arthni — Inrasion of 
Normandy — Senion^ Fourth Cnuade^lAtin Empire of Conntantinopla 
— AlbigflDBflB and other Herotio*— Their Docirinea — Bajmond of Ton- 
lonae— -Sl Dominic — Albigenaian Cmeade — ^B^zien — BattU of Mnrct — 
Pttipnod Ti^n g liw h Invaflion— War againat John and Otho— Battle of 
BouTiD«&— Fmce Louie in EDglaod— Death of InpocentllL — Dechneof 
Albigflttwan Craaido — D**thof Philip— Philip's Charactar , . . fi4 


LODIB Till. 
A.D. 1223-1226. 

AecHnon of toais VIIL — J^anDO de Caurt«nai — End of Albigfluian Oam- 

paign — Death of Lonii Vlll IIO 

LOms IX. 

A.D, 1226-1270, 

£dac4tIon of iLoniv IX- — Ftnal Subminion of Rayniond Til- — ITajrian of 
Lonift— Marriage of Priocfl AlphoiiBO — Fettivitiea — Conimnicj^ — Pnvat* 
Jealonno — Battle of Taillabourg^TrDce*^Illn«H aod Vow— Condition 


of F(i1«ttiii»'^Flftli Crasade — Hamage of Ckarlea of AnjoK — Emba^;i- 
doD of Loav — lAbding at Damietta— Baula of HftOKDnli— Lonii % 
Frivian — Pan — Lowtat Acts — The PutcDrrBta— Death of Blanche — 
BatUTD of LodiB — Bomo OoTOTDiDeiit — B«utiitioD of £bf lUh and FnDch 
ProriDCW — Claim of ChatleB of Anjou to Niiplea aiid Sicily— Balllc of 
TagiiauAO — Death of CoDndicfr^ADtioch TahfD by MAmBlokes — 
&i^ Cruflda — Diumba^ation at CaiUui^ — Plugiw — Death of 
XfODiB IX.-"ImpiOTBmaDU iu bia Rwgn > . . , . . 1 13 


LD. 1270-1 285. 

AMMflJDD of Philip III, — DeatZiH in tb« Rojal Familj — Pi«m do U Sroflse 
— JohD of FrocJda — Plana of Pedio of AragoD— StciliAn Vaapen — 8i«ge 
of HnaiDa— CharWo Flrtt Dntrojvd— Purtpoeed fio7>il l>aBl— Ba^ 
of Philip HL '. . 127 


A.D. 128^1314. 

Naplei Mid BkHj Ditidvd— -Philip' j Polioj — QoaiTfll with Eoglaod — 
Scimre of Qaj of Flaodnn — T^XAtioD of tbe Clerf^T — JohiLee — EveDtii 
in FIaiid«n— -Burning of Pupal Bull — SraUM-Oenomt— Battle of Cotjrlni 
^Ibdiotmpnt nf Bomfac* — Outrsjfo at Aonpii — linprinonnieEit, Bfacne. 
and D44fh of BoiiJF«(» — BoDedict XI. — Peace with Flnnden — Clement V. 
— Koi^lA Templan — Plot Bgninst the Tpmplari — JAcqn» dn Molay — 
Con1r««iAD« aod Retruf ationt of the Templan— Tria] of Da Molaj— Hit 
Death — Proi^flej — DHth of Philip IV,— Hi« Oorammoat , . ,132 



A.D. ]314-I31fl, 
LnU X — Unjiut Treatmoiit tnd Doath of Harigny— D«ath of Loola X. HZ 



A,D. 131«-1322. 
Diitntad Sucraoioti — Fop« Jobo XXlI. — Ptpal Brieft in Fnnce-'New 
Innmetion of Putooreuix — Lopm — FbiLp'i Dotth ...» HO 




i.D. 1328-1W8. ^^^ 

lft£riAg« of Charlee IV-— Gofman Emperora — Diapntw in EngUnd — Death 

orCJurLea 147 


A.D. xa38-]360. 

CUimuiU to ths Throne— Philip VI. — VJncenDat— War widi Flamuli 
BnrgbwB— Bdirtrd III, — RoWt d'Artois— PoiBnmsg ftiid Yargotj — 
J«&EiDA de DirioD — Axta of Magic — AQiance with FlaDdan — Clum of 
Edward IIL— Battls of Hel¥etfllnj8— Siege of Tom-nay— Oonfeata io 
Brittany — Jeanne da Montfort— Peace— War Renewed — De&th of Jacob 
Tan Anevelde — Battle of Crecr— Dwtb of John of Bohemia— Sieoe of 
Calais— Stare of Fraoee— The Brack DeBth—FlHgelldDtB- Phdip'A 
Secotid Uuringo — Faehiona-Tbe Dauphin . . , . . . \i9 


A.D. 1350-1364, 

Jobo'i Accenion^Charlea the Bad — Alteration of Coinage — Toxatiod — - 
Arreet of Ctftrlw of Navarre — War with Bngland — Battle of Poilieta — 
John mode Frieoner — Defaace of Paria — IJat of GiieTancea — Heleaae of 
ChArlae of IfnTom — Murder of tt^ King's AddHere— Brigaodfl^The 
Jacquerie— Relief of Meaox Sortie — Marcel'a Dearh — Haapkio'e Enti^ 
—Renewal of EngliHh Wat — Treaty of Bretignj— John Keatored — His 
HetDJD to England- Deatb 160 



A.T>. 1 364-1 38 U. 
Cbanot^r of Charles V.— HAtel of Su Pol— Bertnnd da GoMdin— Civil 
War in SpaiD-^Du Qaeadin RaoBOmed and Retaken —Navareta—Dn 
Gue«Un Free— Death of Pedro— War wirJi Black Pnnce— S^tem of 
Warfare — Olivier da Clitooa — Trace — Death of Black Prioce and 
Edward IIL — Comt« de Beaumont — Privato Lifs of Charld le Sage — 
Books— Condition of thfl Chnrcb — Attempt to Annex Brittany — Death of ' 
J}a Oueaclin- Death of CharJei — Female Uatjucn — Drees . . .170 

COMTUfTSt 2iii 



A.D. 1330-1461. 

The BGoTitr of Cb»T]« VI. — Tix4tion and Imnirrftetion — JoAoni of Hipla* 
— Death of LooiB of Anjou^WarmFlnnde™ — RDKeb«qtiB--Harripiga of 
Cijurlao— Proposed InvBHion of Eaglaud — Daatb of CbarJei of NaTam — 
Iflabean^s Entmnce idCo Paris ^-ValeolJna Visconti — ComplainU ia Jmj- 
gnpdoc — AsHnlt upon Dt Cliason^ Revenge of Charles — XHappoiotnieDt 
— loHiutj — Fin at a Masked Ball — AHuaadoD againat Valeiitin* — 
Fap&l E]ect!t>D — Bt^ozet — ExpeditioD o^inst Bajazet — DppceilJoD of 
Ajtbard U, — EObrt for the King's Recorerj — Antueemenl — Card*— 
£nrT^p«n Sorereignfl— Jean Shdh rear aad Loui» of Orleaiu — Negleri: of 
thf Kini? — Pejtiee of Burgundy and Orleane-^IUnPBn of Loaisof Orleaiu 
— Rflcotu-iliation with Jeaa Sane Peur— Miitd«r of Louis of OrleBUe h^ 
Jeiiii Bane Pear — Sorrow for Loujb of OtImhb — Escape of Jean Sane 
PtDf — ValDDtiiia> Petition ^The Duke's Return — Jean Pf^it's Defence — 
The Petchsd-Bp Peace— -Th** Armngnace — The Cahochieiw — Appeal to 
the Danphio — Armagnoc Triumph— Threatened War with England— 
Landing of Engl ish—Prspanti one for Battle — Bottle of AgiuAurt — 
Defeat of the Freoch — Maemcrp of Prieonprs— Captivity of Louis of 
Orleans — Poetrj — Deafh in llie RthjuI Family— EnRli*ih Triumph— Bur- 
gnndian and Armo^M Contpnti — lienry V. io Nonnaady— BastOMtionB 
of Bnriciindiant — MaMocren of Prisoners — Pnnishment of the Moh — Siege 
of K<nien — Unifn of Burgund inns nod ArmognacB — Morderof Jean Suae 
Penr — Harriflff^ of Heuir and Kuiharine — Henry V. at the Louvre — 
C':^Dcil of ConatAnee — John Ua^sand Jerome of Prague — Henry'fl DifB- 
enltjea— Death of Henry V. and of Charles VI,— Dance of Death . . 170 



A.D. H?Z-1470. 

Plwpeets of Charlea VII.— Character of Charles VIL— Jaqnelina of Hainault 
— Yohinde of Anjon— The KLDf>'i Farourrtea — Si^e of Orleans — Db- 
fenee — Death of Saliehnry- Bettla of the Ilerringfl—PropOiA] to Yield — 
Joinne d'Are — Interview with Charles — Early Histnry of Jeanne dArc — 
Enquiry into Jnnne'e Miieion — Its Acceptance — Journey to Orleans — 
EntronAi into the Tovn — The TaVing of the Tournellee- Retreat of the 
Eogliah — Coronation of Charles VII. at Bheiras— JBap^e'B Prasentiment 
—RcpulMof the French— Jeanne Taken Fneoner — Jeanne d' A re's Impd- 
■DDinent nod Eiamination — The Sentence of Grace — Jeanne's Retracta- 
tion—Her Death — Henry VI, and his Qrandm other— His Coronation— 
Trwicheiy of Bedford and Olonceflter — Congress at Arrae — Reconciliation 
of CharlM and Philip of BuricuDdT— Death of Isabflau- ' Ecorcheura'— The 
Pra^eris — P^ace vith England^Taking of Consrantinnplebj the Turks 
—The Danphin — Hie Second Mnmagp — Reeidence at Bruoaelj — The 
DaQphiD'eT<uit««— Francesco SfoizA— Death of ChuUe VII.. . . 213 



LOUTS yi. 

Journey of Ltuis XI. U> Furia — Codtrast batvecn [lif Duko and ths KiDg — 
Coronation^Tonriiamont — Ths King At tbo UoUl dea TounktUn^ — 
FopeigD PliiDB — DQpDFtiLre itf Phiti|i — PrngniAtic ^bftioD — PrDpuvtiocA 
foplS'iir T^tll Arugoh — Pi )gri rug*— CuBPion of lEouHLllon and C^nlhgnfl 
— Towa* on ilia Soinnie—Futni^n Power »f Louis— Hoqifl FiAiiy — 
LtJi^ue "f ibo Public Oa-A — Tlit Kiuc* A pponl— Declaration of War^ 
The BiirguEriirviia lA Puria — BuLtlu uf Moatl'li^ry— Pa&ee K«pofiaticiu 
— Tbniat of Duuoiii — PnjpijHH.[i of Pracs ^Nornmodj YitLlpd — Xor- 
mnivly Ri-gained — R^rn>ii*lrflOPt of Coni*p ds- ChiLmldJii — JJnrgiiady Bbd 
EnglJUid— Thf CobhihI.Id 3:. Pol— Earl uf Wim-ifk in Frflnoe— Death 
*jt Fhilip of Bur^nd^' — CliortiA tliu Bi'ld — Siatn-CjuntM^l i^uuiDLoafxi — 
Mbirinfp ot Cliiu-lm — EapbcUUiun uf V^u^PIajia fui Muctipg^Qecrp- 
bioq of Louis fll PiToninj -Ktppria frum Li^g<^— lotoxriflir bctveuu 
Cburla nud LoiLifl— Charts? and Lcuii at Li^— DeilTuctioa of Uicge 
— KdCnru <tl LcuLi Cu Parie — Ouienoe ^v^n to Duke of Boni^PaliLu^tl 
ChflnftW Id Engljinil— B'rtli of an Hnir — Pmth nf the Duka of Gni*fiiie 
— EnaliHli lnvH*rioD— Imerriu* nl Fequiguj— ScLbldim of Cliarlfi — 
DmtU iit&i. Pol— BnttltB of Ori^Dtoii. Sfi>r>>t. Naucj— Douh of CliihrlaP 
tht l]<]ti1 — PliiDB cf Lnuirt XI. — SpiEure of BuiftunJy — f^ei^iBlioDji with 
Ijduib— Dtfltli uf HLiiijW»iirt ond Hagunet — Marria^o of Murj iind. 
AduiiTniliflji — Peau — Lntt Dayi of Louia Xl> lL PloflBiS'lrLfl'Tours^ 
llcatli of Loaifl XI — CbaruUrBod l3o7«nim«i]t ..... 23lh 

A.O. 1493-1 40S< 

Bival Clnimfi ta the l^tgency — Anna cf Bcai^cu — Hubellirin of Louia of 
Orlvuns — Tho DncJiHa Je&Qoe — DeatK of ^ha Duk» of UrittAn^ — Fm- 
{Xfiiklaf^f Mhiniiye — BetjtM'bal nf Anne and [^Tjniinllfan—FrBnpli InTa- 
HioB— Fnotlijui tif Laula of OdBHUfc— ^uggtHiioLi uf Duuoiij-^SHCUfld In- 
"vn^iuu — Marriri^o — Clidractor r>f CliArlm» wjil Adub— Morrittpi Aniclm 
— PlflQ of Il4kl]|kD War— LudoTJco U Morg — DtpaJtUfD uf ChiirlcA — 
Galfjuso Sfopjji and laibylU— Piaa — Flonifico Savataroln-Muhdhga 
f»m AiflULDitor VIL^Entnnea into Rome — Tlir» Uemandfl of CburLu 
^iDALiioJi of Napldfl — l^E^e uf Spain, Viini^, MilnD, Germany — 
B*itrBaC from NuplcB— Encmnicrwith \h9 Eapidj — Tocaara^ Unity mto 
LjODfl — GuomIvu lIo CurJu™ — Dunnfall of FroncL BumiDiuQ in Naples 
— TliB Dauphiir^ Dcaih^TJiDiitricali^iTiproTed OoranmeDt — Accidvnt 
flt AffiboUo— UontJi of CWltfl fli 


A.H, 140S-IAU. 

Acf«atiaD oi Looia XII.— Fniumil — Retlr^iruDT of AniiA to HrilTanj— Ppd- 
JMttofDIvor^a — PartiD^Iniernevbati'Ho Loauand JEOUtib — Miirrta^ 

at LoQji uu ^Bfl — SfllzDre of HDvi — LudoTUo h Priaoiwr— Allune* 
for xht PutitzoB of Naplf*— Abdication of Fndwick — Death of Alax- 
moder Borgia — Juliu II.— BaFtle of Q&rigliuiD — The Three Lndieft — 
Mating and Reception of Philip And JuaoA at BbiB — Treat; of BloLa 
— Jj^agat of Cambni — B&ttle of A^adel — Peac« with Venice — The 
Ho|t l^sgqp — Gafltoq de Fqux — Bude of Bitqiidh — Death of Gaaton 
dp Foix — Kev LtrngoB — BattU of the Spun — Daath of Anne — SeOpODd 
MBrria^e — DuUi of Louiv — TTia ChafSftet .,,.,, 2S0 


FKAsaa L 

Earljr EdncalioD of Fnncii — Mugnerite — iDTOflton of Italy — French Com- 
msiidBn — Battle of MarignAno — Eni^btJiood Conforred oa Frauds L — 
The Perpetual Peac«— Death of Ferdmand the Cftlholic— Edncation of 
ChArloa— Peace — Gout of Foncia — Schemes of FrniidB — Election of 
Cbnriea to be Emperor— Qneetiona ia Diepnte — Wolseys Ambition — 
Field of the Cloth of Oold— F^tea and RiTalnn — Meeting of Charlea and 
Henrj^Dawn of the Heforni&tion— Treacbary of the Qdbhi Mother — 
DispUj made bj the ConBtable^l*WBuit — The Conatnble's TDtriRHH 
Tilb Geimany— Kini^'a SuepicLonA — The Conotable'e Eocape— Engliih 
InranoD — IWth of Bay&rd — ■^iege of MartPillce^Taking of Milan — 
&ege of PaTia — Villa Mirabello — Franeie Taken Prisoner— Leaj^e for 
his DeliTeraJKe — Emp«ror'e HemaiLda— Removal ta Madrid— Margufl- 
rite^B Visit — Margtierite^s Ri'lnro — PromiaeB of Fmoda — Hie Keelon- 
tion — Caatle of Chimboni— Reoewed War— Boorbon'e Death— 3atk of 
Home — Andr» Doria — Proposal* of Peace — The lAdiea^ Peafie — Ana- 
baptiR* — PErsecntion — Font&iDebleau— Death of Franceoco Sforsi — 
Tlir« Offers of Chflrle*— InTasion of Provence — James V. — Interview 
St P;uiH — Promises of Charles — Repodiation— Vaudoi* Persecotiow — 
Turkish AUianco — Battle of Cerisollee — Trea^ of Cr^y— Last Dsji 
of FiaodB I. — EneoongemeDt of Scholars tuid AitietB — J«amt« . . 29t 



Character of Henry — The Lomiao Family — Montmoceney —State of the 
Conntry— Mary Stuart — BotJoene Restored — The Ipterim — The Troia 
ET^ch^— ^ege of Metz — Failure of Cnise iJi Italy — Sitgeof St. QuentiQ 
— Taking of C&Uis — Treaty of Catean CambreBis— Mary Stuuti Mar- 
riage— Dij^ue of Daadelot— DeUh of Henry 320 


A.D, 1559-1 £60. 

Two Parties — Recertion of Montmorency— An loine of JiaFarre— Interfar- 
skce of iRiilip n. — Prefect of iDBnrrtKtioD — The ChAtilloni at Amboiee 
Atta^ npou AmboUe — Punishment of iDflargentA — Duplicity of Ca- 


thtrine— Edict of EtrmftTantJii — AfMit of ADtoiD« umi Cradi — lUm^H of 
Fiujcii. . . ^ZH 


CHAllLEfi JXt 

StatH-Oenenl — Kflligioas DiHanion at Foiiiy — ODlhruk in tbc Fauboaw 
Si, Mo^^eau- — Fomign Support — Jln.JsiU'ro nl Viu^Bj — SuppoPl of KngUnH 
— I>eaLh of Antciinp'— Biiule of Drens— Murder of Fnmpjs of Gninn — 
EdivL uf Ambulsc— CoLiftruQiw ai Bnymm- — DtaLh l-/ MouUnortiacj^ — 
JoruK — Coodi'n Death — M'-'acont^iur — Poucc of St, Gcnniiio— CulJie- 
TtQe*! CorroHpcndDiice — MAjnoge of Chorlnd — Colipuj'n Trntt — DoAtli 
of J«Dfie d'Albret — M^Lrrugt of Uaorj nud Hjir^erita — Poland Of- 
tsnd to Anjon— AttJwk upcti Coligny — The King's Visit — Thrmlan^il 
Conflii?: — Thfl KIil^'h Fpiini — Ptopamtimm for Lhn htni'suve of Pt, Bar- 
tholonufWH Dftj— HurfflT of Ooliptj— Termr of tEiu Qntfun of NavrtTro 
— Uoory Bad Conie— MueflCn m tto rroviocoi— Aitamptrt to Vilifj 
Coligrij'B Utmorv— Anjoti. Xing of Folnad — JUuca^ of C^iiu-lcd— Kjitg'd 
iCfiiQorBA — Iab PoljdquBa—DukD of AlcofOD — CuFAJi^L PLob— Bnbth of 
CbuL»— EKE«iiiutiiig CircuT&HtAqcQa ....... S34 

nBNBT m. 

ArrivJ of SeoTV ITI.— HeUTj's Chanw1i*r una Tflmw— Hi? Mnprijiga— 
Aleor^n's Plun—Tho Kirig^a Veart — EflpApd of Alencun jui*l Henry of 
IT»¥HrrH — Peai» of Munnii-iir— LoipiP — ^4isi-OeneniJ aL Blctia— H"ni7 
Hoiid of tto LenfinB — T!ie Twu PrirouritcB— AnjoiiV C'lreer in Fljiudon 
— fioimnjof AntTMjrp — Mnrguarito Bamahfld from Court— Deuth af Muo- 
BitHf — Cardmbi do fionrbon— Hffonai — Henty'* Vint to Oaillcn — Coo- 
fannct M JDifinUo— Offer of Holln.™!— l.'inl Wnr — EdiM of NpcnouM — 
Be^nntioD— Wat nf tbo Tlireo Henrjs — ' Ligut dt* Seiza' — ComuASB 
de Boucbflge — AiIvbqm of GonEon hjaij — Bnttl^of CouLros — Rnjffl(,Df 
l^rnuiiu^-DeAth of Couie— Vlail of Guiai lo Parifl— Bee«piiuD br 
Gftth^nnfl— Gulie nnA Qtniy — TruOfB bmi^ht into Uic Citj -Attack 
Upon die Troope — InterposiiMm of Gnive^ Interne v betwvpn Chlb«rioa 
ftod GniiM—Kinfr'H I'ejiartUTfi— Flight of NobW^Qotprnment in th* 
Ban^a of tbo I^a^iir-— ffnwnfall at Rpqnion — Edict, of TTnion— Court aS 
Ktils— Mealing of Sihew-GhubhU — Kiag-'A 3if<^ — HvLmiutioa — Sceeld 
IB Si- ^iivDor — ffltire of ihu Dnko of Guisa — WnmingHpiven to(iLiiee — 
PfcpomcioDA for hiu Murdi-r — Tbe ^'^" Waktoiag — Gak^o Rmd — 
HDar/fl KeoTH— Lsfet Wornirgi^ Mtit to G-aifp^^Tha CoUAcil -Mardorof 
thfl l)akB nf Giii*e— ArrtJl of hi^ ^'ri^ndi — Mait tn Calhertna — The 
Xiagkif — DnchnAM d^ lifont|«n^t:T — Cuiicli of (^athenae de' Mr^iri — 
SomlUij of Ghanctur— MburDln^— AdriL^e from Eo^Uod— Public Tnr- 
cwioni Allfiflcc betir»q lheTiriiHciiU7»— Adr&iiLBtoPaHt — Ejcom- 

mudeatiaB of HniTj III-— JocqiiH ClfliDsi]&— AiHunikltioD of Hbutt 
UL— Oftth of Fiddity to Hbmj IV.— Ab«>llrt*«»— D«lh of flwuy HL 
— BuChuMtflT , ^ ......... . SAl 



AJK i&6»-iaio, 

DilpnBn of ReblM mod Anuj— Battla of Aiqon — BEse^og of ButM- 
GeDcnl u Toon— IloItiA of Inr — Death of Cardinat do Botjrboi- 
Kockule of Parift — AlUck upoo tha Saborbs—EDToyB £rom lh« htugat 
^Ralief of Puis by the Duke of Parma— Henry'n ^■aacent — lofluenc^ of 
Gabn«Jle d^Ectr^e* — H«LrVa RecnntAtioii — Repto&rbeB of tbe HagDenoU 
— HffTiTfB EDTranpfl into Paris' -Henry's Titla Aclinovled^ftd — Tpfftt^of 
VerrJDS— Edict of Naatea — Badoctiao of Taxation — CoinmeTCO — Do- 
BMAtK Tnmblf* — Duth of GabtiellB — XHTorrs of |i[aTgnerit«— Projact of 
BemvTiaga — Conspiracj — Contrormaj— War with Savoy— MuTiAg« 
with Muifl dfl^ Uedici— MATie'B JealooBy— Biron in Eo^laad — Biith ctf 
tbo Danphjn — De^tb of the Qu«eQ DovAger^Amet and Execution oi 
KroD— Flan for a Lcagno agaiaat Spain-^CharTolte de CoadA— ^Th« 
KiD^aFonboding^CDronHtiDn^ Warning and HcAUtioti — BaTaillH^I 
Attack — Doath of Henry IV. — Improvunenla — I>»ei .... ISA 



H^tinmeDt of Solly — Conrini BCuquis d^Ancrv — Betrotbals — Ednatkfl of 
Lonii — DemaDdA of Spain — DinMiliitian of Stdt»-OvriFTal — Marria^ of 
Lonii aod Aanv — Instmctiona f^Ton to Anna — Cimnga of MAnncm — 
Bichelien — Arr«9t of Gond^—KiDg'i XtlneiB — Murder of D'Arttn — 
TJepvtare of thv Quwi Mother— Mamiiffe of De LayDos — loeurrsption 
ID Bean— Death of De Loyneb — Kithehea— KichaLieu'g Policy — Moi' 
riage of Henrifltla Maria— GaBlon of OHeans — The King'* Jealousy — 
ArrvA of Ornano — Plot against Richeliaa— Diicovery — CoofGuion of 
Gaston of Orleaofl — Eivainatloii of Anne — Death of Chalaii — Marriage 
of SdoDBienr — losurrei^ion — Kxpodition of BuckiDchani^ — Anoa^A Corre- 
■poadmi^e — Capitulation of La RocheUo — Conicet for Mantua — Cam- 
paignp JD Italy — Plot agniut Bichelidu— King's Rworery . . , AQi 

LOUIS JUi- {cotUimted). 

Hantoa YieJdvd to Dnc de Seven— European Politico — lilfforle for Iticb^ 
ben^a MamiiBa]— Tbe D»y of Duf*»— HcheniEs of the Two Queene — 
Maria de BBatcfort— Battle of CaateLuandary — Battle of Lutzen — In- 

TBticn of Fraiifa — Conapirary— Mndama da CTicTransfi— F-niiw 6b In 
Fi^fltw — AdTin of Louisa — Accnnticmrt a^infit Aune — Waniiiigfi — Tlio 
Queea'i AmJolj ami CoiiFcHrtKJd — Lu Pt>rU.''6 tkiJelilj — EJ^capp of Mfl- 
doinv dt Clji:Tri:ii»c -Birlh of the Dnupliin —French Succufl-ioft — DAth cf 
CflAkta da SoianobB — liicbbliou'e liotpoliiiin— Cinq !f\fm —'Q Afibc- 
tibhn — FiTsmQpliaii of Cinq Mips — lJi»aiHB&l trora Ebe Cfluncil — Cod- 
■rancy ^^lost RichpUtm — Coonitarn^e of I/jnifl — rkipartnrB fnr Pef^ 

Bi^Udn — DimainTy ui" 3|iAutsli Trbaty^Dtuiii of Mjuio do' Medici — 
icath of Cinq Man nuil Da TLou — PLicboliuu'e LtitL Jouraej — luCfltviev 
witli [bu Kinf; — Dcitlii of IticttcLien-Arraiigonioiit ctf Future OuTctO' 
maqt — Dunth of LoaiA HiB GhkfacL«r— Hietelten'B AdmiDLSUadoa — 
Gdbenil MeotaL XleTeLcpmeDt , 




Pirat Folidcil Act of Loqib XIV^— 'Ldb Imiiortanfi ' — Abra^tian of the 
Edict Cff Jtr^Qcj — BhhIa of Ikcroi— Rocppiiwn jf Mndaiur de CboTniuo 
— Uncarin'a Habito of Life - -LuerconiBDwiLh tlit Qusoa— Plot fnr AoBkft- 
liaatingMoisFkria— Fairi>f>v3<>f tbaKi^guitcy — FribautgaadNardliBgoa — 
.^iBtrh of Tbinl Prinoi doOoadd — Su^^o of Lenda.— Mhebi^id'h Xiecevand 
N^phewH — EilamtEiin of Loais — FSrifitiniiig fif CHvil StKfa — ITnpopnUr 
Edicts— Tlia "FaaleLtB* — 'Lil de Juslico —Talons 5paech — &LlJ&de St_ 
Louis — ' LuiEJv de OachuL "^Tho ftuam'b Hdiuimd — Prucciwaoa — Frait- 
Icsa lotdrriew — Tciompfa ofUie Ch^iubor of £t, Jjiuis — I^ttlu uf Limib — - 
Efispfl of 1^0 Duo du Beaufort — TbaQkHgiring far Viciorj-— ArrMt of 
Bniwel — iDEunwIJciQ — JntMf?feri« of liondy — Aarien IndigimEioD — 
PpopfALl Id ReBtAK }froiL«5el — Qoinij^'s Ihingur /tnd Rh>ipue — TlinQoHti'B 
RiVf^fl i>f (3iJEidy— Dn-y uf tha Barncadc>i — Appeal of Moli^ tad hi% 
CoQita^ca — Abu'i^'hCooeu'eii— Jtccoptbuaf BrGusmilbyParisituiii — SoLire 
oa iLe Qnetfii — RouLrjvul of th« Kbg froro. Puia — Illegal Armla — 
AlaAoing Hmcfiara — TrcAtj of ^flat|iiALia ... « 


A.D. lti4S. 
Mfl»ft w"fi't Suroeirful Foppigfi Policj^-OflBton of Orlpaiut — RATBrn of tli4 
Kmunnd tis jVoihcr — The Frondo — Lokdiin of iho Fmudu — RApuiliAtion 
of I>eb].& — Buflioura — Tliu Quliid'b Secret Armi^fvuii^uLJ for LciiviiLg 
Faris — Arrivr»[ at St. OptTLium — Cooatpninliud of LbbPariAiiiiiii' — Gundy'* 
PtdLadco of Depnrtaro — Utic d'iElbiEUf Le^idw — Diecord id th* Clinmbrr 
— BoaUgca nf the H^td -it Villa^Bepioning of tha Si&ge — H>pL<)its of 
till Ct»U! ForcM— fx?UQp" Hi Tlk* Hiilol rfe Villn — Tho Hero of rim FrondH 
— De«irH for P«u"h— Opnini? of fJpgoriJitionfl— (tondyS Iniri^i#B — 
Propwals frota Smiu— Tim Qucfla'a Augur-— Spuiiisl] TrviiCr Sl^cd — 
DiBCOVorT of llio ^(^bl^B' Treaaon — Vbo^p CoDi:tudtd M RubI — Tumult in 
tbo CbomlxE— MdU'b Daogu — AlAudouinebi of TurauDo by liia ArBij 







ftj>, 1&48. 

Condi'fl BepgrtUTB from CoDrt^^uM«s in ihe Loir Conntriei— Retnro of 
tho Court lo Pam — Geoepd Recondliadoii— P»AiimptJaji of OondA— 
Suppowd Plot— Acciuatioiu— Mnrria^e of die Doc do Bicheliflu — Cood^i 
Fcdlj — PropowaU of Uoioo with the Fronde— Gondj and tha PriiM* — 
Anvflt of GoDdA— CoDtj and the Doc de LoagoATille — Kuape of Madutw 
d« IiongnflTiUe — The Quoen^ Energy — EierEioofiof the Yonng PrinceoH 
dfl CondA for ho; HnsboDd 'RemDraloF PHdc^h from VincHnaea — Dofeftt 
of TnrDDiie — Kntiy into Bordo&ux — Quetin'e JuJotu; uf MnnBionr — 
PriKoe™ Sent to E^m—Htw Frondo— AgiBoniBnt of ibe New Pronde — 
Petition of thfl ParlUiqeDt — Influeofe of Hodame — Queou'a Angrj 
^>«echefl — 'HerPnmisH — MonsLeor'i Anger — Dflpartnre of Maearin — 
QtuenVPlaDe — EDd«TCmn to Rotue MooBieor — Attack on tb« Palaco— ' 
EbtnrjCA of tfoh mto the Pala« — CLt; Gates Secured — Princefl Be- 
IcsHCl bj Ma^fm— iDtorriew with fho QLeen— lotriKnee and Con- 
t«Dliona— Coud^'A Biuppaintzoent — Qu»n's OSen to tb« Coa^juUv — 
Gtmdj'a Intrignea — Open HoatJIity between Gondj and Cobdi . • 473 

LOtns UT, (amtinued). 

EJng'e Majority — Sjh^^i PersonaE Appejirance — Hie Aesomption of the 
Government — Cond^'H RflbaUiuii— Mistry of the Gouotrj — Betnm of 
Us^uin— -OAD«nl CopfoaoD — Condi's iMoger — King's Succbbb — Mada- 
moiKlle Sent to OrJeane — Mademoi sellers Entrance into OrTo&ns — Com- 
}»t Dpar Gien^Matual DefaptiobB — Tnrennfl aod Cand^ Lofore Puria — 
Cood^'i Danger — MademdHMle's Aid^DiKiiBiioii at Hottl dc Villa — 
SoffrnDgH of CaaAi — Cfmdita Admittum into PariA— 8ecn't Plant — 
M*«ncn at U6tel de Ville — MaJetnoiBoUe'fl Tnterferecee — Du?] — ^Par- 
Hamept at Ponloi*o— Flaying at "War — The Klng'e Rolnm— Mademoi- 
Hlte'a FerplexitiM — TunnDe'fl Charaftor — Campaign ngainat Cond£ — 
ArreA of De Rati — Mazuin'i Retum^Contj'B Marriage —ConteBt with 
tht P&riiam^nt — Vioil of ChrietLna of Sv«de a— Christina's Appearance 
^AUianM v)tb Cromwell — Bonkiik given to England .... 492 


Louifl iiT. (continued). 

lina di Mancini— Promiio Co the Ducheas of aaroy—Parting of Lonii 
ud Mari*— Maria Tbereaa— Pesee of the PyrffliMi— I* Mftre Ang6- 
lione— P«ail — POTt Rojal—'JaMeniBle— Royal Betrothal— Queeri'i 
Bxppiaea—BMton^a of Chirk* n,— Mazarin's Failing Healtb— 



UnEarin'sDettb— In^iLutioaflFonudcit bj Eim— Fonquut andCul^Drt — 
MiirnRge of M^nRifnr — Fonqupl'p Arrcpt — UiwoTery tf I^eiuoubCii Pro- 
jflita— Hifl iDipruQiiDifiDi — FuTi^hfiac of LuEkirk— Ouflirel »iih Spnni^h 
Buvijy unJ Pijpo — Nuftwt of Lhi* QQFbij — Illot-SH of Aqjii- of AubIj-eii — 
Ttatb ttf rijilip IV.--L1SI Duya i>f Aonii uf AuAttin— Dsnth v[ Ajidu uf 
Aiuuia — Fild^tilI — The Kiug-'a Fi^rliri^ Allinnre irtli HDllund dgaiiut 
EnglB.»wl — WiLP witK ^nin—Cii nip Life — Siega uf Lille— WdP with Kcg- 
liind — ConqufBt uf Fmnchft CofitiIj^— Ini'TOnsa of ComDHorvt — Tripln 
AlliABm— Peacp nf Aii-ln-Chftpnllo— ElperlJH] ConTpnioD of Englmid 
— Kflj^tiafiun of H? nri^tLu uf Orle&nr^ in SngluDil — UlneiB and Dealh of 
HcQTitUa of OrleuiB — Funcjal Suruioa <.<-<.. 6i>Vj 


LOUES XT7. ^eonfinuod}. 
k.-b, 1672. 

^tr villi HoQanil — Datth OnvcrDmuiit, — CuniAtt Xn^ac Tjy Engloail— ^ 
OroBodng Uie Bhine — Taking of Ulrni'ht— Muriior of Do Witt — Cutling 
thfoo^h llw DjkoB — CoUiltob a^intt Luaiu — SKond CaapAJ^ — D& 
LaniDQ — ATiir uilli Spain — Enpi^nsufl — Sucoad Conqnest of FrHiichs 
Cumt^ — I*rfcs — Katt.l* t\f Sput-ff" — Tnn'nri*'* Inflnpn™ — CaDipaign in 
Alh^i^B — Turenna'a DfALb— FlTcin tu I^nhMmi UiLi^^niE^ de MoDtaapLn'i 
Influerice— HjMlanip lit AlriiiiiiriL'iQ^ItvLigi'JUH Eiciu'maoi — War in 
Sicily— Eualinb AUiance with H^jllujid— Pp*co 0/ J^iiDrgneii — Fronah 
TriaiDplL— Mr^rriigc cf Gbj^rlcB IL of Spain — roioOBnn^' Cliuab» 
Ardi-tiEQ' 9uKpi(?io(in hI Caititvisr do SoLriBunM FcrHoni AcciiKd bofun 
the " I'hRnihn? Ardrptn' — DunLs — .UHirifigaraf Ihn Dnuphin an J CbriAliot 
of BjVTnrin — TdjtdFimn du Mmnli^miTi'i iDduvctra— Irlnim To Fmnrier 
Higtricca— atru^lu LMwiitii ihc PupUTindihaKing— D&nh of Gilbtn — 
PrinciplM of thn (inlliaiu Cbmdi— Tnicn — Death of Maria Thorcna— 
UikTriA^c of Muloine deMaiututioii— TratimoD; of Gt, SintoD ^ . £300 

^^^^ chai^teh xlit. ^M 

^^^^^ A.D. ISM. ^^ 

BoEiBmd Hittueaot P«n«utioEL — R«Tocfrlion of the Edict of Kantci — 
DmgDDrudvii — 'Esepatriadaa of Hiignvnutg— PUhq of WilliiLia of Orso^ 
— Lflo^oe of Aqgshtug — Claim It tbo f'o.tannii-te — Gruml Aliinn?e — 
MiTTiEen iif MadpmoiiPlk'— Frsnrh fit^fent — HftiUna— BtijiiB— fVathj 
Hmd^Fleiinift — Siege <.'f Mrinh — EdafHT.ioD at Sl Cyr— Rfldon'i doLTed 
I)rBmnft— Pjpulnrity of &1, Cjr — Y<mtU of Mjijiiue GuvuD^M'idaiDt 
Oujun'fl DiwuiuM — Finit iDtroLluction to Finrlcn -Modnmo do Mnioto- 
nou'o Intenfl^ in Quietiatq— Cciverament VadLttattt by Louis — UdTa^j 
»t St- G-vr— St. Cjr i^ Cupvant — Projfctftd NrtdI Eipodilion— Oniore 
Sent bj tha King— liarTle i/f Li Ho^e — Fiilsc Feji'jrt— PiwoTel7 of 
Graiidr.L]'fl Prnjwt — BftU]i''jf >'Berwiiidpn — Cnptureof MtrfhimtSliipft — 
Sncceaa uf fiio AlUoe — l>iu' de MjLiriL*"a Co*iinli» — Duku nf BurfniDc^e 
Mwriflgp— Pwiw of ftyiwitk— Uigofit TftaniioD — fiomoiuKnuico* — De- 

Clunu ti SocCBonoii to th» Throne of Spain— ^itl of Chulea II. of 
Spun — IKieQiDon <£ iU Acceptonu — Ac«ptfiiKe of the Spftuiih. Will . Ml 


A,D. 170!- 

DBpaztnre of Philip V,-- LtagoA of the Hftgn«^— Chajader of MArlbora^— 
Prinrt Eugene — Heinnufl — Pkn of the War — Villwoj madfl PriaoiHF— 
DvtJi of WLlltun UL— Arnguice of Philip V.—Kanl Defut— VHlan 
FfOcUimed Manhal ^Masting with the ElEf (or— R«Teraf« !□ th« Tjrol 
— Battle of Bochatftdt — Camiurdi — Fato of Caralitr — Marlborough and 
Engvne — Batdea of DoaauwDrth and Blfinhtiim— OibTalrar Taken b; th« 
Frgiiah — Prc^HM of AUiefl in Bpain — Siege of Turin— ETicuati on of 
Itwj — LoflSea in Bpaia^UarlboTOUgb Checked — Dnke of Burgnndjr a 
Gflneral— Diinnion amongnt French Gflaerals— Battle of Oadenarde — 
CftptUTVof Ulle — Ihika of Bnrgundy'B Inaction — New Hana for Taxation 
— Condiliona of Poace R*Pject«i— Rising Powor of JeslUta — Le Tollior 
ChoHUJ Conf«eor — King's dnbmiiuion to L« TelUer— Peace at anj Pn« 
— Battle of Maiplaquet-- Conference at Oertruj/denberg — Battla of Villa- 
ridna — Change in EDgUeh PoJi I ira^ Maltha w Priors HJHsion — Death 
of Joa?pb L^Tmcft — Feare with England — Bauphin's Death — Finelon'a 
'Telamacbua' — IHoev of DxicheBB of Bqj5:nndy — DwlJi of Dauphinam — 
lUneaa of Daophin — Death of the Dauphin — Genend Qrief — Invuion of 
France — Peace of ITUi'cht — Renewed Penecntion — Bull Unimmitna — 
GloomjlAJit Years— TbeKing'ji Will— Iaal Political Acta— Addition to 
the Will^Iiat Daje of Louia XIT.— Hift Death— Art of Reigning — 
PfOTiDcial Stalea-General — Limitation of Parliamenla^CmeHy of NoLlea 
— Snbjactinn of >obLG« — Oallican Church^Policf — Lifting of Paria 
^'Lnttrefl de Cachet' — Standing ArmicH — Life at Veraaillea — Remon- 
Btmncei of Praocben — EnconngnneDt of Literatim— FavouTB to In^^- 
Fido*U. .,--.>.,-'-. 67;i2 




The historj of France, tike that of England^ must be traced bock 
lo a lime wheo the country itaelf %vaa known by another name. 
Bat the characteriatica of the people inhabitjng it, although th^ 
have been modified bj intermixture with other I'aeesj have been pr^ 
■erred in a great d^ree oocbanged through centuries. The Gauls 
— a braneb of the great Keltic race who^ io prehiatoric tirueB^ 
migrated Irom the eostj and spread themBcives Over various partB of 
Europe — are, Rays a Roman wiiter,^ ' irrttabte, and delight madly in 
war. Theyare always ready to fight, and care Little forvhat cantfe. . , . 
If made angry they march Btraight up to an enemy, and attack him 
in froBt >vithout enquiry. They tie very capable of inetrucCioQ 
■od bare a tam for literature. TrustiDg in their oize, atrength^ and 
luimbera, they aaaemble in multitudes aod are prepared at any 
mocnent to take up the cauae of those vhom they conaider to be 

The description carries ue in thought to the almggle for Italian. 
independence, rendered eucceasfut by the aid of Prance. The soldiers 
*ho Ibught so bravely on the plains of Lombardy, at Solferino and 
kCigenta, are the natuial descendanti of the peapl« who poured down 
iqion Rome in the days of tho repubEic, and can never be nid to 
hftire been conquered until Gfl?aar crosaed Che Alps and made Gatlla 
% reoonUMd portion of th« Homan dominioua. Whilst in Jike manner, 
«toi tlie Boman writ^ talis us that the GauU were greedy of glory, 
aiild make no long eflbiitPf and were unbcaxable as victors aud hope- 
ImLv dej«cted if vanqtiiflh«d, we seem to se« the modem Frenchmau 

1/ ■^'- 


Gaul vnder the Einpire. 

such A6 he has f xhibiteti liimaelf in our own days a^d aXnujai bef< 
our own eypfi. 

BliC Lba Giiulfl poaRpaBsd only s. portion of tha land whith we now 
call Pnince. QuiLo in tht south 1h« Grsi^ks had vbtj eavly e»l0- 
blialied ft colony, wiJi Mfla?iiUii, or Marntillefl» for their iitad-qTiarterH; 
and fr^riD tlieni^e \ht:y cirri^ ou a auL^ctufol Lrude witb ibe coilq- 
tries bordnririf^ tha Mt^JitrrraaHan. Nicy, Muuaon. Antibt^, were 
aiuAQ^^t the «firly nanieR of Gr«4^b civilii^doi], nnd bEtwe^o iheoi 
uid the oettlomentB of th« GaiUfl there could bavo b^m liUle in 

Tbe GrftktT were Intarefited iu (x>iiimQ]'L-u, Thti GauEei cartidonly 
for thp [n[imte[i:mce of iheirmde Hbwty- Ccriflitts would be th^ 
□atoral reautt. As a further ^lemf-nt of disi^ard tbe Htlgrc,^ anoibcr 
famJl7> Keh^Q lik« tbo Gaula, but didbrJTtg Jrom tljcm in many Ju^- 
IrtLTtani paitlcuLirs, had taken poppesflion of tbe country (o die iiurili 
ol' the Seine^ and ]jiuiiiilly filleil the valley ol" tbe Liire. Tbe exati 
geographical Vimiia of 1he§e tribes canroi he rlislir^cCly iract-d, but 
their ohoriictoriEtii^v are cl^ardy nifirU^df mctG <upeciaj|y with regard 
Id religion. Both proft^ed Dniidiem, and oSeyed the rule of 
ibe prieiitfl iu civil uGulri^, aud iiLlowed ihc tduuitioa of the young 
to be carried on by Hiem ; bui only tlie Reigs Beem really to hiiT8 
cared ior the doctritn-s (aught hy tbem. Thi?re W[U much of truth 
mixid up with thifl degradtd worship. The beli< f in nu mttiilQ but 
imknowiL God, a rct^ognltiou ol" Eteruityi a hi?pe of imniortdity, a 
drtad uf Foture ruUibuLioiif M^ert <il] to he found in it; ^ud wbei) 
the Gnuls reVf:n.'Ooed ibe mir'lii'Tof, it \a tuiid t^uit i.hf!y s»w in i' 
the typo of bfe in deftth — Ui*i flow tr blooming in winter and lh» 
gToon branchoa twining around the sacred but buie and s^intry o&k, 

Bui the great power of tlia Dmids lay in feat, tbe ternrof magic 
ariHOnd htmiHu boorificesuid luy^ttrioua rLii:it prautiMfd In dorkgroreA 
und hidden soJitiideji, ThiTO was no s^nie of irnion belweeti ihem 
and the people. 

Jumany parts of tbe south oi Gaul dicy were ucable to maiii- 
talu their outbcrity ; and wheTi the JuhabiUuilf of lEie provjnuei 10 
ibe DOith-^J»t (quarrelled jiinong tbenjaelveu, niid applied m^ their 
neighbours t<^ help ibeni in tlieir wu?, hi was not to the Druids that 
they turned, but to the S\ievi — --iiangei'fl living boyond the Sbinei 
ana knowing nothing of Druidi;mi, who poured into Gaul fa the 
SiAOUA in jiiti:?r ycBTH pcrnreJ into Britajn^ jutdravuging iJic lUunLry, 
ocmpetled the terrified people to look lo another qmu-ier for aid. 

The Roicmua were ihen the protectors JU well ub the coDquorort 
of the world, and to them both tbe invadi^a and the derenderH of 

* MicHfll^t aptnlu of cbo«e Cribet at Kjmri^ Th^ tcAj b« trued aniEjugBt 
ihf tribes of ondeut BHuiu. 

Gomt tmtffr thf Empirt. 

G*u1 appealed for aupport. Little mnltered it to the haughtj lorda 
of Italy whicb side they espoused, still Jew waa it of comequence to 
tbe ambitioua general, who looked upon the appeal merelj aa the 
Tneana by nhich he m!^t obtaia the prize of glory. Julius Casmw 
was then craTing for fame^ &nd though aiigbt in figure, pale, Mi4 
delicAi^T waa endued with inexhauatible energy. The countries be- 
youd the Alps were onexploredt and at the head of his legions, 
marching through run and stomif swimming riTers, riding by thv 
side of the litter* in whicb hia aecretariea were carried, dictating 
four or eren eix letters at a time, wiitiug an accoujit of his campaign for 
■^ fiiEare gentmtions, he crossed the Alj>s, B^c^ 58, entered Swiuerland, 
** then called Helvetia^ and made hia way into the north of Gaul, for 
the purpose of opposing the Suevi. In former years the leader of 
the Suevi bad b^n honnured wirh ibo title of the aUv of Rome. He 
marrelled now that he ahould be thua attacked. * Thia w my Ganl,' 
such was the message which be nent 1o Ctcaar; ^you have yours- 
Leare me to myself Enow you not what kind of people we are? 
For fourteen years we have never slept under the shelter of a roof.' 
CBfiar mocked at the alarm which these bold words caused his 
■o]dieT& * You may abandon me/ he said, ' but still 1 shall pursue 
my object. Give me but the tenth legion and I shall he ttatisfied. 
The troops were roused by the scofT. The 5uevi wepe defeated , and 
the greater part destroyed, in a fierce battle on the hwika of the 
Khine, whilst almost ail who escaped perished in the river. 

The barbarians were followed into their own lond^ and in ten 
days Gesar threw a bridge across the Rhine, nothr from the present 
ci^ of Collie, and having vainly sought for his enemies amongst 
the forots beyond, repawted the Rhine, traversed Gaul^ and prepared 
to cross the tea to Britain, the sacred island of the Druids. 

The Druidical Gauls never forgave this intrnsion. Tbey broke 
out iiT insurrection ; the feeling of enmity spread, and tribes hostile 
to each other joined ■□ opposing the haughty conqueror on his return 
to Gaul, The YeroiDgetorix, or genCTnl-in-GhteTof the united army of 
the GanU, was a yiiun|| man of the tribe of the Arvemes, whose 
father^ the most pow<;rful of all the barbarians of hia day, bad been 
burnt alive becaone he had Bsprred to be kin^ In the public assem- 
hUeaat the religiousfcMtivalsibeYercingetorix never faQed to animate 
his countrymen against the Romans- But CKsar was too powerful, 
and the Gauls were defeated and massacred. To weaken the power 
of their enemies they burnt their own towns; but the oonteet was 
bopeleos. The Vercingetoriz alone preserved hh noble spirit; to 
lave hia people he resolved to give himself up as the sola author of 
the war. Arrayed in his richest armour and mounted on hia war- 
horse, he entered the Roman camp» and riding a circle round the 
throve on which Oesar sat in judgment, he threw his apcftr^ bijt 



Gtul itrtdtr the Empire. 

javtiin, nnd Ilh Iif?lmct uL t]it fii^t of lie conqiifror, Hiid jieliled 
hiinself H pH'^oner widioul utl^rirg n word- Ca^sur bad no P'ty. 
Tlio joiing Gaul was Icnidtid with chains ard cjiTrii>d to Koine, 
frhcte he luit^inhad. for hlx yejirs in prison and feTteTB. and then, 
Afler beiu^ drjigi^d forth (Vom liie c<fl] lo ailoru tlie trJumpbAl 
*^i chiirici of his i;onriTioror, died >ij rhe hnnd of iho e\ePiiiifincT, n.t. 4(3- 
From the period of the EubuiiBeion rf th« Tercingolorut the ^rar 
luRj bi' Haid to liu\G been ovdi'^ and CaHsr no lonpor trtcted the 
conquered Ga^ila with atverity ; even iLe liibuto which he esacfrd 
%Hr< dingiii&ed under the Lunounible immc of inililnir^ L^y- T'he beat 
warriore verc engaged at n liigh prife Ut form a. Ifgion, ilie memf^^ra 
of wbidi bcre a lark M the crest on their lielmeifl^ an*i wiTC thenoe 
called AlandfE. Under this unlionni emblem of morning Wfttchfril- 
nej^!i flijtl g»iibtj they croseed ibe A]|>a tjjjdtr Cics^t'a bftuiiet, amging 
Lheir joyous aoEifj^ nod cnt^ouutt-rtd fOid defvuctd the ecluuiD nnd 
Bil^aE logiona of Pomppy ttt tlio buTde of Phar'^iiliji. Ago coHMila- 
tioi^ for tlie [orao£ libertj tL<? Guula retained the Bwrird ^vhicb Crtfiar 
hod loat in thi: lLL-<t war- It wiie auependod in a templtf from wbiuh 
llie Bijnmn arildieia would fauj h:Lve torn it; hut when they ap- 
pwiled to ibeir general for peniiission, Cffsar nnawiTod wilJi a noi 
* XjCfiTG it ; vt IB ecLDseeraied.' 

Thftconqucrer ftpprr.'citt<.'d the spirit of the people vhotu it h* 
cost him nj much Co Kubduc; he admitted GhuIb to & Beat in the 
Bco&te, and woulu nillinglj LiL\a nimk tJieni oue with iho Tiomun 
ppople ; hm his career Wii^ flit Hhnri, iind his siieerpsor, AwgUJitii-'i, 
[nareiid oi bringing; Gau! into HomOj de»ir4Hl rather to Wsbliah 
Gomo in the midet of Gnul. He expelled the lialtic mi^mbera 
fruiu rhe Roraftn ecnutc, placed niilitaiy colonies in lunvny of iJio 
prineijitil eilli^ of [lit- piroviii(:<:, and tiHiabliHiied & ceiitnd ^DVam- 
ment lor the aiiminisiralion iif justice ar. Lyooa. 

HbCTina fcllowsdtbe esamjilt of Ati^ualua, but hJB aucceMOn, 
for tho inojit pafl, adopli'd a diiferent ByBlcm, Caligula kepi eoraft 
dT tlte most diatiii^^Hlied Oaula near hiui' Clauditia, who ivhh biia- 
self born Q.t Lyon8t find uK-aya tJiuwed syinpnihy for the people 
amongEt whom his inlancv h^A heen pa^^'^d, formally reslored to 
them tho privilege of beeoming meffibera oE the Kuiuun eoniiT4>, and 
tlie diflcoviTse whi<'h bt pi'i^nounccd on thot occjj^ion ia atil) pr^i?r7ol 
at Lyons, engraved upon [aMets of br^juze. Under liim the bloodj 
woTBbip of ibe Drutda was proft-rihed^ and the people who dung lo 
(be old religion were driven to uike refugp m Jlritam. 

The conteatB which generally [irMcded and accompaDiad the 
election of u new emperor were alnioat always c*iTieJ oti in the 
distant proTjnctB, i^pectidly in GfiuJ, ind ibus tlie influerLce of t}ia 
hiHrlmriun!!, u \* aeeme TinturAl to call thent, wsfi parricufarly felt in 
xajiitary and political fllfairB ; but the gonitu of tlie peoph Gjdiibitod 

■P- I 


itself also in a more penrument form. The little Greek colony at Mar- 
miUm waa a achooZ of art and dvLlisation for the adjoming cooatryt 
and the Gaula of the eoutht by nature gifted and enthuraB^tiCf did 
Dot fiul to profit bj sQch teaching. Tbej became clever acton, 
Tuimtcs, Bcientific physiciana; thej diatinguLebed themBelves in 
Ut«ratare, and ivere ho remarkable fot eloquence that the HomadB 
took GauU for their marten epen in their own language. In art 
there vaa evidently the same teodency to exa^^erutioQ which is 
discorerable in the modem French achoola of painting. Zenodonu, 
a Gallic Hcnlptor in the reign of r^ero^ erected in u town of the Arremei 
a colomal atatoe of Mercury. Nero, struck with admiratioo of ita 
prodigiona dze. mimmoned the ecniptor to Kome, and commaoded 
him to raise at the foot of the Capitol a statue of the emperor him- 
aelf 120 feet in length, and which mi^t be aeen ftom the Albnn 

In the first ages of the empire Gauls asueted to make em- 
perors; but when decay showed itself in the central authority, the 
object of the prorioce woa lo form iteclf into aa independent atate. 
The signs of this decay showed themselves soon after ihe ealabUiJi- 
ment of the imperial power, yet they catinoi justly bo Attributed to 
the niiagovemment of ihe emperors. The evila which were under- 
mining the empire were not political, but social. They wt-re chiefly 
the reault of stavery. Slavery existed in Gaul before ita conquest 
by Rome, but It increafwd during the wars which attendi^ the ea- 
tablishmeot of the Roman power, for it was based upon the right of 
the victor over the vanquished. lathe countiiea under the dominion 
of the empire the land was for the most port divided aiuongat 
large proprietors, and was cultivated by tlie a^^atance of slaves, 
vho were treated with great cruelty. T:iken, a^ many were* from 
dnJiaed naKona, they were compelled to exert^ for the profit of 
their lords, the arts in which they e^ccelled. There are few things 
more touching and deplorable than the proofs which e^ial of the 
little estimation in which these unhappy caterers for their masters' 
pleaanrea were regarded. At Antibea Uie following inscription has 
been discovered^ ^To the manes of the child SeptentrioHf aged 
twfllre years, who appeared two days ai the theatre of Antibes, 
danced and pleaaed.' No regret I no mention of parents or friends 1 
the slave had no family- One might even marvel that a monument 
■bould hare been erected to him, except that the Komana did often 
erect them even to their broken toys, aa Nero, we &re toid, nistd a 
memorial to the maiua of a vase of crystal. When thia more re- 
fined race of slaves had melted away, as skilled artisans became 
more and more rare, the products of their labour were sold at a 
Gkbuloofl pHce, whilst the ordinary neces^riea of llfij were so dear 
>i (o be almoet imattainahle by the poor. In the reign of the em- 


Sov J uitdrr rho Empire. 

peror DiocleTion ft pnnnd o! boef ccmt what ttohM now hv hatf- 
crown, a pound of pcrk about S/^ I.VL, a gooqe about I/. 18^-, a 
hundred of ojsiora 8.t.| nnd a fowl Us. 6</, ; whibt tlio very 
roughest kiod uf boot or sbu'; i;oitM not be piu'cliiLwd for W»^ thou 
18«. An n nnnirul ciiiiH(.i}i]Giice (if ibu c:ip«nFie nf UvIuLf, the 
■>ldierfl wera nonauinity ctj-ing out fcr an irprpn^e of piiT, nnii Ihp 
coiiniry people^ "who wore fnxod (o aiipport llio (wldiera, sbuk undup 
the tiiTdcna irapoBcd upon themn 

The emperors wi^te Jtt lani obliged to dresa and feed the toldietB, 
biit thay coiiM ni>L in like nmnner taVe i^hnrge *if the Tillera of t,h« 
j^round, and thi? mlaerj' of The Tinftirtiinuto penpl© nlmosc turpnseeH 
doMiipticn. The country awunni'd with 'ho piibhc offipera who 
collected tho coTemmcnl revi^-nuea. The fields vrere mmsuptd, the 
trtea counicd, ihe ctitlls eniimfiiited, the ini-o regiptered. Scourging 
and torture *:om|*lf<.'d evi'rjonr; Ig n?ve[d [jrei:i?«lv ihfi pxtpni of bin 
pTOpprry, ao that the due payment mr^ht be esrncted. The fjtithfui 
fllavQ WEiH called upon to dopj-ao againMt hie ninettr, the wll'o ug^ioFt 
hf^r hn^band, ihe ^o□ agnmEt hij< futber; &nd, to complete the g^ntml 
^TretclrediieaH, biithnmuB tribta from the neighbour lug euuntries at 
this lime [>oured Jtito tlie Innri, ravaging and Bpoi^inir the •k-tnty 
remainB cf projicrlj' and fond ivlifch hod been Itft bj tho rigiil tax-' 
gAiheror. The pcjiFontfl in CJfinl it longihtow in. JnEurrE^cliou. Under 
ihc liftnif'ii' liiftainif^^ they armed themselref*, burnt ?<veral fovrtiA.And 
devasmteil the country. Ma?;ini)jin, ivho uiiB then emperor^ crushed 
ilie rehcllior, but hih victory j?ould not rertore enerf^y to the pon- 
qiioredf for th^ empire :n its decay only brought deatructioTi upon 
ail Iht nation!! it aubdiied- 

A dawn of hope oppenr^d, indeed, when Conhtauline, the Gi*t 

*-^ Chrixrian (■rapPtt>f, u*<:t:[id<'d the tJiroiii*, 32.*i. In ihe triumph 
of ihe Croji?< of a ni'?r('ifi3l Siivir^iTr the peopTfl might have bctped 
#C€ the «nd rf i-heir vutferinga But tLough d^n^tamirn^ ivould fa 
hive govcracd justly, the tvila which he hFkd to combat ^Cre too 
deeply rijoteil to be LTfldicnted even by the hpread uf ChriBlJanity, 
Lh\tb were made to protect the peflsant*, but ihey were InefFe^^tive. 
If the Mxiurer van sjurid, tht^ propripmr of the land di^chired him- 
self uuablo to pny Ihe tixea, And in de^ptmtion the ru]i?rB of th« 
empire ndopted a flyHlem which put the Jinishing-sttoke to tho 
wrptchedneufi of their aubject*. Tbe revenue eolkttors were com- 
pelled hy t»vr loiLceept ihei' oflice, and made answerable for thesuina 
whi(!h it wflq supposed they ought in raiw. Empty litlra nf bonoor 
wero cntferrod ujwn tbem, but tljoy wc-«i n^Jr^r permitted to ucapc 
the chnrgp* wbith brought with it inevitable ruin. These officoa were 
made beredjlnry, and ihow who bnre them were coniptlled to niany, 
so thftt tbpy might he hnnderi down from fiither tn wn. The burden 
became at Inst oo great that all elasaeo — ownera cf property, public 


'ftwl iM^v lAf Enrjfirt. 

officer^ cnUIfAli^nsuE the toil ti\'\ke — JViil; down in utt«r bupQloasne^s. 
Tb« lanrl «b£ left to liecaoie dt?sert, an J tbia nut onlj in GauJ but iii 
all th* prorinceft of the empire. The empernra arroTs to r^^it^ their 
BubJMlB hy ibo proepoct oJ pri.«iler lihony ol ttdiou- Gratiun nfltred 
tJi6iu the pririltgQ cf mcciin^ id public osacmblicB to diftcu^s rUkil 
ar7Bjig« their owa AJljJra. llouoriud not only prochiimed Llif»he 
, iii««riagi in Gaiit, but even threjit^ned with piinUTitEi^Tit thoHp who 
rdused to taki^ part in ihi^m. But \% wna all ii^Iesji. Th€ emperor 
w«a po\rerle3S, and ihc pooplij knew it^ nitd they turned thoir fycs to 
anomer qu&rt^r for hdp- A nii^rahls help iDcleed it vru, but it 
netiiiied to thcni better tlmn the living d«at1j under which ibey weni 
groftning. Thf<y a]li«l ihemBslvefl viUi the hnrbnrona Gemjan tnhe* 
who Tere their neighbour^ and the authori^ ol th« emperor noa by 
de^TC^a CQ^rcly lout. 

It muat not he HuppoBcd that the indiji^nua which had b^en 
io long exErdse*! left tio inusa behind it. On ihe concnirj, it^ 
efiectA were of iho Tery grenlefft impfirtance. Before the Kotnan 
eooqncst the Gtlu1« were a ncuf tarred pen pie hv-jng in Tiling b^ 
Tin RcnnaDa introduced citii^ jmd with citica ciriri^lion. The? 
built theatn^ cipcuKt, and a^uuduct^ the eiiuriEtitis ruiua cl' which 
are to be wen nt the present ciay. They encouraged commerce, and 
even the tribute exai^ted by thetn vork«d ia one Mt^ee tor the good 
of the people- it woa paid not only in ^id and sjlrer and iron, but 
ia tiiien, oad thin ciicumatatice was an encDUmgemtnl to thr em- 
pLo/meiit of wi:)men in fipiiming ; and women ;d:io wove wocillen c^oth 
for Duntleo — the wool being chiefly bronght from BntaJn, with 
wMch country an extc^naive trade vnc carried on. In the oouCh of 
G&ol the BomanB enconr&gad the cultivation tA the viae, which bed 
prerioualy been grohfii only on the »outheiu ^^^oMs of Italy, and tlie.^ 
and olbcr Imprnvenuuita at GrBC rucouciled the people rn a great 
d^TCG GO the foreign yoke. PnTiiTcnlly also (he Itom^nahad iApre3>^d 
tertaia inefluocahle idcaaupon theGaula, They hud comj>«lledthflm to 
ntbmit Io a fltrong contr^ government instead of thedominioD ofp^y 
chiefiL Thia cbiinge io their rulera lai^ueaced their hdbils and 
thoDghta, and left triicpfl whlnh are felt even at the prssent day. But 
more than thiA, they had aided rn introducing and firmly eaiublmhing 
tha gov^muDcnt of the ChriHlitin churoh. The aame diTimiDns which 
WCTt ojed for the puipooe« of civil gOTerament were used for the 
order aad regulation of the L-hurcli- The people were re^tdred to 
obey their ccclesiBstiod %& well iia [heir ctvll rtdeh', and when tho 
fioman gOrertiDient was at an eud^ and there veri? no liingor Frocontiul^ 
or Pn-tora as ^Tcmors» there wi'ro Btill Prriarche, Archbiahops, and 
Biahops, In the general diBorder of the period the churcli was, in 
hf\ ^e only puwer lu which was \q be jound anything approaching 
to order. 





Yet CliiiBCmDitj spread itacif bn* alowly ainongat tho Gaul8> 
It VTHB mLroiIuc&d jntc tlie country iu ibti miilille of the seccnd 
centiiTy by Mina niiiaiomirieH f'nirn iTie cburth uf Siiiyrn*, win* »pre 
sent bj Si. Polycarp, tb+> dipciple of tbi? iLpOEtlc St* Jnhn, to precch 
the Gi^peL bo^ond ibc AEpa. Tboec Tniefiioniiric^ oftFLblii^hcfl cbem- 
bo1t« at Ljona under PcfOjinua, thdr biabop, aboat tbo year IRO, 

Tbo ttivage picaaure of tbe Rodimis in the conibiibH of the 
gladifltors excited the indignation of tbe Christ inns, Tbey 
(ippoH^ ihfm hy vrocd end by exampJi?, and m ccDi^UL-noe 
tho wLcle of the pagrta Eociety of the grcnt city wore their i^nemics. 
, An edict againat Chriatianity ibsu«i by the cmporor Mrircua AurpliuBi 
ji.i}. ITI, ^ive uu opportunity for ihi) full exhibltlorL of this levJin^, 
and t,he p4>T?4(^rul;ion which followed ihe ^Hiet hn^ rcnderod (he 
church of Lyooa memnTAble througbout nil ages. FathiMUS, Ibo 
biflhop, vrho was then uiaety ytflifi of £if;e, was atouctl by the people, 
and iVirly-AeTcn martyrs perfehed yvhh blm, bting Uiru by wild 
beasLji or dying by thu hjtnd of the executioner- IreriL^ua auci^t^eded 
PolhiDua ai biGnnp of L^'Onn, jind again gathered the scntl^rtd 
inomb«re of Iho church toother, and imdor VBiioiLa alteraaUoTu of 
prosperity and adverally the little body of ChrinlianB in tiiE aouth- 
CBBt of Gaul lived on till about the jniddle of the third ceutury, 
when Beven biehops wem si-nt ihrth by the bishop of Jfume to 
fltrempt the coox'erslon of tb? rest of th« coujitry- Amcrng the must 
oclobrated of theao niiartlonnry bLehopa wna St, Draifl, ^vho Btnl-ionod 
hiiaself on tho banks of tho Seiue, in a toAVii tlen lulled Lut^a»but 
since known aa tiio world -iainouB cily i>f Paris. EIu vfjis beheaded 
near tbe city, on the Hill of Mura (Montmartre), nnri was burietl in 
tbe piam which still boars hiA tiatno. Tbe work thue begun was eairivd 
out moro coTupIetely in the fourth century by Hilary^ biabop of 
Poiticris and St, Mmrtin, biahop of Toura; the former notfld for hi* 
defc'Qce of tbe true faitli, und the ktler remarka-hEi? for h'la nnil Jind 
chnrity; &iid at length, an ihe smporors theni3E>lvPA pmffsaed Christi- 
anity, thereligioLJ was gradually butlirmly ettaNi^ed in tha country. 



Tm i^hief di^iHioTis of the nationa who deatroyed the Raman empire 
were three in number — the TeillonH, nt Germans; the Gotlis, who 
were origimJJy Mttled in St^ondina^ ; and tho Tartan, ThE^ae 

vera Btjbdirid^ iaio YarJooB tribes We h«ar oTtbo GermanB 

OsUf^gDlhs And V^dgotlis; wliiJat ofthe Tftrtdra iLe chief trib« was 

But ihe Frsnl:? cAnnnt, rtriciiy sp^ntcing, be oill^ a frib^; Llkvj 
wfl rather % confi>der«liOTi o] ihc G^TrniinFi, who had s^UltJ thern- 
aetrc* betwteD iho nTcr Wcoer ami tiio lihioe, and who, Hndmg 
tbenurlver* b^ni^^ by tbett norLhi.'rn udj^lilxjtm, uuiiud tn btU- 
deft«ki?e, and loolc tlitr coniniou tlik ol' Frauk, a nanii? uiLioh to iitmr 
Ixngaa^ sgnili^d rierce or wariikc, Loik^ b«lbre the tiiml distrac- 
tion oE tbfl ttiipiro thi^se "vartoiu liibeg Liid bt'cun iheir mvajnont 
but il wju not at firet with the idea of deitrictioo ; itey were dri^«i 
suuihw&rd in coawquence of incuj^iooa oiade upon theiufitl/es from 
ibe north, uni when they Uni eniereii Iho f-rrirorjcs their 
iriflh VTM (o Live iind«r the protectJoa of the Houibd Iawb. The chielk 
anJCDlly^ coToted tha Rornao lltlca, and mndc it rhtir ]i>T(^t ambirion 
tg DDLte them9?lvca by [narrLa^ \tiih tha intjHeriaL iBinily^ Bj 
dc^rc4:0 tlit^j gained a finu foutiTig m tho couxiiry, sjid nionji of thciu 
fariidiig what were rjilled miljUiry colorileA^ vere uUaveii to kerp 
pMnaiioa of a portion ol'lat^d oa ccodilioa of def^^ndinj the EroDti^ 
id the empire ftgaJiiPt <ithtr mvadeTn. Tbc Romnnfi ^mve lo iwo of 
lb« Prank tnb^ ibfi niuue SjxIjc irr SaJiitn* nppiirenbly from the 
nnurry in 'nhic:h they hu<l firs'- mitLl^, uu ibt^ rlgbi bank af the 
TmcI, or, u h waA mfl^ in Lutiii^ the IsafjL Anothtr brniich of 
th« Fvunkj, known m th« l^ipunriHii tribe, oocupLcd the shcreAc^f the 
Rhine. It vrnn a kw amongnt the Salbn FrsLnksi aa well ns among 
raHdUB otbuT G«riiuui tribea, ibut iiu noi[iiui nhijuld Inherit (he I^uid, 
which wa* coTiiiiderwi ibt jttJnt property of thy tribe, and thift l*w, 
kQCnm n» the Salic bw, anil bmided down to latCT ^enerjitiotiH, wiu 
theorigib ot the Frent^h Uw jtjzuiiL^t fcmalt' Bavortigrity> 
X Aboab the year 4iJ4] ihc Frankti were uipun lo cx>iniiiotion, for 
" the dupue wu crumbUng to pieceH ; vnricus rnoes wert; pTeclDitatin^ 
theHu&Jv«4 upon it. Fighting with the Romanti, fighting with each otltpr^ 
■ad «Tflij province waa » BCfue of dpsf^liirion, Tho hiafory of iliia 
ptricd ia too complicntwl tooKow of any detaila being ^iTcn, It will 
be vnftcient lo mention the chief tribes who were cotmected with 
Gaid, iukI couHequoQtly wiih the e^tabh^jntent cif ihe future kingdom 
of Fruice. Amongsi theio one of the most importnnt W7ifl [be Eiihe 
of liw BargundianH, who wtubMshed tbemaeh'PB between Majfenee 
uid Stnshoiir^- They wera Vjindala by orij^n ftrid hcretiial in 
iith, having receiTeU thv Chriatinn rklij^iwii fnum ibe Arian^ vrh» 
denied the diviniiy of ChriKt ; ihu Fra^nkei were of lJio orthodox 
Utfa, at:d thin distinction was tho cmiBe of rnuch enmity beCween the 
tiK>nicq& The VLeij^otha wtTO another imporl^nt ne^t who were 
«lao AriuiB. They bad efitnblishtd thcaiEcIve^ in the aonth of Gaul, 

and pflBHitig tho PyrancoB, had AUCfjecded ■□ driving the VandAla 
from Spain, Armorico, tbe coiintrj between tlic Somme oiid tbo 
Luire, reinnined for ibe inu&t ijurt ItoiiuiD, whilat BiitiUiiij^ became 
a, rE^l^e for (U& t'xil^a from tho taJjind of Brirnin^ who w^re driven 
fro/o their homes by ihs invunioa of the Anglo-Sawina, 

To add to thr confusion, lliv Hunri, n wjEd Scjlbiitn mctit Teftthe 
borders of the Black Sea, and, liearlcd bj Actiloi kiiuHti by the 
Gpittet of the Scourge of God, rushed over Europe, EnUring Gaul, 
they were nidy stopped by the united etfort^ of the Ronianii and 
Vibigotha, who defejttidd theta cear Chalona-Bur-Marna uid fbroed 
-VJL them to retire, \.D. 457- 

It floeiQB atraTjge, and indeeil almost incredible, tbnt tha fiiml 
lnimj[>h or (he Franks in Gaul ahonid have been due to their ailhe- 
rence to the Cfllhrlic dcintrinp of ihe Trinity ; yet rifera aeeiaa little 
doubt that BUch wan the cnr^e^ In tite confusioD which tli^^n roTgned in 
the country the biahopa ahmc rotabt'd dffiniie authority. TJiey 
nerc the rcprcaeotHl'JveB of r,he KoJaJiu j.;OVri3rf and looked to the 
binhop rif Rnnte bh tlieir liend ; and they v^vre absohitely oppo5i*d to 
thaboretiaJ doptrine hflld bj the Vinigottiaand BnrgundiaiiS- Their 
ieclm^a were sharwl by tho people, and to ilnn fnct may bo atlributcd 
the uhiniale succ^en of Gloria, cLieE of the ^iLlina Franka, and gene^ 
rally considered the fbucder of the Freneh monarchy. 

Tho natnPH of two other cTiiefa^ Pharamnnd nod Mf^rov^, hnvo 
indeed been handed down as preiepeapora t>f Clavie ; they were, 
however, only tinga oi the Fmiik tribes. The ejriatence oE Pham^ 
mond ia uncertain* but iht Urst line of French kings Imb rectiTBd 
the name erf Muruvingiaii from Merov^e, or Mtru'lg, who w/as the 
gnuidfather of ClovJB, 
^ It was in the year i96, ■whonthe latt remnant of the Wcaiera Em- 
[lire, Dndtr Roraxilua Auguatuhia, had beciL overthrown by Odoacer, 
chief of the Herulj, that Cloris, & bold heathen l»dci of lihe 3aliaa 
Franhs, placed himself nt the head of a amall band of warrinra on 
U\ft left hank ff the Khine, to oppow ihr* piuMflgeof a tiist body of 
AUmnanfl, who thTeateaed to oroBs thr- nvec. On ftudi occafiiooa 
[ihe braveet wnrrior waa elected to be iho bead of (he joint tribe*, 
and Clovta had updoubtediv thia claiju t» dislin Lotion, lor he had 
already fliircemfnily opposed a Komaii general. He vrh also a 
man of imporfimce from hrs peraonnl connection with the Burvundiaji 
chief, whose daughter, Clotilda, ho had married, Clotilda belonged 
to a tribe professing Arianinm^ but ahe had embrai^ed the orthodox 
taith; and from her Clovia, though a jiagan, miuL hare iiabibed 
some aensfi ofiho mpenoriry of the ChnntJAn religion. 

On the ooeasJon of hig battle -with the AIlemaTifl, finding himMlfia 
danger of dd'^ni^ ho made a vow that if he might but obtain thd 



rktoi7 he woold vorabip the God o£ Clotildd, and wliea nt kst he 
niumph^d h« kept hU mih, and was bnptissl bt Rhpimti by 
St. Bcmi. bifihop of thai ciij. ' Bo» ihy htad/ mid the bishop, lu 
tlL« fiwoc cKieT knelt before faim; 'bum Ibnt wliich thou htAt 
hilbetto adoreii, vid adore bliitl vrhlch ibou Ln.'sC hitherto bunit^' 
uid io outvran) bcI tUe commftml ^vaa obeje<I. but the coriTereion ho 
iffnoniELtlT fWtfVtBd did Mttle tn hiunAiiLtie the nev rhristifln chief, 
•ad Ovither he tior lh& three ihousaDd warnntA who folkw&d hi^ 
eXBinpl? in prx}l««dn^ to be «onr«rtGd to the reJi^ion of p«ice gave 
proqf bj thdr mtisrqiieDt conduct that they onderatood it» real 

Onoe baptiwd, th^ bishop of Gaul ^t@ Clovta their unheaitating 
nppOTL He had almdv ceUhliahed his authority at ScittcoDB, and 
W>«aJJtfa< towna ot tho north- von, from the river Loire to the pro- 
ttaoe po«Be»*d by the croigrant Broton** opened iheir gates loliim 
tad h» wldit-ra. The hiahope establlnhetl la the Burguitdian territory 
at«o «ntrrat^ him to deEiver them from th^ir Arian lordn, and Cloria 
mt^ont h4>MCa£toii d^^ared war agBinit the reignTiig Burgundiaa 
kmci who hfld been tho inurdfrer of Clotilda'a futher, am! coiapelled 
lOD U» bf^xriae his tributair and to embTace the Catholic faith. 

Zflftl fl>r the orthodox creed vas hh excuse lor new coD>:]ijeste. 
Ski jnin all^Twardfl he prepared ic nturk tho Arian VieignchB in 
1^ MUth, who pouened the couotrj between the Rkooe, the Loire, 
atd iho VyratecM, faaTlnpr Bordeaux for their cjkpitAl. Aji&-ra1>li&g 
lit wtrnon, he njd to them. ^ It di^leasf^^ me that thcw Ariiipa 
rinnld cTalm diimiEiiuD in aaj pnrt of Gauh Lei uh gofurth agtuBil 
lk«n. With God'n help we nholl eonqiier rhcm' 

C«afid«(it in bit tfrengtl^ and triutiiig that he was «t<pC' 
titSty faroiuwi hf God Oa flceoTinl of bis !mi1 for the true fiiith, 
W M^rmwed to Toun, whilst Alarlc IT., the Viajuofhic king, retired. 
ta await the aiil of hia Caiher-in-hiiVr llie great TLecxlotlo, king of die 
Oicpqfoihn in ItaTy. 

In the ehnreh tt Tonre dwlieatod to Sl Mdrlin the puilmfl were 
•haft|«d day Mid ni^Lt without oaisin^. CIovlq scut s<?mo of 
hnpoUlicn thithrf, teliing then; to remark the precise words which 
might be utteriog at the moment iWy entered the sacrod 
The eig^ite^nth paalm hnd lieen befrnn. Find ibe priesis 
rtpeadop; the fortieth and fortj-firal venie* : * Thna hant nlso 
•*«> BO l^e QGckfl of mine enemif^s thut 1 might dsrtroy them that 
wtt VM* Tfaev CTied, bat there was oone to ure tbcm ; eren nnlo 
W Krfirdi, but He an^^wered i[iem wt.* Clovia accEpted those worda 
•I A a^ ttnc fnini Heaven to hlmpelf thvL hia proJDcU would be 
VnaiJul, ftod coDttnued od his way a^ianred of vicior^r. 

n* Vuiaot]i3 had advanced to the nei^bourhood oF Fortiert 
b mm% Clw Frauka. They woro defcuted ^ tho king of the Yingorhs 



wan killed, and Goria pursued hia way soultward to the wirmy 
plaius of Liuiguedac lie might eyto liaire currii'd hJa couqueata 
over ihe Pyrenees into Spnin, bnl hp ^vas sinpped by the OBimgoth 
ThuodoTic, vrho hrul amvod with hia nnnv- from Ibtly ttjo latL' in- 
deed lo Olive the life of h.\a Bon-in-law, but rot too iute to fftuirJ hl^ 
dangbter nnd her in&nt son, And to prutact Prcveuce and Spain ['rDm 

ACli^r a. bnttle gnined by Thecklnric peat-e ww POTipliulerl. Ch-via 
took poE&p^icti ol Aquiu>i]ii>- Theodorio kept for hmi^tf the pro- 
vince tff Arka, and the infiuit king af the Viaiffdtha vaa idlow^d to 
relniri, beHidi^s hir< domiuLOUS in Spuiii, h BmaJl ttrriUiry uJ' vrhich 
Narhtiiiii{? hub ibc capiUil. Clovis ntxt tt^rnod hia /irmii ngiiin^t 
ArnioncTk and cotupelled the grenl fowiifl lo pny him Iribut*? ; but 
the Brotona in tho little comer of liuid in wliicli ihoy hnJ Uiken 
refuge reaialad him Eknd kept their ludependpnce, and we flhnll find 
ihai in after times the iorda of Britiuny vi^ra &]muBt the jivaln c>t' 
tha kings of France. 

Thp Emperor of the Eimt, Ani*t.ieiiiB, hnd not Po enTirely M- 
llnqui^cd hia claim tipon tho west ns ic lo<-ik Vp-ith indid'ereuco 
upon tlieee contesta. Unable to contenci agaiu&t Clovip, he tliou^ht 
ic bc»t t^ f!iLtter him by ofierin^ bim the Itoma.!! digniLy of oo[i^iil i 
and Clevis, nftt-r hi^ cAmpnign in Britlnny, went fo ToHr>^ prtbbdy 
to Tocoiro the titlo* Mounted on hoi-nhiivk ^ ii rhadi>m on hia head, and 
the chhuaySj ot RontJin scarf, orcr bi» ^bouldcra, hemndo hi^ Aolemn 
entry inro tbe city^ tud rt^i^iring io the eullicdral returned tlianka 
to Heaven for hi*i vi*?TorieH, and from tlint duy the titlea of Consnl 
and Au^tiie buJonjic^d ro him. 

It \e a etmnge oontmst which meot-i u% when we torn tVom CIovih, 
humblv :iKrihiug hia triumpba lo Gi>d, to Clovia carrying on hi^ war- 
Like earlier, Tor the meann by which he enlarged his duunnione form 
n hiatory of mingled fraud and cmeltj' an repnl?^^^ 1^4 1 1 14 timngo. 
The north or Gaitl becftme the soene ol Jiis oi^nqueEta niter hi* oc- 
cepinnco of the title of Conatil, Sigibert the Lamt, king of Colognu, 
WAB old and infirm. Cloria sent n aecret uicauire to bin acta 
Ghlndi^ric : ^ Tliy father in old; he hnltit with hi»( weak foot. Sboldd 
he die thon ahalt hare hiji kingdom and tny fripnddhipr* Chloderic 
took the hint and caused Lin tilth er to be murdered. CIdtU sont 
him another mi;aB£Lgc t 'I thank thee for thj i^odwilL; ehow thy 
treaEurcs to niy envoy«, and thou fihfkh have fuil poa&eHH[on of all.' 
Chloilerie nbeymJ, He bbowfd tbe mi^TWengerB a chetit^ H^yingi * In 
thi-H cofTer ray father piled up hid gold piecei' * Plungo thy hand 
into iti very dopth,' MEd the cnvoyn, *lhftt thou mnyeat diocover 
all it oontainaJ Chlodent! bent Forward, and oqu of the envoys 
aouidiug bthijjd hint lilted un hj^ great hatchet anJ erualied his 
sknU. - 


Wben tidings of the crime reached Clovis he vrent to Goli^ne 
ud Baaeiiibled the people. * I am ia no way an accomplica in thefi« 
ftctioDS,' he Baid. ^ These princes are my relations. I am forbidden 
loihed tbeir blood. But, since such deedahuve been committed, I offer 
yon my advice* Take it aa it shall please you, and place yourselves 
under mj protection-^ The people ahouted aad ckshed rheir buck- 
lers in concert, and, according to their cuiftom, raised Glovia upon them, 
and thus he became, by ireo election, their king. So it vaa in other 
cases; by treachery and cruelly all who opposed him — even hia 
nearest relatives — wre removed oat of his path. It seemed at lait 
that none were left to be his enemies or his rivals, and he one day ex- 
claimed in an assembly of the people, . ^ Alas, miserable that I am I 
even as a trnveller among a strange nation I I have no relatives to 
succour me, if by chance adversity should befall me/ ' He said 
thia," obeerves Gregory of Tours, the old church chronicler^ who re- 
ports the anecdote, * not because he regretted the loss of hia relations, 
bat because be wished to find out if there were any still remain- 
ing, in order iJiat he might kill them.^ 

Gr^ory excuaea Clovis for these acta of extermination becaUM 
the petty princes, hia relatioim, were heuthena. *He was succesaful 
in all things,^ is hia comment upon the life of the Frank king^ ' be- 
canae his heart was right before God/ 

But there were some Cbriutiau bishops who ventured to lift up 
their voices against him. Atler a series of murders Clovis came to 
Tonmay^ the chkf city of the diocese of the saintly bishop Eleu- 
iherius. He repaired to the church to pray- The bishop Blood on 
. the threahold, awaiting him, ^ O king 1 * he exclaimeil, as Clovia 
drew near, * 1 know wherefore thou art come to me.' Clovis pro- 
tested that he had nothing to say. * Speak not so,' continued Eleu- 
therius ; * thou hast ainned, and thou doat not dare own it^* Touched 
by these worda, the monarch confessed tliat he felt himself guilty, 
md, bursting into tears, entreated the bisbop to implore of God the 
pardon of bis aina. 

For his devotion to the external interests of Che church, the 
Pope bcatowed upon Clovis the title of the Eldest Son of the Church, 
which haa been tranamitted to hia successors; but professed sub- 
ndwion did notimply absolute sul^jection. Clovis gave, indeed, im- 
mense donationsof land to the clt^rey; be allowed certain privileged 
places to be considered as aanctunriea to which criniinala might Hee 
ior Mfety ; he exempted the property of the churcb from tftjiation, 
tad reco^niaed the right claimed by the clergy to be juJged only by 
their ecclenaatical auperiora. But^ in return for these important 
prril^iea, it was decided in a council of biabopa, convoked at 
Orleans, th»t no freeman should receive SRcred orders without the 
permiwiOin of the king, nor any slave without the consent of hia 

14 DKATfl or CLOVIS — HIS SUGCES«>h&. 

SMcaturn of Climf. 

master. The protection offercJ tty trinjinals hj tho Mnotuarie* 
vaa limitedt and bishops were not allow€ii tc cxccmmtmlcatc th^ 
person who pleaded n^i^insc them, Theae were no doubt vrise pre- 
cauliuno. Cor Lilie ptcullu.! privili!gifi5 iMMUjwed upoji the clergj were 
certainly in eoine respecrfi dHQ^rous ; but in the unciviH^d ataie of 
aoci'^tj the church was tiie onJy power ^hich could give «*fi*ty and 
prcU'ut^on to tlio worik nud tho ijpprGfiflcd. The [onda btetoucd h^ 
Clovis upon the churches were eo niuch taken from viokru'e and 
brutnlity ; and aJthough i^idividujil bighops juvl priesti^ may have 
&i1^ in their duij^ there can he no qni^tma thnt apon tht vhnle 
their powef wju exerciaed Jbr the beaf^t of their Aufiuring fellow- 

The work of CloTis vias acconipl]i4ied when, hy tht decree* of 
Council of Orleans, he hzid aetiJed The re'jiTJeiLH lietween tha 
A.n, church and the Tensile. In the ftflnip y*^'*p ^-'^>- ^^l, aiicr dividing 
' ' his domimonii niuongxl hU four Hjns, he died, nt the age of forty- Bfib, 
at Paris, where for doiuc time ho had rewdcd. He vm buried in 
tiie i^hurch fcunJcd hy himsvli noil Clolildn^ vrhlch ailerw&rilA b^ 
cAint* the ahhey church of Si, GenevieVE. 



With tbe oonqnoitB of novtn ended thn baT-hnriftn iuvDsionfl vrk\ 
liod for flo ninny j^ara desolated tiaul Find deatrtiyed tbe ciYiliBatid? 
mCroduced hy the l^ommn^, "VVhcn houecs were burnt and brid^^ev 
broken dowUj commerce was Hn[iffa>iMe ; ibe pt^plo hvtd apart, and 
the Hpiril of industry Mid tFie geniuA of iDvention were crushed. 
In the town!4 silone eouM iinything hke Bettkd hjibits of liEb be found' 
Whilst the HouiEuiB poBseeaed the eapremc power, vo hear of 
gOTCFDom of provinces, consfLle, nod pruniiL?ntg, who lulmini^^terod 
jUHlice both in citic? &nd villiijiea. But in the wxtb century, wboD 
tile bflrlkariftn thiefii had the aa^eiidenry, military chiefs livint^ within 
the walk of the town were the only rultrs, ai^d noi undersracding 
civil goTijmm^iJt, tluar exuetiooB prtssed heavily upon the peoplCf 
aud miftcry and toiiflict wera the r^aulU The dcHtmclioa of tba 
petty Fraj3hiah kmEB by Clovjs, though actompli^ed by ev!l uieiinft. 
wu Lherefore a great lioou to tlie cuuiiriy ui larf^, mare it placed 
the auprvme authoriFy in the handn of otic man, and for a tiiiM 
put an «itd to thu quarrda and tljQ aiithition of muny, Bd& 


rilTClLT ll^CCTlO:! — CHAUP DE MARS. 16 

Shwfwr* ^ aont. 

Gaal, or, aa it was thpQceforth called, Franc« (the Ubd of the 
Fiaoka). was Dot, it maet he remetnbcredT the Fracet; of the preseDt, 
Borgundy to the Dorth-west, Brittanj to the yreat, vere poworiul 
iodepeudeot etat^s. Aa Egbwt, the first king of the So^ioiib, ruled 
ddI^ a portion of Britain^ bo CIovim and bis immediate BueceHBon 
ruled oply a portion of France. 

AmongHt the FrankH the HUpreme authoiitj vaa not bereditarj. 
At the d^ath of a king it waa uhuhI for the people io assemble for 
die purpose of chooaing hia aucceaBor, but the election wa§ generally 
made from ooe family, aud tbaa memberB of the Merovingian 
family hod lor many years been tbe cbiefa of the Saliao Franka. Th^ 
ceremony by which Clovia wm recoguiaed aa head of the Franks of 
Cologne was common to the whole race. The cboeen warrior waa 
Lifted Tip upon the bucklers of the aotdiera, and with lond acclama- 
tiona pubhcly accepted as king. His duty was to bead his troops in 
their warlike expeditiona, and he received the largest portion of 
their booty and of their conqueaCa, often cooaiating of towaa with the 
portions of territory attached to them. These cities and lands coa- 
BUtDtifd (he domain royal, which was inherited by the king's aons, 
who, being thus richer than thtir companione, were the more likely 
to obraiu their votes for cho succewion to the throne- Thua it was 
that the Bupreme authority waa tranaferred Irom father to eon in the 
nee of Clovis, that which was at firat only cualom becoming by 
dE^recd the eatabliahed law. The authority of the kings wsa entirely 
military ; the power of mnking lawa belonged to the whole nation, 
who usually assembled for this purpose in tho month of March or of 
&[ay. Theae meetings were in consequence known as the champ 
dt rn^rt or champ de mai (field of March or May). At lirat they 
were held every year, but the people by dcgre*^ grew negligent ; the 
meetinga were no longer regularly convoked, and the legialativo 
*uthority paaaed into the handa of the aovereign, hia officera, and the 
hiahopa. The church was then the only power capable of con- 
tcndiog with rhe fierce paeeioua of the conqnering mcea. The 
pomp of iCe ceremonies aeized upon their imaginaUon, and the ^t 
that the clergy were upheld b]/ an authority which bad ita centre in 
Rome invested them with somewhat of the awe that in former days had 
gather4»d round the imperial government. The clergy wore, more- 
aver, for the most part, men of real worth, and made eameat en- 
deavours to touch the conacienci^ of king and people j though the 
harbariana were still so ignorant of the true nature of religious in- 
fluence that they flattered themselves they might dinrm the anger 
of God against sin by the gifts with which they liberally enriched 
the cburcb, to which they professed to submit- 
After the conqueat of Gaul by ^e Franks the nation may be 
considered lo be divided into three claasea : 1. Tbe poasesaora either 


SvnvBMn of dovis, 

of allodial or free laiiOs^ wUich cuuld out be transmi l.t*?d to feiualcB, 
or of fiefs nliich were hel'i upon (hp Cfmdition of mrlilary service. 
2. The colonktfi, wlio ciiliivateJ ihe »'tl, p^)''"g ^ cermiii rent. 
tJ. Tli^^ M'jf^i ^vho wfire pitheT taliroly dflpcndent on Bome UhuIgTi 
cr Mere bai^^Lt mid sold with the land- 

Vt\y u^xtiiin oi' duki? or itiuiit liclil by tlie greai nobles were not 
flt first capble of bc-in^ inhtrited hy Thi»ir cliildrea ; but alter a Hroe 
ihe bravest warrioM fiucooeded in making buth their dsUtoa and 
titles iLcre^itary, and tliii^ ]iiiv4>d the wu}' for tlic cotitcuta )tctw(!cn tLc 
buwrei^n und hia ]3onerfid vitoeulfi wliicli mode Fiance llie Bcjeue of 
^>ei- jieti ifil violence- 

BiLt tho Srst coDf^ifrCA afler the death of GJotis were UDo&g«it hlil 
scnfir tliu joint Bov<.Teignfl. Tbifirry lived at Meli, tlm capiuil of 
raat.efn Fmncci ; ClutaJre &t Soioi^iia, Cliildeberb at PorU. xnd 
Clilodgmii' ;Lt Orleans. The Iji^t three divided amougr^ theuiselvci 
ihe conquered portion o^ Aqiiitaine. 

Thierry and CloraJroFibowed tlieir power at firut by tliec<in<jUBHt 
of some oF the Gemian tribua heyoDd the Rhine, but a war baatd 
upon peraonol ciiinity w&» bodii eiiiered upvir. 

Kigismujid^ khig nf Burguudy, bad murtliTed the &tbpr of 
Clolildu, the wile of Clovis^ and now cbe queen called upon hei 
fierce fiom to Uike voiige^ni?e, 

CbloJoiuir Nud CJi.»tfiirit entered Bur^ndy and took Sigianiand 
prlfiouti'. Into a deep Weil tbej £ung him, his >Yifi:;, and bin cLildnm, 
untl. o)V(?ring ihc opmirg witli t<U)iii^Bt t*^ them fll[ lo ptrufa. 
A terrible reTenge ovf'ttook Cblodomir. The brothur of tbe dead 
Sigittmund mut biin iJi bnttlc, and bo icil, pioixed witb a, hundred 
t-Tj. "wnuodft, A.Tf. 5 S3- Ho left three youn^T children, who we™ placed under 
^^' LliEi euii: of Lheir gj'JiadniuL.her GloLiJ Ja. Cluldebtrt, ftariitg iliat she 
wntiM iiae her ml^uence to tecuro to the Jiltle onen a flhara in thfdr 
farhet'% Iciogdorn, sent a Beeret message to Clolaire : ' Uitr mothef 
pfuujila Uie chiJdrtii of our brother. She desires to pvo tlteoi the 
kingdom. Corne thou flpeedil/ to raris. Uaitcd iii cuunsel, w<j wilj 
deteroiiiie what must be dune. EliJici must their hair bt- c^ut, ro that 
they may hise tho dUtinction which belongs lo the bkiod royal, or 
they mtut be killed. Wo will divide (he kjagdom/ CJotoire came 
to ParJe. Tht rumour spread among the people that the young 
chiJdrej:! of Chlodoniir were to be rniwd Ic the throuc^ It ^na asx 
artifice of the two brothers, but Clutllda, wht* was rhea in Paril^ 
bel5i?vr-d iL Whon the meeaago came from ilie two Icings : * Send 
UB tho children, that they may be iBlsed to the royal digaity/ ^be 
called twij of the little ouob to her, oae ten, the other oeven yeara of 
Hgt, and niaking lli^m tut itud driuk ihe eent them away^ aayiug. * H7 
Hon Chlodomir will not be lu&l to me if you, hia cliildren, inherit blfl 


Tlieii ChJldebert and Glotaira sent a flecood mtnsenger to the 
qneen. He took with him fciaaorA and a naked ffword, and thus 
*ddr«wed Clotdlda : * Thy hoiu, our lords, O gtoriouB qaeeo, desire 
to know thj wiU. Shall the hair of the children be cat off, or ahall 
they be «tr«ng]ed7 ' ^If they (nay not be raieed to the throne,' 
exclumed the terrified queen, ' better would it be for them to die 
than be ahaven,' And the meeeenger returoed to the two kinga, 
nying, ^Let your pmject be carried out; the queen approvea.' 
Then Glotaire, seizing the eldest of the children, plunged his knife 
into hia body. One of the tittle bi-othera cast hiinBelf at the feet of 
ChiJdebert and clasped his knees- Childebert's heart was softened. 
He turned to Crotaim ^ Grant me the child's life/ he said ; ' T will 
pre thee what Ihou wilt for his Tanaom/ But Clotaire borst forth 
ID reproaches : ^ Thon sbalt die in the child's place. It was thou who 
didst urge me to the deed, and now thou wouldst draw back/ 
Childobert released himeelf from the handa of the boy, who was 
itu4aotly killed by Clotaire- He then mounted his horse, and rode 
with his brother into the city^ both of them careless and proud aa if 
00 crioie waa upon their cooscieDces, 

Clotilda ordered the two little bodies to be laid upon one bier^ 
ind Chey were carried with sokmo ohantfl and great mourning to the 
church of St. Peter, where they were buried aide by side. C^odoald, 
the youngest child of Chlodcmir, escaped the fury of hia uncles, 
bdcg carried away by some of his attendants, who rushed into the 
nxMD aud si!i2«d him from them- He becajue a monk» and after his 
dsMh was canomeed. His nam*'* since altered into St. Cloudy was 
pren to a monaetery which he founded near Parish and was after- 
virds letained as that of the summer palace inhabited by the French 

Thieny L, theeldeat of the eona of CloTia, took the leaat part in 
the fikmily cruelties. He tempted hia aoldiera indeed to conquer the 
nathem proTince of Auvergne by the promise of plunder, but this 
■M merely according to the warlike customs of hia time, 

Clotaire saiTiTcd hia brothers, and became ultimately king of the 
vhele country. The portion which had belonged to his brother 
Thierry, and which was c^led the kingdom of Austrasiar was 
iiherited by Theodebert, the aon of Thierry, and pasBed from him 
to hn BOD Theodebald, but when Theodebald died without children, 
CSoCaire immediately took posseamon of the kingdom and united it 
to hia own, A horrible tragedy marked the latter years of hia reign, 
HisKHi rebelled against him, aod being taken prisoner, was con- 
JoDned by hia father to be burnt alive, together with his wife and 
dnghteiv. The sentence was carried out, bat deep remoraa after 

i thii f'"* mM deotroyBd during the Franco-Oerman war in IB?!. 


SnefiiKif* iif Clopia. 

this seized upon Ibo unnatural and cruol dottHiG, end precia^-ly il 
year aderwnrda to died csclniminci ^Who la ibe great King of 
HeaTtn, t^lio Ibus tiilla ihe great kiugs tr£ tlieearth?^ 

A frMh partitjnn arnl renevpd war and cnielties follnwptl ihe 
death of Clotidn?, Ii tvuuld l« un^lts^ oe iv-dl us p^'unfiil to attempt 
to follow Iho hifilorj' minuioTj ; tt ia but ariHxird of iirimo, CtutaittJ 
left four sonBi and each took a portion of lija dominion^ but iJie 
division which waa hoh inuat perauHjt^ntlj esiablidked waa tbftt of 
the two ItingdnmH of ATwtnmiji nnd Nt-nsiriH. 

Aiiitlrflsia, or Oali?r-rike» tht* kingdom of the Oaatem Fnmks, \tiy 
betwGftD the rivor Moiieu ond tho tibine, Itn asact limits aro 
uncerrfliu> Ju the preiivnti day we pbould loot upou it aa a Gcirawi 
kingduni i and Cbe irliiibllaiita were fot tbe mo^t part timplj Fraoka, 
a Teuron rarfi with little nt no admixture of ibo licrnaniwd Gaul*. 
Tfae Aiiatrudui chi^&i held large knd^d property, imd were from tbe 
beginning nearly aa powerful aa the BOTcreip;nT and by degree* the 
whole gorejnmeut of tbt country fell into their Iiauds. 

Neustria, or Nt-twirr-rlkt, lUe kingdum of the wtfltem Franks, 
which lay hetwppri th« M^tip** nnd Ibi? ocean, vna, on the Gontrary, in- 
ViEibited by a more mixed t&cGj but the ptop!^ weraddoilv JCoEnnniEod 
Gauli'. The kingflofNeuatiift were coinpiLrfltivcIypowcrful- They kept 
their chiefs in eubjectioii» and thua the spirit of the two conutdeB 
became by decrees whnlly opposied, Au^triiBia^ anAtnc^raiic in ils 
pQVpmnienl, and Nentitriat mdnarchical, werp nnturally HvaUf and 
the history of Frnnoe for nearly a century ia r^lly a hietory of the 
fitrugglo belween thOM two priucipltB, though carried on by drtl 

Thp ^eflt division of the kingdom of Clotnire took place in the 
*,n ycflT 567. At that time Caribert, the youngest of hia sona,^ woe 
'"" dead» and having kftno mide hi'irs, Wis riominioufl *ero, iia wa* ueuaI 
in Auuh cau:E, divjdfld aiiiongat hi:^ hrothero — oac part bi-ing tukcn by 
Lijgebt^ri; »a king of ALmTTHeJH, another Ly ChiJperic ait kiug of 
Kenjflrifl, aad the third by Gonirflu a? king of Bui^indy. The tJiwo 
brothers made a aingulnr agreement with regard to tJie town of Paria, 
each of the kinijo pled|iing himftlf rot to enter jt without liie con- 
aent of tlie other two^ From this time the chief events of the pciiod 
are conrtcted with the rlvalij of Si^eberl and ChiipenCf urrathiTof 
their f^iipen>4» Bmnehaut and Fredegondn. 

Bnmehaut, tha wife of Sigebert of Auatroaia, was n dniLght«T 
of the king of tho Spanish Viaig<^tbs, She was a woman oF ^Tcel 
peroonal attmcticnai graceful and intellectual, for h«r mind had beeu 
formed by itoman civiliBaucn. 

' Caribort wna ihs Ititkn of B rllift. (Tin wifo of EtLelbert. kiiif of Kenti 
It tma thpongl] hf-p that CbtutLAniLy wfu first inrrodnced iota Biiuio. _ 

Fl;£L>£t}0in>4 — HllCSEIUUT — VATOB Of THE I'ALACE. 19 

Fred*gondaT en ibfl contrary, vaa a bflrharian by tutturo and 
educntion, AS woU oa bj birtt ; yc^t hf>r WfiTidcrl'ul bcnury and licr 
great toJent cajrtivBlcd the Lairt of CbilperiG of NcuntriH, a man wl' 
sum« cqltivatioQ of raiitd, able to wriie Litlia tctbi^a, iiymnn, nnd 
pnjerAt but with a dispotdrjcii bo cnid ibfit htt h Vnovm fu (1i« Nt^ro 
of FrttDce, Fredf!gotn3ii wiLsal first the lavourile only, not the lawful 
wife of Chiiptric, He hjn! mtirried Gilt^wintha, the Gk^tcr of Brunt- 
liDUt, but Fredejconda hnd iDBiet^d upoa retaiainf btr own ^Mulion 
and buving n r^sideace id tbe pjiUce^ Galed win) ha refused toHubmit 
to tliiHriiau]t,anii before many wtvlcH hiu) pajtsed "waa f nund Rrnmgled 
in h«r bed- The crime was universally atiribuled to tbe inttigaticm 
•yi FredegoEidA, who wichout dolny bccamo the wjfb of Chilpcric. 
The inriignatioa D^ioat them W[k9 ^rent. ChUpcric wqa abandoned 
liy hJa i^fainf reinin^rfl and f^umpiJlt^d Lo npptor befunf l^ia iihir^f 
judi<^ia] couTt of the Frankfti. His life un<4 declared IbHWtled, but 
At ilie inlerpoainon of his brother GoiitronT fc[iig oE BnrgmidyT >t 
was Epared. Bruucbant thEOcefbrth become llie implacnble enflmy 
oF Frcdf^onda, ajid in ronfteijuenct vta broke out between the two 
krng^ Si^r^bert and CbUp*!ric. Sigebert, sappnrlcd by ihi' neigh- 
bfHiring; German tribo", poured icto Npiiflirift, alnying and T;il(irg 
oftptiTCi. ChjlptTJc fhnt himailf up in Touraay with hia wtfo and 
daidren, and Sigelicrt aifiicd the kingdonL Urcnt rfljoicinEa follovrcd. 
In the mid^i of Lh^jri iwo tJiiitfuricfi senl injm Fredegouda »tnji:k 

IB Sigebert with poisoned knite}!^ and he d)ed, aJ). A73- Hia army 

*^ waa diap«TBed, nnd Chilperic regained his crown. 

BruneliflUt wan then in her turn a captive in the bandd of Chil- 
peric and Fredegondi*. Yet her life waa sparedj ajid by the aaai&lancB 
of ftl^fo\ee, ihe Hin i]f Chilfi^nc-. she ratnajied from he.r enemies and 
T«Tini*d to Aiiftfmsifl. M^rnv^e had beconte wildly in Iotb with 
her. In his bhnd pa»^ion ha mamed hsr; but it n^ for him a 
niarriajte with dciitti, for hie Jiilhcr cmiwd him to be killed, 

Cbildebtrt, tlic little scoi o£ Sigebertf wav at tlie time of hia 
Other's mnrder a prising in Paris jn the king'a palpLce. An 
Arutnuinn noble oontrived bin escape. The child waa let down by 
a baeket from u window, and a faithful i«crvjirit took charge of him 
and (dirtied him bdbre him on bia own liorae to Mctz, where be was 

^^ proclaimed king uf Austrnaja, a.d, 575, whilst Brunohaut Under- 

Kitook to govern the t^oiintry \v his nnme. Her gnvernmeut wm on 
the whol* wise and good^ bnt love of power Beemn to have be«ii her 
great iempl«tion,flnd through it ahe made ooemioii both of thenoblea 
and the pvopic It hod long been the custom for one o£ the m>blca 
(o have the tiuperiiLiei^dence of the rojttl domiiion, ond latterly this 
nfficer had received the title of "maire dn pakiis' or mayor of the 
;alace. but he had never been mora than ^e kiog'a chief servant, 
Ucw bovever, the nobles chose tbemselvea to eUet the * mairo du 


du ^J 


Suucasara of Qoiia. 

patni^," luid insir^UK] (lint }ib ulioiiltl be llie tutor uriil guardlaji of tlia 
young monnrch. Bmoehaiit wbs compelled loyielcl^ but she sacrelly 
inBplri>ii Jior eon witli a bntri^ of [he p^rBone who Burround^d bim, 
in order lliat he miglit ojie dny revtnge what ftto deemed her iDJtirie»> 

Fredef/ooda Jiud CbUpenc in lije menolliuc pumied tbeir couise 
of cruel r J in Neustria. The old inonkisli ehrcinidnr Gregory of 
ToiiiB giiea a Tivid acoount of tleir criminnJ Ufe, wliicL vfta not, 
however, unmarked by occasonn] ticn of rcmorso. 

* lu these days,' he fl*ya, ' king CliUpcric fell grievoiiEly ill, and 
when be begun to recover^ iJjh youci^GHt of Li* bi>i)»* wLo wna not 
yet regeriprated by water and the Holy (jba'^t, f^ll ill lu hifl lurn. 
Seeinv Uie ebjld in airiremily^ Lh^y vnahed him in the vatem of 
bftpliam. Shortly after he bugon to imjond, but his elder brothor 
WftB wwed with ihe swue nialady. Then FrL-degouJji, touched witb 
cojiLrkion, fidd to the king, ^' Beholdj for a luuf^ time liiia the riLTi^y 
of Heaven borne with our orinies. Alrendy Runie of our children 
ore dcAd^ and now the 1«ira of the poor, (he trembhirgHOf the widow, 
the sigha of the orphaai^ will brhic; upon us ttic loui of fhaar- who 
reinam- TliCTe will b« none lo jrilierit our wtaltk. Thereforn, if 
thou wilt coniwnt, let i» nr>n liurn tJiO«! unjuat ri"gipr-*TN of taxes, 
and for OUT roja] treasury let ns content ourftel^ea ^th tlmt which 
ifoa auffidoat for Iby taihor, Clotoipe." ' Then ibo ffuven eust iho 
regiaters of tha cities which belonged to h^roelf into tht: fur, a.a^ 
entreated the klnj^ to do the eanie with the receid of bixes. CliiJj*ric 
ponsenlpd^ but lejifinrannt camE? tim late. The sword of IlcflV^n'ft 
judg-totnr [ao saya the old ch-rcriider) vn9 fJtretched E>ut not lo bu 
withdrawn. But twenty daye btfciro tho dcndly dieense Bcized tha two 
young priocefl Gregory wna wHlkingin the court of the royal jialiice, 
convertfiug with a ViiKhop, h.U frieuJ, fmiti wtiuzii he \\a.s ulroTit to parr* 
when the biabop, looking np, eTclnimed, ' Doat thou not nee aboTO 
tlii.t roof wbsit 1 s^s 7 ' *l eee^' repli^ Gragory, ^a. amalJ huildiav 
which the kiiiR has lately crecteil,' And the bishop anawercd. * Seeat 
thou uuughtelfte? ' ' Kotbmg/ wus thert-ply i ' hut if l2iou canat nae 
u]ore,tdlme/ Then the bjabupbreudied u heavy sj^h. and wiidt ^ E 
Aee the drnwn awortl nf divine wTfttii aartpt^nriml over ihiii house,' 

' And truly/ addf< Urepory, ' the worde of tho bisliop were QOt 
Ijing worde, ibr IviiTity da) a nlVr the two sonaof the king died.' 

A Bhort time allerw^r^U Chilperic himself peri^lied bv a vIoIgqL 
1^ denih, Aj». r»84. He xrat ussaaslnated, aome my by the emiaiiaripa of 
Bninebniit, otht^ra by n lover of Ftedegonda. Freileponda hBrseM', with 
an iP^nt wn, nought Ihi' prtitectiou of the f^ood GonlnLnf king of 
Burgundji — good accortliug to tha judgment of the limea, becauw 
he wta flimple in inleUeet aud more devoted to plemure than W 
truelty, and was accused of only two or three murdera. Tho death 
of hia brotberft had deeply touched him. He took an oath to purfftw 


the murderer of Cbilperic to the niath ^nerstion, thai ha might, M 
ha aaid, ^get rid of thU bad practice of IclUmg kinga.' He belitived 
hii own lile to b« in danger. On a certain Suoday, after ^ience had 
be«9i proclaimed before the commencemeDt of mass, he tamed liim- 
aell' to the people and thus addressed them : ^ I coojiue you, men 
and women who are here before me, kill me not as you have lately 
killed my brotbera. Let me at least lire three years, that I may pro- 
Tide for the education of my nephews, whom I have adopted as mj 
■ons ; otherwise, which may God forbid, aft^r my death you all will 
perish with these tittle ones, for there niii be no strong man able to 
protect you/ 

The bishop and people of Toura desired the preservation of 
GontraJ^ being aware that he alone could protect Bu^pmdy and 
Neujbia against AuHtiasia, Gaul against Germany, the church and 
eiviliaaiion agaiast the barbariaiiB ; but Poitiers, the rival of Tours, 
preferred a king at a greater distance, whilst the people of Aquitaine 
and Provence wished fur a king of their own creating. A spirit of 
discontent had in tact spread itself through the country, and it soon 
riiowed itself in open revolt. Thtre wm hI that time living at Con- 
atantbiople, under the protection of the Eastern Emperor Mauric^ 
a certain prince named Gondovald, Sdid to be an illegitimate son 
of Clotaire. To him a message of invitation was sent by Gontran 
BoBon, a great Auetrasiati noble, inviting him to repair to Gau] 
and claim the inheritance of hia father, Clotaire. At the same 
time Maurice was encouraged by Gontran BoK>n to support this 
new claim, a hope being held out to him of recovering his loat 
Bupremacy over the southern provincea. 

GondovaJd landed at MarseiUes, rich wiih the treasures which 
the emperor had beetowed upon him, and expecting to receive the 
support promised him ; but Gontran Quaoo. a man of periidious 
character—like many of the great nobles of the period, haif civilised 
fioman and half barbarian Frank — was tempted by the sight ol the 
treasurea, and seizing upon them returned to Austrasia, leaving Gon- 
dovald to his iate. 

ChiLdebert, the young king of AuetrasLa, had up to tbin time 
remained undecided as to the support lo be given to Gondovald, tor 
the pretender did not interfere with himself; but only profi-aaed to 
claim the special inheritance of Clotaire. He had, however, no wish to 
qoajrel with hia uncle Gontran, if he could obtain any advantage 
from remaining at peace ; and hu therefore sent Boeon and some other 
deputiea lo Burgundy to request compliance with certain demande 
whichhefelthimBtIf justified in making. ' Thy nephew Cbildebert,' 
said one of the ^ deputies, when the party was admitted to the 
presence of king Gontran, * entreats thee to restore to him the cities 
which were once his faCher'a.' 



' th^sK ciiifis were gr^nLed in« hj \Taily' was Gontruii^s rejily. 
'Iherefore I will not ri^alm-e th«fn/ 

Then stood Jbrih fluoihec deputy : * Thy ctphen- ]>ruja thee to 
dtUrcr into hJa bands the grcjit mrccrcaa Kredcgonda; iKt wUi he 
revenge upon hertljc dttiih of hh father, hifl unde. Aud hiji coualna.* 

' ^he canuoL he delivei^d up to my iiophew/ cLuawered Cjuuimn, 
'since she hn^ a fion who in Icing. And for tlioae things of which 
you accuHs bar, I heli^Vti them not to hv tniE.' 

Ho then ptjurtd forth a lorreni; of esecr*tioDa upon Boson And 
GoudoYaldf decloiiti^ the Jutter to he the aou of jl miller. Tho courtiers 
find people oafiembled luughed. rand tlm dtfpulie^, tjcfing thnt ih^y hud 
mvde no TmpreBEiGn^ prt^jhircd ta r^rire, mying, * We bid thCie fare- 
weU, O king, aince thou wLIt not rwitore thy oppJiDW^A citi^e. 
But well we know that iho axe whj^b severed thy brothers' heada u 
rcudy Ltr thiije/ 

Rrurjf'liaut null ChildthiTL now f^rouri>d GondovaM, and twn 
Fredegondu waa indiLced lo treat witli him. The eler^ aln> 
bQpporicd him, ond thoir dut'ouiion, Jcr A^hioh Gontr^it was totalty 
liDprop&redf obliged him U> bo rccocciEed vrith hia nephew, the kinj^ 
of AustrjUiiu. He gave back to CliiLdebert nil wliiuh hud l>ee[i de- 
mnndedf rand nl:io ndopted him as his son, promifung at the tama 
lime to Idjive Brunvhaut eonie cities in Aquitfiine widch had been 
her rtater's dowry. 

When lliifl idliance ^aa mode known, GondoTaWa snpportere be- 
eume aa eager to abandon tlie pruiendt^r as il^cy had cuce been to 
support hini. He wan obliprd to shut himself up in the city vi 
ComULingi^s. which was built on a liij^ r'oek ood «um>undtd by 
strong jbrtlficatioos. Here, aupporCed by Mummolu^ thi.' pc^vcrnor 
cC AvigDODt vrho prufi^&td to he his friend^ he hoped to defoiid liiira- 
neir from hia eneniicji. But the ncbiRA whn n'^m in the rity gatlipred 
round him iind aizcusi^d him (if being flu imposuiT- ' Tell us/ they 
said, ' morit misvrablo of men, nho led E.hce to iht^Ee ahoroe, who to- 
sjiired thee with th*^ audneiiy to approuch the dominions oE our 

Then Gondovald entered inu^ the history of his life till h^ wma 
urged to ngaoTt n claim to the thTone, * 1 reeeived Gontritn BoAon'a 
oatJi for nty sufet-j,' ho suJd, ' in twelve Buctcd placua. UmX ho hoa 
Vkolatt*d ic He had carried awiiy my trea>4Uri^6 oud rer^ine iheui u 
hia own, I call upon you, thertlore, aow lit acknowledgi^ tbut 1 am 
a king. If not, Jet me reium fr<>m when<?e I came.' 

Mummoius anawerad, ^ We have fiwom to thee nn oath of 
fidelity. LiHicn, therefore, lo our wif* cotinstl. Pffticnt thy&cif 
ti thy brother. Ho would iaiti brave lliy support, tor fow are 
there remainng uf thy nice. There Lire hmvt warriorri who wait 
for thee st the gale. Unloo^ nov^ my gold baUMc with which 

tbott trt ginled, fo Ui*t cbwi najot not appear to g9 iorik Jn phd«. 
^UtA ilii&e own nrarid, uid reau>re lo me mio^' 

* Thjr wonk are dear,' uinrcred GondciVKld. * T un deq>oi]^ of 
Oaat vlucb I iftu c a tcd snd «ore u & token of &ietid^p.' But 
Mraaiolm ft£nnedi wkth on o&tL, iLal be meoct no karm. 

Goodovaid, at leOjfth pcnuAdn]. wcDt ivitb bioi to tbt g>t« of the 
o^. BoaoD and the count of Bourse* verv oa che uutsidt. 
Tbej oune Ibr^ard to rw*ive GondoFald ; and Munwnohw %nd bb 
fbUovcn re-«iE«e»d the town, ckfiiug the ^tee tirmly. Tlten Gon- 
donld, BcesTLg timveif betra^fd, lifted up hUc^ee to hiAven. prayirtg 
l^ God ivould 4Tenge bim, acid toAking^ iLc tiiga trf the crut«» ful- 
Wired hiA fiHA, who immedtaiely led hiiu away Irum the gate of (he 
dtj and craelly morder^d him. But t>]« trtacherydid oot proSt th« 
Qmilvra, The anuj of kiog GoatJiiD ruEhnid into the totta and set it 
OftfiR; prit^ wIditTS, all the mhabitaaLSi peiuJiod in the ihrae^ 
Hammotua waa not spared. The Idct that he had once Htippottcd 
GadoraLd wa» enough co eflliL'i? all iiih*T Berricm, Gcmcraa sen- 
Uno«d him to death, and he v-ua IejUhI iq Ilie midAt of the 
*icteriou3 aimy, wbrch oved its ^ucccm to hu tr»ch«ry. 

GDQiran and Chilieti^crL then enli^red into a ioleron ngrccment, 
ailed the Uvaiy of Andelot. by vrliith tiie Burrivur of ibe two 
kiB^ was recognjaed ■« the ^neceflaor of die other ; nnd CliiTdi:bert. 
tku gopportcd bj hj« uode, Tentnrvd fo poniflh tho jicrbdicfus 
Boaon. Ue vafl condemned bjr buth kings in tho TQeeting 

^ni Andelot, a-D^ ^^7, and Laving taken reJiij^e in the houdc of a 
faiflhc^, Lhu Loiue wna set on Itrc 1>/ t)ie uidor of kiu^ Gontran, 
■nd BoBOD wiLA killed u he endeihvctur^d lo (;4[^ape. 

AA GoQCran died A.r. 593. According fo iho treaty of ADdeloI, hia 

* nephcvr then became king of Burpindy. Childt^beri attempted uIbo to 
lakff powewion of Neiutria, but Fredegonda had never given up her 
ckim to it, and when Childebeft and his foUowem tioten?! the 
connEry he was alarmed by what appenied In he a movable forest 
advancing to meet hini. U vaa ihi' aruiy of l^redogciida canyini; 
ho^ bnncbed of treea. Sho h^id adorrtcd the device whtcli in itAer 
jrean terrified the Scyltiah nanrper Macbeth, nhen Blrnam wood 
advanced to Duuainane, aud the result w^ cojupkr^ aucuea^^ (ut 
CbJJdebert'H troi^pfl t\e6 in afTright. Childebort bimHelf did not long 

^ aurive hia doleut. He died in 59G. The Hucflenaion to the whole 
of the kingdom oE Uaul vaa then left in the LondA of ihrev 
children ^^lotaire n,» the aon of Fredegondai who Auci^ccdod lo the 
inli«riiuice of Neiuirio, ; aud ihe iwu litilu soua of Cbildeberi> 
Tboodcbert and Thierr^^ who vere acknowledged ha kings of Aiu- 
ttfctuL mad Burgundy, and were under the control of tbeir gnnd- 

La mother Bninebnut. The following your, aj>. 5^, ITredegondu diod, 

"^ and Brimehuut wan i«ft without a riral. 



Tlie young Theodeberl was king of" Anfltrnaia. Hia grandtnottar 
tlioupht to gw>Tcn] him Tjj ieavLn^ bim to thti froo indul/roiico of all 
LiH uicliuJLtioap. But the vety uie;iiih which ^he took to gain her 
tti^ prove*! her ruin. She ullowcJ hira to tv outirtl/ uuJer tiif 
infJuftic* of R young female alave, suppowii lobe i!eyoi*Hi tu her in- 
tereat, and the giil beiog won cjvt by the nobles, who ouce moTe 
eought indcpi^Jioeuoe, joined in a tionspirocy jijjjtiuel her. To flave 
Iicr life BiuiHfhaut \taji ooiopdlE-rl to Icnvo hi?r pflJftco as a lugitive 
and Tiikc refuge Iel Burgundy v'itJj her other wn, Thierry . Uere ahc 
fdlowc^d the same pluti of &dti<^ttion, tmd wjtit greater success. 
Thierry woa utterly corrupted, and the noblQA ol Burgundy, boing 
much Icaa iudcpcndBub thou ihose of Austrasia, allowed Brimehaut 
to rule undlaturbed. 

Aft^r Bt;ch an sducacioi; diaeenBiions natnrnlty tsom between tbe 
two young kings, which w^re directed liy Bmnehnut to her own 
endi ; yet ahe contrived at tiral to unite them in a vns ikgaiuEt their 
couflin CJoUure IL ol PTeiiatria. and it wna not till he \fiiF- dtfented 
and taken prjaoner ihat Brunt^huut kllnHtii the finjouUering 
enmity between her wins to liurnt forth. Then open war wns de- 
chtred. It was carried oa in AuHttaaia in the neighbourhood of the 
Ithiuc. A prcat b&ttic took place nt TolbijtCf near Coloimo, a.d. 

"■ Gil. Theadthert waa catirely defeated, and fled with a few fol- 
lowers flp,roBs t lie Uijine, mid Thitrry etilerifd Cologne and denpatched 
hie ehaiiilii^lnin in priranit of tlie fugiiive king. Theorlel^prt wm 
BODU ovariakfiiLf and biin^ brought to Colugiic whb loaded with c^uuns 
And Bent to Chalons to h'n gTandniothcr Brnn(:hant. Death ooon fol- 
lowed. tV>r hfc waa killed by Bruiiehaiit's order*. And now the preat 
project nf Bruiieluuil'a litu— the lliiIuu of all i be Frank kingrlomx 
undfir onfl head, iieeined on the poLnl of TealiBition. But thu clergy 
nuoed thoir vi^ik^as a^nst licr. .Si. Didi^T, bishop of Vienne, cndca- 
Toured to save Thieny from the influcDce of his worihlesa 
fa\ouriteaT and ui bring back to hinj hia la^^fulwifa. from whnm h« 
had hwn sppsirjil^d. St. Cohunba, tht celebrated Iri^ihraan, who 
was then at bia c;ouTt, epoke openly to hiniT reproving him for hii 
TJcoB, and in conscquinoe was haniahcd* 

The anliigoui'iiiL of the clcrcy wnn a most importJLnt obstacle to 

«'«. Bruncl)fint'& plans, but i^Lill greater dJlBcnlLi^ hoou urosu. Thitrrj 
died fluddenfy in 613, and hU foor litilo soria Imd the right to 
divido hia inheritance. Brunehnut determined to give all to 
SigelM-rt, tho eldest, who wa* not yet ciavGn ycnra of iige. The 
Aubtraniuo uoblea ri^iatcd. They luited Bruudivut- ^liu vma a 
Gotli, edutJiliifl by Koinnnn. t^ht had no fiynipntJiy with them a* 
GCTmann, uuioh lesa could tihe mihmit to thtir hnbita of tndepen- 
denoe. They roao in rebollioa, and called to their support Clotair© 
IL cl NeuBtrio, The leader of thin moreuient war Pepiu of 


*/ Clew. 

liUidcD, a powerful nubJe whose luberltAnce Xaj in the ueJgfabour' 
bood of Li^-«. 

BranrbaHt eeni bwij the young king Sigebert under tlrt,j 
guArdUnHkip of Uii> Burgundiun major of the paloco^ But ih#i 
trusted n"l>]e wufl u traitior- WtcE ihe jomb amiita af liiirgundyj 
and AusLtiuia luet the NeiiAtnaus on tlie baiika of tlm rivir Ainn^' 
io Champagii^ he jctn^ CJotnire ; oThem follon^ his emnLp^F^ and 
th« bonlo waa ti^m in fairt woo even before it woii fongbt. Bmne- 
b&nt £«d, but VTkA OTCitakea nfu* ^cuFchjitaL Thoy broirg;ht h«r 
captive iuto the pnueDce of Clotaire, the iii>a of Ftedf^vndu, her 
lilW-loDg eoern/, and her mines were i?riiimemtei. Tt>Ti kinga, 
tiiC}' uid, hod befpn tnurder^ throu^ii h^r in&Jitia. Clotuire over. 
vh^ltc^^i h(^^ with roproocbcB, For thrao daya he grivQ her up t#i 
flrerj kind of tortiire rand iiisult; itrtd then he caused her to b«' 
fasLtiDed lo the i4ul of a wild borse till ahu was dragg^ to desLth ani^ 
her body trampJed lo piec-^, 

fotuk«liaat vru tauntird wilt her crim^ and no doubt tliey w^r« 
pmt; bttt the real caute of the hatred of the nobUs aeems tri liave 
been b«r atTftDfJt to cirjhse ihem by iotrodttcinx^ the eyittem of 
tucation aad tht fbmu of juHticH which nbc had herwlT kiirut frum 
her own onrion, tht Viaigoihn, as they had acquired them from th«] 
Komans^ UercharacLer, in fhct, F-xhibittd that sin^uJar union of Ht^roe 
laauooa and Eiri>n^ impulstd for t£Ood whicb can only dt^lay it^lf 
IB itt full forue in a half-savagi? state of Hi^cif^ty. ^b fuiiiid<^ 
chnrchea and mona^^ierics, and moiiH«i?rieH were then HfhooljL She 
bmured the miaaiotiK esnt by the Pope tor (lie oonvercon of the 
Anglo-SaxoDB m Britjun. She wev r liberal p^tnizi of tho arts; hor 
r^paialHm aa & supporter and encoura^r of worka for tbo public 
good luiad for ci?iiiiirJes, Hfid fiven tho^ which wert r^nlly Wgua 
hy (h« ItAfnanB were at length attributed to her. Tb^ ri?mAinii f>f 
Eoman roada in I5«l^iiinif and in the north of FrHnpe^ are still culled 
'diamKCB de Branchaut.* 

Tlia thrm^kjiif^ouidfjf Neustrio, Aiiatraala^ and Burgundy , which 
Twe DOW iiuited iuio oitCf were pbict^d under thi^ government of a 
vi>y<rt of ibo pula^t.', dio^f^n hv rho nobles and clergy. ClnTArrK Tl. 
bd iheatle of ktng, but he bad no real |iow«r. Jlis Tfip\, like 
(±,1^oif hia predcccsflorf ended in bJoodahLid and rabeLIion, In 628 
kii aofl Dagob^rt lebclivd n^inht bitUi why J» not Icnovrn. G?rccpt 
dm Da^bert woa hrare und tlevi^r, nzid couLd uot submit t« bo 
■ecnnd iii the kingdom, 

H« ia the most famoUB of th* Merovingian kingi— the only one, 
■a Eact* afier Clovia who hu li-ft bcbind him diati^ct morke of 
pTBTiiiaetil- Pepm of Landcn, tlie grt-'itX Anrttraaian noble, waa Jie- 
ttiuted Irt" him. He sent hini /rom llit m>iirt and gaT* \m confidence 
10 ladouen, or St. Uucii, bishop of Jtouen, nnd Eli^ua, or At. Kloi, 


S6 I^EATa or PAOOVEhT — PEriS D'n^SIOTiJ,. 

SuAfUDTj of dovie. 

biahop of Noyon. The latter hiul Ipccd uriginally a goldsmitliT or 
filigree>workpr, and WRd e'ipeouiHy eidt'hrati^d for tliy nianuer in 
which he omarutivted the abbey of St. DtniB. The two minifit^d 
mdcA tht kia;;; in hij] ciTorta to d]Hf>onj>o ju^UcG. Djigobtirt'a &iq« 
Hpreo*]' ireracUus, Hiuperor of thi: Enist^ ai-pliuited hla dlhanise* 'Hju 
Lombjirde, in ihe north of lu\iy, applied to Wiin Ut senh their dfflB- 
reawja. The king o£ Brittanj did homage to him. Hw royaJ paJaee 
of CHoh^, near Paris, wna 6[|i?il with tho proBCnlfi of ailk^ j^ld, 
and precious aionca, brought To hiia by arahaaiadora from dialani 
OountrJea. But tbe tempiutluiL nE^ power and luxury woa too much 
for him. The Solomon of tJio Krunk'*, *ls he hjis bi?en railed, be 
gave himvlf up to B«lf-indulaoni?e; hifl eice^^ea exha^XBt9d hia 
rovoDUo. and, in ardor Co n.in9 uioucyi ho ioi^icsod i^xorbilaat tojtes 
nijd coofiacited the pniperty of hJH aoblea. Tho aatuml rcJtuIl fol- 
lowed, [q uii ex[jediLLon A^aiubt n Sclavonic tribe In the vzilley of 
the D^imib^ hi4 Au-anih^an iroopB nhnnJoned him, nnd hi? wiu totally 
deJc'ated. The AuBtrufiian nobkri reriiae^ to §ubinit to him loQ^r, 
and he wua obliged to rcoogitiso llii:ir Indepondcoco, tbough (^dj 
ftcctpted hi» fton Robert lu their king. 
^' Dagobert died in 938- With ilJI his vices he must be regarded as 
one of the moat remark&hle ptrsonq oi' his nge. 

Afinr the death of DagobQTt tho Mcrovjiigiaa kiogs may bo oidd 
to be only pUaatoiuH of loynJtj. Ths title by which they ittt com- 
monly kiiovrn, the 'roitt iaiiieanta/ or do-uothiug kiiLgj.. ttnllicittitly 
describes ibeir charficier and petition. Austrasm and Neiistria were 
divided, tut both kiagdoma alike were noDiinally ruled by tho 
imbecilu dc:acendanta of Dn^obert. It ib uaeleaQ Gven to give their 
names; the re^ poner reated in the major of tbe palace. This 
office originally involved only the aupetLni^ndBncfl nf die intemid 
^ffairR of tlie paluco, rmd u eertaiu amount of aurJiority [n cou- 
nequence ; but by degree") iho dignity and power eonnected with 
it increased. The miiyDr vi' tlio pnLuoc bi^cunie often the leader and 
advLBCr of the nobtea, and ut Itngtii he was apjXjinW by them UJid 
not by the king, and wa^ pcrtiihted to bold Lis uffice for life ; and 
iho later mayor* vhtg not hi mucb niayora *\t the paluoe as mayors 
of tho kingdom. Pepin Landen, who lofll the conbdunce of Dago- 
bert, failed indeed to obUin bia groat deeire cbiiC hL^ oflicc should bo 
hereditary, but bis duacendanta aiiried the poini, and Pepin d'll^ 
ijt, ristal, in 687, not only succeeded in e:^luhli>;hing hU own aaihority, 
•*' but tnmamitled it to \\U non. 

I'epia guined hifl power by a auccesflfiil battle fought agnina 
the NeuatriEXJi mayor uF the pal&ce, at Teatry, in the Vermajidoia, 
for through the nioc-JUid-forty ycara wbicb bad i-lap^ed riiuce 
llie d^aih of Dngolwrt Pfeiistria und Aiisira^^iA hod been perpenudJy 
at aajtdty. Hii viotgry mado him the inoater of Fiatice. jhj 


the helplvw king of r^euslria, wne iodajd allnweU to rclnin liid tilfe, 

ud u paluce KOH glvfn him for lii^ rcAid^uce ^ hut Pari^ wua uu 

loog*T the vent of governmeiii ; Ptpin iituiill/ reftiiJetl nt Culogne 

JB^X H^riatal on the Meusn. Once ji yenr onlj*, in the montJi cif 

^^■oh, acoordlDg lo an ancit^nt ouatom, th» iiomiDal kinf^ Thipriy 

^Hv]aiH penpit; at nn s,HBC'n3h|^ culJt^ thit MalJum. 0rcB«&d in hla 

mjtl robe^ hu loDg hair HoatiTig in tha vind, he wdb convfryed to 

di« place of nie^Ltug in n cut dmwa by oxen ; a ihrout^ ut gold whb 

prepAred for hini, and on thU tie took his wat and gnve iiu^i^nce la 

forugQ ambafltdidorflf received the oottipJimenta of bin nohl^jA^ and r^ 

Kt«d mechHnically the {qv wnrd^ which wfre put into hia moulb. 
J ceremony orei, he *»» te-conveyed in rtate to hia palace, aitu- 
lEvd belvreeu Compiigne and Nojon : and Pepin adminiaL^red tlie 
pru'eramem sc horm^ and uhroftd with justice and pnidente. His 
TvJgQ, tor ELich it miiBt be aUi«d, though be never toot the royal 
titie, wBfl one pf continued and Fmccflflrfui varlorci Ho miuic the 
pjwrT rf Lhe Fizmks fi^ll 1>j tbe GeTHQOfJ tribea. and cuinpeliej iLeni 
10 own bii Hujiri^iJiacy ; A\i<\ iIlJb tact, thoug}i at llit- present disiuiict- 
nf time It TTuiyiippear iininiporULnEi, wn^ in reAliry of the grente»il po^ 
sbie oOMtt^tieoco lo the future o£ Germany. When Iho Fnmke 
wot tictoriouj* ihey opened a way for the Inbou™ of Christian 
■DHonarioi. chiifliy of the Ajiiglo- I^Taxon rue?, by uhoui the conver- 
doa of tiw GennauFJ vtns in a gr«At measure accomplinhed. Winfrid^ 
or Sl Eonifftce, a ntttiv*^ of ihe kingdom of Wemex, wu mnong the 
aofX noU'd of tbeee m btuoni iri^- 
lA h WW iii llie year 714 that Pepin d'H^riBtal, fteling hia end 
^ tpproBchin^, pre[iaieJ to appoint a riucceshnr* who yias siill, however, 
DD lairry on the gorernment in the name of the Itinp. His efdestBon 
ho mode duke of Champagne, bis fi«c<Jtid hcDt Cinmoatd, was to bo 
mayiir of the p.-fc]fl<;e, Thore woe n third eon, ChnrlcHj biit he vat 
tUrgitimate, and between his mother and Plectrnde, [be inotber of 
(irimoaldH ihere exist+rci n dtradly t^umity. Pepin whu at T^i^e lying 
Wi hui deHth-bed, with Grimoald in nttpndanpfl iifion him, when 
iome mwrdtrer, enloritiff the cbamberT Bwized ihe unhappy prince 
Utd iCranplc*! hioi almort ii hi"* Ihther'* praience, Pepin, though 
nesrJy at bin last gnap, rouKiI hini^elf auffii:] cully to onJtr the in- 
Wtfil vxeclzDon of tlie aaNk'Cijn. Ilia eon Charle>tf wlmni hu thought 
tAbeao accomplice m the critne^ WBiment away a pri>^oneT to Cologne, 
ud tie young ton of Griraoald, a child of only fivo yoara of age, 
■w Appointed to eurceod lo the oifice of mayor of the puJace, 
Tbultit act of the wine and energelio Pepin il'Ili-ri^tal Wds a fbtul 
Dtuixke. Tbe people would not siibmit to he govprned hy a child ; Bnd 
f-'nllit Charles, ibe '«>Ji of Pepin (genernlly known an Char fes 11 artel), 
ttc ap e d &<jm hib prison at Colore, placed hirnscLf ut Ifae head ol'the 
Auinaiaa nobleo, and after a aliort atruggla with the NeuBtrbma 


S8 aiaiOElffft W SPATK — BATTLE OF TOUllfl. 

■w*o ncknowltdgCfl ru the nHprciin? lord in jict, lhtJiJ(j;h not, iii nnrne, of 
Aiistmfl[fl, Neufltria, and Hnrgunily- Sniithen Fnrnce remaioed a 
oepara^c kingdom i)nder ths dominion of Ende« of AquitBioe, 

The high position of Chitrlon had been gained bj ihg aid of hU 
floldierft; il was (iec«wary to reward ihfm. The property oT ibe 
hisliuprlca and aiiht'drala Imj at iJie mercy of (lie now nxayrfr of 
tli^paloee; Iip neizaJ mid rt'dimr!! luted ii amongiiC Kia fallowOTOa 
upon tlia iiHua^ lijudsl condilionfl of loiliLary wrvici:. Thin acL 
gave him the full eiipport of his armj-, and enabled him to meet 
piomptlv any dflnger which might nrise ; *ind it whh not ]oiig befai^ 
a pml thrwiloniug not only Fmncc, bui Enrcpp, cnTled forth hu 
highest en fTgieiu The eoHth of France, pspetiatly the territory of 
KudeB of Aquji4un€f vas invaiied by the ISaracfDa, They hod hvitai 
invited into Spain by tho trcjichery of a nohlcmfln who had a per- 
stnwii qiutrrel with Hrjdtnck, the lust oftJiu Goths; and having over- 
TTui and lukifn p(jw*e«^ir>n ufnimow Hie whoh^ofthepeninpuTa, tht»y h^d 
trDVQrBticl the paBsei of the Pyn^n^ei^ A.ndponred down vpoh th^^simTif 
A,i>. plains of Fmnco, Their first invn&iocLB hud bpun ri?po]|{?d In 731, 
but now the aoldicrB of Ahdcmbmnn, licutcnoiK-geiitrBl of cJie 
Spanish SanicenH, orce more made tiipir way through iht rnggtid 
gorge ftf Roncfsva11ft'< and f^ntered Gflfl(?ony. The Aquimnian army 
whiph confnmicd thero was routed in the neJghhnurJiood of BiirJflaH!^ 
find Eudps, In dttqinir, wnffht an intorvicw on th^ hnnkB of the Loir* 
with Charle* ftEiirteh hitherto his enemy, aiiJ implored him f?r ihe 
Buki: not ouly uf FruucG^ bal: of Chri^tiun Eui'iipu, to hsslsi in repet- 
libg the invj&^er 

ChnHea exacted of Elide? an acknowledgment that from ihonCts 
forth A(|uitaino e^iould he in auhjeot'ion to ihc king of the Franka. 
and theu ninrehtd agaiuat the enemy. The haitln whidi foUciwed 
in ;lie neighbourhood of Tourw ii imfl nf ihfl miiRt imporiiuit in 
hintory- As the drienl of ihe Pppalans at fha battle of MjirathoQ 
tiheek^ tho advance <>f aaamm despotism and luxury, ao tha defeat 
of the Samcen* at Tcmra cheeked the advjuice of Jlohomctin rnia- 
i.n, hiilief ami fieice bij^oiiy. On tha I7lh of October. 732, AUderali- 
'3S luflfL fiproid his immentte nnny in order of \mti\Q and bogan ihe 
allapk- Tlie Fmnk warrior*, on llieir powerl'ul German horw-'n, rotO- 
Jiitely withtitooj tho rush of tho Saracens, and tho lield mia 
i-oomnVred with the dead, wliBi fihouta of di.'^niay aroay from 
the ^^r.icen army. Emli^ of A'luJuiine wiia ns.'fliilinij thi?m rn their 
renr, and hi* wjldicrs wpfa T>illflijing their oamp. NumberB of tJis 
Safacen horaomeo abaniiom>d thi^ir nmka and hurried to the rcaf in 
the ho^i<! of saving tlieir rich hdoiK Chiirlc^ ordered u gencml 
adranc^ of hiA whole army, and the SancuTis fli'd in ciiixfusuin* 
When morning driwm^l, onlv thi' dwir'rted whit^ trills of ihi- ArabB 
oorered the pkun. This wai tbe fincil effort of the Saracens to oxtvad 


dteiT dominioDB beyond the Pyrenees Th«j vere aot, iodeedf actu- 
ally driven Erom the laada of which they had taken poHseaeion till 
vrenJ yea^ afterwaida, but their power was broken, and they 
gradoaJly retired aouthwardB. 

The tide of dnke of the Franks was still the only digni^ sb- 
imned by the rictoriona Charles ; but after the battle of Tom^ the 
nraAzne Hartel or Mart«*u (Haminer) was given him, it is eaid, in 
nmembrance of the blows which he had in£ljcted upon the Saraicen 

He had now made himself a world-wide name, and hie support 
vai flOtight abroad. Pope Gr^ory sent an envoy to him. demand- 
isg bis aid against the Lomborda, who had made themaelvefl masters 
^ rA northern Italy, and even threatened Eome itself The recom- 
poiiiQ proposed was the dignity of consol aad patrician of Rom«> 
When the envoyH made tbu request^ offering at the same time to ^e 
Fnnkish duke the keys of St. Peter's tomb, Charles was evidently 
(kaJed by the spleodiour of the prospect before bim. Rome was 
Oill ia many re^>ectv looked upon as the centre of the civilised world. 
The vay was, in fact, thua opened to the mayor of the palace £or 
reriTing once more the toBt title and dignity of Emperor of the 
^<at; bnt at the age of fi(^-two Charles waa already sd old man, 
worn with warfare and toil, and before he could attempt to put in 
u execution the dreaiii§ of ambition which seem to have floated before 
his mind he died at Kiersy-sur-Oise in the year 741. 



rEPa iJi Bvar (thk bhort), kJt. 7A2-7AB. 

CsiiLES Mabtzl divided hb poaBesHions, or, in other words, the 
Fiuk empire, between his sons. Carloman had Au^ctraeia, with 
ItkB territoriea beyond the Ehine, whilnt Pepin had Neuatria, Bur- 
gqsdy, and Provence, At the time of the difatb of tbe great duke 
10 Iderovingian ting was reigning, even nominally. When Thierty 
IT. died in 737, Charles Martel had not deemed it worth while to 
tfptymt a BOCCeflsoT ; but now Pepin and Carloman, thinking pro- 
£^y to sustain their own authority, called forth from the cloister 
Qiilderic, one of the weak royal racei and proclaimed him king of 

30 PEriN LE tlHEF — IHS rEftRITOKlES, 

tilt! Fmnltft, SooD after Carloman, bIio liaJ no ln*tc for gormi- 
Tn«ni« reTiriid to the Bcn^ilictLue moua.'^tBTy (}£ Monte Camico iii 

It ^nnlii B^m that Iho ambitioD of h<<irig a Mug ihea firat at^iiod 
D]>nn Pfpla, Atnbttsfindora irorc aont to Rome lo dctazknd of Tope 
ZacliJL^ia^ ivhet,li?r llje Menjviiigmu tlLixiue did not mote rightTuUy 
belong to liim, who burc thf r^ionAibility of ^vemnjeut, th&ii la 
princcH wlio wera ullerlj' inwi^ificnnt Th^ Pope without htHta- 
tion ftiiBwerpd in tbo nifirmftiivo- Pepin flwordingly euTumooed a 
'•-j^ meeting of biahopH and aoblca in tbc: month of Miircb T^^f and being 
anuEDted \Tith vil by Jje band^ ot ^t. Bciciifnco, vbiTise dTortA for 
iht rMbmiatJOTi of th<' church be had wamifj Birppnrt^'d . wts pro- 
claimtMl Idn^ of tb« Fraak«, wbilsL Childeric wan frx-mullj d^pnsed 
And inimnrod in a oonTcnt *t St. Omor, wbero throe joare atUrr- 
woHa he dicdi So ended the Rest line of the ^rcroviitgiozi Icings. 

Tlie new tjyaasty which nuccc^ded, taking its name from that 
of its renou^&d founder Chnrles Marleb Is known aathe CartDvin^an, 
or more eorrcctLy Corolln^nti. Bcfom tii} prof^sd to the details of 
the reigDH of IboM monarchfl it may be <lccirabJe to obtain a de&r 
view of the extent of the tpiritoriira of ^'htch tbey Triiok poafieaBion, 
Conl'iiflioi] upon ihia [«]ut cauft^ pciplexity in ue ailer hiEtoryof 
Pmnpe. The «eitffinienT& cf ibe Franks begnn in tha north fyti tb« 
left bnnk ol" rho Kliin^', and only «prMwI Knithvp'arda hy dcer«CA. 
Tiie tilaini of the modtm Frencli to the Itlienioh provinci^ haft* 
thcrefare, to tas, a foundation o( a verj early dute. Gut it aiLt«t 
at the aamu tlirm be iLLkuowledged that the Frank i-jnfiin^ and thn 
French kingyloin cnn in no wnj b« eonfiidered identical. In th« 
Frank empire there were two fr«at diviaionii: Auatr(i*iii and Neuelria; 
and though they were from Time to lime united under on<3 king, or 
one mayor of Uie poUcc, yd in thpTihstlv*'* ^my weri^ dislmct in iJia 
Vpirit of the gTJVeniment ba well as in the hitbilA and lone of ihft 
|w^nl0, AnsLraaia beirig in many reapocta Gernum, and fveuftrift 

The Frank empire may be said to have had for ita bounduHea 
the NoTtTi SeAi the xnxati, tlie Pjreiu^esi, Elie ^[edite^^Ulearl, l^s 
trpptT DaTia1>e, and The Khine ; fur ihe rariniiii mcett which ihfiabited 
thii vasi territory retcigniwd the authority of the MGrovmgian kinga, 
though eome were direelij auhjact V> ili^ta, whiirt other* wera oiily 

Th« llonians had xeguUrly portiontd out their con^fu*rod terri- 
lOTiea itita proriueea, but tbrer* dirihiona wero now only r^N^icniiml 
by th© church. The ehief city uf i-X4'ry provini'e hnd piven riMrie 
tonn archbiflh<»p, TheloMor i:ilu'«<'f ih^-sc pr<»vinfea.with certain di^ 
tncta nlTiLched lothetnt fonoed dioco«e« ruled by blah opft. TheATcooJ^ 
OkMli^^l iLivisianareriuuiied aluKHt unatlercd to Uie fouitesnih ctutufji 

civit xinacoNs — vzfis"$ character. 81 

bu: ll)e ciril or lerritorinl diTisions *vre compleiely chaagfid by tha 
wulementfi of die bfirbnriHii tribfi^ who lor the mcEt part guve tlivir 
nuBM to the lands which ihfT copqaered. Tho couotriea dir«itly 
nihjcfrt to the MaroTujgian tlnga Trere governed by mililary offloem 
known o« dukes or countB^ ihe limita o£ these duckies <>r touatJia 
Tvyipg Btconling Xo the pJeaflUre of tht; king. But iu tw[> dlftinctii 
of Gaul the indBhitaniB wtre eoflhled fnr WTeml cpntnri^H to 
nuuntHEK tht'ir in depend ^ncBr One known iis Seplinuuiiji lay be- 
tween the KhoQe, l)io Mwlilorrftncan Sea, and tijc Pyrenees. The 
othej, VMConie or Gaflcooy, totJie fioiilh-west, Vr-aa die LinJ of iIib 
VwDOOs, a people deweDilcd from the Ib«riuzij^ llie orEgiEifil inha- 
bitant of Spnin^ 

PepiD to Bi«f, or the Short, reccivod his namo from hia aiuftll 
cloture, fcul he la aaid lo h&vc been gifted -wilb wonderful coiirago 
uid prodicifHirt 'tT'^gth. Mtjralinliutnije lie TKJBftenwd not only iVora 
bb own character, hut fi-om thg tTaditions of hid forefftthera For 
ULe*pHC« of 150 years bin fumily hnrl held the hiBhent posTtion* in 
ehoTcb and aUle, find lbs f^ct thai they hnd not long berore s^iied 
the aupTi^mc f<ivr^r can ooly be acconn^td for by the rmporstitioua 
mjvtFi^ whjcli i^urrDUndol the Kcluded Merovjngmn prhict?r<« aud 
which prot»bly led ibe ipncrrant ]»enplo to rrgnrd [b*im writh n fi^eling 
of awe, M beings of a diderent numro from tbemBclvea. even sh in 
moy eountrica A apeciat Bai:rodnec£ i-i con^dored to attach to ttio 
pei*oiiB of idlotn. But PepiQ^a atrengtb of cbAract^r miglit hare 
lailed U} secure Lis dominion ovt^ hia n>ii^li noblea if he hod not 
h«sn able tn show them that^ notwilhsT^inding bis delicjeni^y in siie, 
he wae folly thtir eqoal in mnscnlar powera. A atory mhicb, if 
rather legendary, ie doubtieea a true illustration of Popin'e obaracter 
kfid coaduct, abowA the meana by which he proved tho phyncul 
Eiipenoril^T ^ highly prized itud ut ihti time ito absolutely Lm- 

The tfombftta of anige animaTa were among the chief amuae- 
[Qcntfl of tho Frank kingj^. Pcpia ^a« present on one occasion when 
A Ijtui attacked j^ bull ; tlie bull fell- Pepin pointed to tbc fcroeloua 
oomhaiAnia, and eiclaimed to bin noblei ^ Which of yoii will dure 
to aeparate ihem? * No one replied. The king threw himaelf into 
llie crciui and overponerod both the anjmalfl, and au he toaseJ nway 
bii bloody swotd asked proudly of the fiswaibled wai-riorB^ *Am I 
vjxlhy to be your kins ? ' CcirUiiuly he waa woflby, even if coumge 
uA Mrength were [he only reijUinimenis lor % sovereign ; hut be woa 
tlworthy from bU moderation and prudence^ It was by hitn 
IIbC the kingly power over the turbulent nohlea was ftrmly oatn- 
bEJied, And U WEia hia character which caused it to he univurfulLy 

32 STTPPOBT or THE CaUHOU — TAH with the LOMB^IlDfl. 

Pejw ie Brrf. 

The moBt noteworthy fact connecred with the Carloviogiflji 
dyuftijiy i« lliflt its Etrsngrh wiu d<?rived from Genmm inJlucuoo, 
Pepin was np AustraBinn — a Teuton — jind tlio Tculoa chanioter ia 
xunrlced hj^ a^uns of tlis beat features ot' man'jt Tmtnre. Braveryi 
rehpei^L for iiullmriij* ituti rt'TiireiJce for religion are aumiig the ohief 
cbarnctfrifitira of the earlier CflrloviDgiaa tings, and nifly be tr«c«i 
evtn in (heir Teie wnrihy desceodanta, 

Popin owed hia throne in a great TneflHure to the chuTch ; during 
bin whole rtlgo he ehowcd tlij^t hn coaaidered tho fliippcq-t of th« 
cbiirt'h ihi! griitttt^L of Lia regiJ duiiea. Tlie Inbours of tbp- niis- 
wOflHrit-** ID t-ri'minny were eapecfally aH^LnlPfl hy him. He wns the 
friend of St. BuoifiLce, and when be imderUJok M'arJike exjitditiona 
into Gt^rmony it waa witb the ospreafi object of bringing tlie bar- 
burianji into Hubjecdoa to tJie Pvpe, Fur tlmt yi^M die unv Ldi'a of 
rtdi^ioiu obedience in diose days; nod tbo public hois of P^fiin ciui 
only be fuirly judged when it i* remembered that they were iin- 
doublodiy based upon what be dt'crned a due recognition of the first 
biabop of Cliritttondoni, imd of the gratJbudo which be liimpclf 
personally owed blnj. 

Profeeiion agaiiiPt the Lombardu wjw then the grwtt n^ed of the 
Popo, Tlje ^f-^rce f^eopJe who had wltled in tbe uoit.b of Italy were 
a source of oonatant ArcoA to iCome and iU inhnbiiantf^^ and when 
Zncbacias by hia powerful Hupport Beated Pepin on the Frank ihrone. 
Le rei]LLei4UHi of bim to beuoiui; the cbanipioD of the Uoly See* Hod 
free ber from ber pnfiniiefl. 

Two yeore aHerwarda Pope Stephen, tbo Buoceasor of Zachonai, 
was Kirn&elf in Fmnoe, dtuming tbo fulfibnent of the et]^;a;^<Tnent. 
Aslolf, king of tbe LLiuibarda, waa ibuudBring at (he gaita of itoniBp 
There wi* no hope for IiUy mve in tlie valour of the Frank 
king. Pppin was prepared to r&ieem hia wori The yeiir was 
drawing to iXa close. Let the next year optiLf and bo would cross 
tlie AlpA with hifl army and rtacue Itome trom its eneniiea^ lie 
B^ced but ou4^ fa-Tonr in return. Would llje Po|>e r^iiew wiih his 
own hAuds iJte coronatioD whiob Pepin bad alr^dy recf^ivtrd 7 Tc 
waa fl re<jueBE aoou granted, not so sooc f^rgotleiu Tlie eereraony 
took i^nlute at the abbey of St, Deriia, and (be Hoi*, aa he t'ouseeniti'd 
Pepin kipg of the Fmnka, p-nnlt'd IJm also the authority and titEo 
of (jiitrieiau of Itijine- Wlukt «ijh the power iiuplied by ibis title 
neither Popin nor the Pope folly uoderatood. N"eilhorGOiilfl lhi?y bn¥C 
known all the importanec of the aet of eoosecration. Their nctLona 
and words bnd ri;iereiico only to their own reepectiTO poaitiona at die 
moLntnt. The tong courae of conti'fits and mideriea which were to 
fdllow from ill-di^fmed privilegea derived from an ill-defined aul 
rily were hidden from human foreftifrht. 

Tba following year Papin, with bis fierce troops, scolud 


Alp« bj the Mcmt CcniB, Bod pour^ down iipoa Lombardj. Tbc 

Loaibftr4s vcrc defeated, and in thdr LiiuiliiitJoD imdertLick ue?vr 

i^gfttn to make war u^mli tbe Popt h but no booEicr had fJie Franki 

~ the TnouDTainn than the (xcn^e juyipl^ ogiiin laid woBte Use 

Op to th« gikt«a of UniDQ. Ones more, id 7^5, Popln IjalCDcd 

appeal of the Pope and cTO^eed the AJpa. This tiiu« tlje 

Ivtblcv Lombardii wore rnlirelj- Bubdued, aiid tiie whole of iheir 

lerrilory riinainpi] at tlm disposal itf EVp/a. 

Tbt-rt^ WHS indeed one portion, ilip EiftrchBto of RRvennaT claimed 
bjtha Gre(^ emperor, but Pepin ruj«ctod tho dcmnad. One of hia 
tUBjaten was sent to rccuT^c tto kcje of ihe firJQcipal towns of the 
diBtriutf and waa tbea deepAlclied to Rome lo lay them on llie ahfir 
d the chnrcii uf St. Pewr Aiid St, Puul^ thus aignifjing that lie 
mrrendered his conc^neaE to tl^fr huhop of Roma. The Doofitron of 
?qKii, &e tt U called^ woa a reiigiouB net iri conformity with tho spirit 
af tbe ^meo, but it wels &1bo the bepnning of the temponiE power 
of the Popes. Up to this period iht^y bad betu biblicpe, cldinitig 
Qolj ^iritual anihoritj. From hiviiceforih ihay were princes ready 
to mmuTt theif power, li nc«dfnl, by arraiH. Whether pHpin uctualiy 
gtreuptolho Pope llic ooLual gDvemmoDt of tho con^juerod pro- 
rmcciit or whether he only allowed him the enjoy nj^nt of the reTcnuea 
to b« denT^d frorj* tliem, is uncfiriain, huL in eithor tane the Jioon 
■■■rut. The Pop^n w«tp madi> independent nf t}iE> Empr?rijr3 of 
th« East, Bfid the city of Kortio wbk A^cnivd to ihem &h their capLtal, 
■iultf the rei'erence and aubmitfiion of Pepin gave an ni>pBrenl 
filidily to th^; e!aiiUT whi^h they afterwitrdA niL^rennd more btrongly 
tmrtt<],of iv^ctinir np or iltpotin^ boverei^n ti.t [heir will. 

The renjflindor of Pepin'n reig^n was chiefly occupfed in wars in 

Septimaniii and A^uitainti. The ^raccins had kept poueeaion oi' many 

Dfthv diief citi^jaiT) Septimuita even alW their defcatatToura; hut 

ui^Hi Narbann?* the capjtotp wa» tahcD by Pepiu in 759, they were 

finiJIr dnven back aerxpsfl thp Pyreneefl- 

Th« reduction of AquiUine was moro drf^cult. Though CTiarlefi 
Uutel bad Afeiftod EudaSf duke of Aquitainep in bii content with 
tlic ^vacen^ ilierc waa no real nympatliy betwe>eu the people whom 
they T^puutivtly goverited. Thi- lusurionH Ai|uitauiaQ^ looked 
□pan the rough Franks oa 9a.yagvv^, and timiiferf or Witiftr, tbe 
ffimdflon of EudiA, hod a special enmity against Pepin, whom ho 
ftgarded an the opprcsnor of hiH raco. For eight yoan he kept up 
»wmtr»< with the Frank king, and at length boin^ deserted by hia 
army, he mired wiih a lew faithful foibwem to ihe hills Kjutli of 
ihi river Dordogne, and there, hnnted like a wild aniniaJ fn^m 
vrtrt Vt eovert, he mftde a show of reaislance until he was betrayed 
ifiJo ui aicbiuh laid lor him by hia own people and murdorod. 





ITe was the last oC his line, aad AquIUiino theQceforth Yiccazne 
^ an inU'.^nJ pirilun of die gvtaii etupLrtr of ihe Franbs. But far 
cecituritfs the lahnfaimtiM raCjilrLcd their cliitin^iifihing {■hwLCtenfltics, 
and cherJAhAd their ancient antipiLlliy to the Franlca, Thay haul benu 
civiJiflwl t>j the Gomnn^fUnd tbe ruJirkj^ of thia civiliutLon oculd not 
1)0 ellkced by tlitlr rude cDiiqiicrora. 

Pepan la Href wbh returning from ihp conqnpst of AquiOtme. 
when lie WEMi H.t(aGk''d bj ■. dnngaroua fever. Hiq Att^ndanU vith 
difScTuIty cAmed iiim to ^t. Dtmia, ind therG be recovered atilfieieiitJir 
to asecmbU the chief conuacUora, ftnd in tkdr pTceence, nocjirdin^ to 
the tmdibiofuuy asig^ of thi^ FrautLs, tu divide Lie kizi^oju tietWf?«a 
hiA ^vn aaHBj CUjirleH and (^rtunian. 

He died OD Sepl^fuber 24, 768, leaving b. name, not perhi^ii in 
its miJiioty ilcry bo da^xUitg oh hi« fjithtr u, but which must ALlway* 
be hanotu-od as that of a prince who raised tbe chfLntcter uf hii 
people aad atablipbci tbe French moiurohj od a litoi baoiL 



*.D. 79H-aU. 

The dlTidon of lits kingdom mude by P^in Je Bref was not d^otoed 
to but long. CharLi?H— better known by hin name of Charlemagne — 
was the HQverei^ of AuatraiiA And tiie ^Uit^s boyond the Khine, 
whilat Carkimiw was tbe lord of Alf-nee, Burj^undy, and ProTaode; 
Neustriaand AquitainB wi^rc divided equally betwoen the tvro princm. 
But j)i 773, iiijf^e yewB ufW Pepin's death, CnrloiQan died oom** 
what Ruddenty ; and wh« h&d cjuairelied with his brolljer AhortJy 
before, hin vidow teared }fM Rhennd h» infant faa» might h% trottad 
with vioLvncCf and therofi>re tied to (ho court of Didier, lite kJQg of 
Locabardyi IvaTiiig Charlemagne to take pDneaBinn of Gitlomiaa** 
inbojitonce. witli the full coiiaont and elH^ticn of the noLtoa wid 
prakui. EnoflD^aide, the datigbier of DidJer, wiu thi- wtfi* of 
ChariODagDe, but be had repudiated her, and cent bor luck to htf 
fatboTf only one year bA^v tlm niarria^c ;— whyi wnn aercr known. 
It woald t*M-m to have bw^n od act of mere caprice. Now w»* 1^ 
moment for Didier to revenge hii daughter'a hoaour. He UKtk up 
the cauw of the two inlant acDB of GarlomsD, appeals) to tlie Porw^ 
Adrian I., for auppOft, aod ifben Adrian n>fiit«d \o upvv it^ invadad 
lli4 pqal terrilory, and eren benitwed Uotae. ^bt Tope aoit 


dMMO^Fra in urgent haste to ^trmt tho aratAtance of Chnrlemagiie, 
wTio wirhoat delay crowed the A!p9. Didit>r fled to Pavin. lila' 
BOQ. wiili ibe willow aod chiMren of CarJumaij^ abut ihEimaelvefl up 
m \^firoDa- Botb dti^n K«r9 b^^g^d ; Ami whilttt Pavw wds in- 
Ti?«ted by tbe Fmnk trogptt^ Chnrlemogne took th« opjiortaiiitj to 
viflil Rome- The Popo received him with <Iii!t[ii^fihed boa^tir m 
the portico cf tlie great thureh of fit- Peter, jtt the Fnmk king 
bimself weat iLrough tver) uuLMvarJ aci at hutriillry, and when he 
Tiiitoij ihfl Pnp«?'R [inbce kii^fifc] ^ch Htcji of ih? entrance bv which 
h« BEccnd^d to it. 

Cbari^magTic no doubt deeired to ehow hia rsrerenoe fcT the 
Supreme PouliiT^ bat it wouJd sevta t}iat h« dw n^ished to rvTaio him 
na hb Tictrrjy hi govi-rning liis newly acijiiitfd llftlifiu domJiiiiiiiii. 
He confirmed, ftnd aome aiy he fven enlflrajed, the gnmt wbiuh Lis 
&lh«r, Pi?pin- bnd made to the Poftc, but Charlomagnt'a viiU wi^ iq 
be Buprem*?. Adrian waa to be in rt-alitj the VttAflfll of the Frank 
ting, iJtough oomiDally hin ffplKtiuil lni6. 

After a few monlbj* Pavia und Veronu were compplled in Hur- 
icndcTf and Didier witli hin wife nnd ilai^ghler and the widowed 
queen and Lcr B<jn8 foil into the handH of Chariemflgne. Tlie fale of 
tltQ youAg princ'^'^ and their mother ie nncertain. Probably tho 
forinrr trore compiJleii to take luonnstic ¥ott& Didier ym kvpt u a 

Lombardy now formed port of tlie dominions of Chnrletnagne; 
ud crowtiinp: himwlf with th« iron crown of l^ly* be cnliUed 
kJEuaeLT king of the Frrtaka and of the Lombards. 

It wa*i the beginning of a clnhn traoNniitttd in one fimn or 
uunhcr m nur own day^ and which only cenned whi?n, af^r the 
bftttka of Magftntfl. and Solferino, fought belwten Italy and France 
M the QDe hand, imd Austria on the othei-, Lomimrdy y/ta dQclored 
Lo bo pfirt of tbe ktagdom of ItJily, nod the Tcolono or Germano 
weTH obliged fiDally to reUnqiii»h thrir righta. 

But the war in Italy was not the chief ersnt of ChEriemagne'a 
nrign. The couqu^t by whfch he n-nriered hi« rmme famoun above 
dttcra WOB Uutt id the Saxona^thun a connidr.tnblD ^xropioT dividtid 
ilLlO a number of small repuhlica, and inhabiting the gTeater portof 
nooheiD Germoay fjoni Bohemia to the BiiJtii; See and the Northern 
Oe«n. whiiat tbey hud iJm formed a fPttlcm^nt \a Britain. 

Both Franks and SAiToria were of th* same Rtonb, but the Franks 
had erabraoed ChnBtianity and been oiviheed by their intereouriQ 

Lwilh ibc RomaniM^ Gaula, whil^ the Saxona had retained tbair 
idolalrviu religion and t]|t:ir biubaroij« hibbit& Scattered over 
vide plains, or Becluding themBelvis in the deptba of their Lhick 
fiirata, in which it ia aaid that the squirrel could pua for n&veral 
miJet book tree to tree without baving occaaion to touch the ground, 




the Sojcoaa relnined their wild indejienrj^nce ; nnd terriloriftl diviatoiiB 
fcnd iftrict g&venmiEnt vug abhorrent to thorn. Miwionnrics vrcrtj 
HDt jimoiigBt (Item, but it ivoiild (Kcm that these teachers were vvjkut' 
ing lu \vorIJIy wImIdiu. In one uf iliu graHL natiojiu] ^"^pmblies i>f 
tliG Snions a ChrwriaJi ptieat, finding thp peoplt fitwitlla-'t in their 
idolatry, Ihreaienfld them with the po^irer cf Clinrlejuiiyii?)- J le Jiad 
n<f Afioncr uttirod tlie words ilmn ho wn^ murdered, and the buTtonfl 
n^arcLmg lu the cliuidi wliiiih the Friuibn had bLtilt in tbti uelgti- 
bourliooii, burnt it to the ground. The tidings tirought to Charle- 
magne roused his indignntion, and gave an excuse tor tlie undertnk- 
ing vbioh bad in ail probj^bilify hven nlr^sdv conLemplattd. 
J;^- he];nn in 772, ond before tho deroo Saiona vrera Jiimily aubdiicd tJi 
W(?re flo leaa thuu tldrty-tliree yeato of warfare. 

The chieE^ Huncluarjr uf tlje Sjixuus vas on a SfMit rt^dered dtsr 
them, there ia every reaaon to believe, by the celebrated victory th 
lijad Ihcra ^uixicd over the RotDan anuy imder Varud in tho rtij^n of 
Augustus Cfcanr. Here tltoy pluucd [h<:ir Datdoiui] idol IrioeLntil, & 
tyuAnjiiail iiua^e of ibe couiLtry. 

Tl^e FmikkM nj>tlitd h^hiu arjd destroyed it, h,nd war on nil sldtt 
wiiB the natur&l r^uLt, An it w^nt on Wilikind, a redoubtable 
Saxon chief, becomv tho bero o1' hia pioplc. No deiVat could quell 
him. Fctr thu piomcnt he retreated into the forest* of Scimdinavia, 
but nfter a ftw mouths he leuppeored again at tliB haid of fru^i 
Tna^c^eA ofhiH countrymen, 

IL wo* in 779, at Rotholl, on the Lippe, that the moat fearful 
rtloughttr look plate. 

Charloniagiic yrtM vicborioii.% and when the battle vaa ended he 
imveriied theeiitiro LerriLory, and cauHcd Lliou^jmdHof the inhahitaiiti 
to be bnptis&d. The ainceriTy of such coTtverts mny well be dfmbted. 
For a liiue, indeed, the eonijiiared Saions *aibniitrtKi to tho ridea 
thtiir nevr religion, but when tiUvt three yenra the hig^h-aplri 
"Wilikind rtappeared, ihcjicaveiip their faith, murdered tJieir priesl^ 
and cut Lo piece« a bi^dy ot Fnmk troops ftiatioci'd utnung^t tLein. 

Charh-niapni? hi*Biened to the Fuppnri of hi^ ;irniy, but cveti 
before he could Jti-rivQ the Sfjcoas had been defeate<L Witikiud 
fled to Dcamnrk. Thi? Uiag of the Franks, imuble to levcnpe 
hloiatilE on (he Leoder of th« iDnurrection, ordered a maasacrc o>f 
hetw«on (bur ^d five thousuid of the hclplua^ ^axojia. k was a 
barbarous net and ptoditcfd grievotu e(m»<er]tLenceB. The Saxuni 
were driven to deaperaljr^n, and lor three yoara the cminiTy vru & 
accme «f most t.'rrible Uood^hed ; until at length Chjirfemagne 
*aa iuducod to make pnfpoada of peflce lo Witikind. praujitiog him 
even rewards and hoLioui's if he would lay down liht arms ^md em- 
brace Chnwiflnity. Wi^ kind consented, and whh bapiiHcd^cAtiign 
Eur-Aione, in th^ preseiico i>£ Charlemagne aiid hu whole oo 



WAfi IN SFAa — RONCC^rALL£5 — llOUkMl. ^7 

Hi8 exaoiple was fbliowtd by mnnj nf bis sotdtCTo, and the Saxona 
w«t« for n tJm^ trunijijiltiaed. 

TLe neit war waa in the south. Spain waa at thai ^me in the 
huidA or* the Sankceoa, nith the cxcoptioa oi' the BmaU jilaCe which 
Lhi^ Gulhic Chria^iHita hiul li«eii able to iJiitialnlii in iEJi]e|ipndfn«' in 
the mouiiULins nf the A*<[nrms- But Thi- Sarftcens wpre divid^'rl 
ajnnnfsl theais,eTv« ; thp pvornor af SHmgfwsa wa* at etnfe wilh 
the emir (if Cotiki^n^ and m-i^ilmg uid, sou^bt \i from Cburiemagnf^, 
promipJng m return to become trihiititj 1-^ hirn. 

Cbnrlccoiigni! yitts te otiAjmis to cubdue tlit! Maljomelaiifi cf t^e 
■DBl^ u the pflgnnn of tha ntTtb, ^\en if hi! f-ould nnlj do «o by 
:ing Ihflio tn dectroj one another. Hia naunl v^ood fortune, 
iirer, forewk him. LittEe is known of the dptaile of hin erpc- 
bui it would ?eein that tbe i^vemar of SHmj^ona pruned 
&nd tliut th« SaTAr,¥Z]fi roiie against fhe Firan^-^ whij hxd 
to help bitn. Charlemagne wa* i"onii*lled \o nepOLiale anil 
agr*« to Joive rh<? country oo wnditioQ of rectivinj a largo emu of 
D«tie/. He U>ok Iho rout^ tbro^igh Nararre, J'h« pafc>«9 of tha 
PmncjM wcTQ fttrtmglj occupied by the Buwiuea, t)^ mtJBt ancient 
iiuabJiniita oE ibe county. Thu luuuntuinecra lea@ut*d wltb Bamti 
of tbfl IrtfuheTciLH i^tracen goTf^mors on the <S|ianlsb bordcra, and 
intercepled the retrealiog army in a narrow defile. Thu main body 
oE the Pmnka j'ru^d MJcJy^ butas the [-{^ar^nard vronnd nJowly round 
the Aide of the great moucjtain ^vlucli ovcrljaags tl^c pan of licincea- 
lalleSf an aviJuiche of rocks, upruuted trees* and miAailH^'^of all kind" 
wna tiirGiTn down upon them fpim the woods and dilTe abovt. A 
pinic «sBned. The BaHqiiea ni^ied fcrth Irom behind (he rot^ka, 
Bod tt* cnlbrtonHtfl Franks v«e cut off to & ainglfl man. AinoOf2;?t 
ihcME vho perished vas the celebrated Jlolaad, the nep]ii;w o\' Chtule- 
DU^Q aud preJeot of ilie Marubetf or frotilier of Drittaiiy^ His 
&inE hA4 b^en irr^^erred in the l^g^nda of the oountry. Tbe ira- 
nmvtt brcBoh in ibo mounlaiiu oppout^ Fan, known amho * Br6ehfl 
6t Boland,^ and froin ^^^hich a clear eye can gue ut will either upon 
tlic COfren o£ ToulcrOBe or of' Sara;;osaa, is d^lared to be the vork 
of a flroke of hia swcrnl, Dui-jndid. The JkmouA Lfjm of ivory 
with wliich \t6 summoned Charltifiagne lo hiA aid — blowing ho liia- 
Cily am to awaken the e<:boea of tbe far distant Fuenturabia — ip said 
tobaTi^baen buried wiLh him, together with the £vord, in tbe church 
of 3c. Rcinaia, at Bfaye, though the body wm aflerward* renioved 
lo BanLoanE. Tbe GenoiuH, however, appear lo have bv«n ujivril- 
fisg to leave the memory of ih^ir hem ui a j'or'^JgTi land, nnd iha 
Inveller oQ tbe Rhine, who looka up to the rock of Kolandseck, 
tbinke of him aa reluming ruLfely to his country, afrer havLnj^ been 
giren up (ur dead, and^ — Ending bJJi betrothed bride an intnato of the 
curcv^ur ufNonnen&tfeith — building f^r IjlmielfatQweruu the hi'ight, 


from wliich he migLt look dova vipon the homQ ui wbich oho dwd^j 

Cbarleiragne never returns! to Spain hft^r ihfl defeflt of Ron- 
cp^'allefl. The kingdom of Aqiiimirtn wna nomitially ^iveii to hifl 
infout uon LouJa, and oiio of Iho bnivorst and wiacBl ^f hia DobleSf 
eottat Wiltiain 'au cctirt nez^* duke of TonlbU:iCi was tmide ita 
gorernw. M-iLiy ntre iha lesser conflit:ls which Gharleiuagiit vua 
eoinpellfid to ewny on wiih the inilppendent ruc^ who bordered hiB 
eoipire. The BnuarihDs. nndtr tliejr duke Tassilo, were overthrown 
"-0- in. 7S^, and Bavarin at oTw^o l^eoauae purt of iha Fmnk empire, Th«J 
Avnrs, tlie dt&c«ndaiLLs of tlie PIuha, w^e coii<]U«r^ n few y^axs 
&]lerw;irdB, aad the Atot chiel' and his princijiol Ibllowera v/vse 
bftptined Ht AiK-b-ChnpHle, whi^rp Chflrlpma^nt! held his Court. 
Chari«nia^e'B domiaions iQilor'd, when he hod coiapUtod bis vod- 
qxient^, cotnpreh«aded ul luiat hjilf oi'Eiu-op^, KvcathiTcmoteretatoa 
wbii^h cJaiiu<hd to be independent i«Lr(?d hip authoritj and prizod hw 
frieudship. The 3hx(jiiei of BritoJDT the Gretas of CwisUmlmople, 
the caliphs of Bagdaii, idiko OB'Tie<I hiB powfr. li is no manel. ihen, 
that the ide^ aC a hig;ber lille ^lonld have preatibttKi itnelf trj hiH 
miad. He had the power of the EmpeTorii of the Wert; why tnight 
hp not have ibeir naaie? It needed but lbs support of i^he Pope lo 
^^ Diukt nui^h a ctde vaUd in the *:ye& o£ uLl Clinatendom, and Leo JIl., 
^^H «ho wan chen ni The head of th& cburdi, was na le»i deeply in- 
^^F debted to Chajlenin^ne tbun lua predeeeefor hud beau to i'opia whoQ 
I ]ic conHO[!ra(ed him king of the Franka. 

I i.D. In Niivemherof tho year 80Q ChArlemn^e proceeded to Kom«.' 
I ■** On Cbrislniaa dnj hp atleaded Lb« aTvirii aL fit. PtU-r^s. As be 
L knelt before tho high ahar, o-ppikrenlly fthaarbad in pmyer. Leo 

pkood upon hifi heaJ the imporial cmwn und sajuted him by the 
title of Auguptue. At tlic »iiue moment tht^ cathedral rang vritii 
tht jLtitlaniation* of the multitude ; ' Long Hie and victory to Charlw 
Au^n^tuK, orowjied by God — the great, piona, and pacific empertir ot 
the Roman* I 

Kgiahard, tba fecroUit^ oE Charlemagne, Btate^ thai ChArlemngna 
was unprepared for rhla avt of the Pi>pe^ but it is ditiicult to biiliavo 
the BtAtemenT,. CeitaLnly Charleajugne accepted the tillc eoTiferred 
uh him, and inordtr ic render it more t^ecure negotiated lor umarri^ige 

twitli rhe Grfiet empri>aa Irene, who, hairing ciurmI her Rim to bd 
M^usiDated, was thon roigning at CoDatanrinoplo. The marrtnge 
never tcok place, for It^jis waa deposed and died in cTcile ; but tho 
Eikct thttt it was f To|iaaed bJiowti l^ow^ far the auibitioa of C}iarleiuagao 
Dvercaaie all j>«rHonri] foeling.^ 


T?po litlo i>f piuperor, diTived from i-atprrntor. imttmag » Komna gniBnil- 
ia-chiar, did ii'^t, in iia flm vac. impCj the aovriuigutj af raricua ttirritunvB, 

Fourteen ye«n of compor&tire tnnqmllity followed Charl^ 
magne's Baamnptlcoi of tLa titte of Emperor 6l the WmL They 
vere year* of great importsnco lo tbe TarlooA racea ovi-r whom he 
ruled; for the one objecl of hU life was to provide for tlie well- 
b^g of his people. He was an abeoluCA monaroh^ and all l&wa were 
proposed by him ■ but they were diBcuased in the great council of 
the nation, held twice in the year, and promalgatad in the joint namee 
<A the BOTerdgn and the people under the name of Capitul&riet. 
Sixty-five of theae Capitulariea remain to na, Tbey are not so much 
a code of Ibwb as a masa of records upon aubjecta of &U kind*— 
pohtical, ecclesiastical, morale and even domestic- The power of 
carrying out the l&ws waa given to the counts and their deputiea, 
who diapeoBed justice in the several districts { but Charlemagnekept 
watch over all himaelf by meana of an order of superior judgea, 
called Tixiagi dominie, or royal envoys, whose duty it was to travel 
through the country four times every year and report to the em* 
petor whatever waa amiae. In eocl^ei^itical and religious matten 
also Charlemagne would ^n have been the supreme lonL The 
great controveray in the church at that period r^wded image-wor- 
ufaip. The Eastern Church, influcQced probably by the feeling of 
ihe Mahometans against images, forbade the introduction of them 
inU) religioufl aervic«a, and the Greek emperor Leo is known aa the 
Ikoooklsat, or breaker of images. The Pope is said to have been of 
the same mind, but Charlemagne differed from bim. Some &moua 
books, called the CaroJine books, were written, If not by the emperor 
yet in his name, uphoidiog the use of images ; and tbencetbrth they 
were allowed in Homan Catholic churcbee. So also the Greeks 
refiised to admit the worda * and the Son ^ into the Nicene Creeds 
They were not in the original Creed, and they were objected to aa 
addidona. The Pope might have been induced to agree with the 
Eaatem Chorch, but Charlemagne took the other nde. The Pope 
gave way, and the worda were insert^ in the Creed, and have ever 
since been a great cause of division between the different bran^^ee 
of the Catholic Church. 

Even the public reti^ous servicea were not left without the 
superintendence and personal interference of the emperor- It waa 

but of variooi peoples. The FnnkiBb chief wu not king of Francep but king 
of ihe Franks, vhenTer the Frabks might be, wb«Lbar inQencazij, or France^ 
or Aqnitaiiu. The idea of territorj balouging to the Hji-oreigD Hprang up 
dfterwardA, when thft f»QdaL ijitem wu introduced, and the J«adeT of ■ 
TJctoriaai tribe gave avajr hii own ihare of Ihe conquered Iflrritory to hii 
fioblcA, on condicion of th«ii doing him homage and giving him military 
«erTic6, This distindtioD between tarritorj and p«cp]e hud been recngDiHd of 
latf jeatfl \tj EampeaD BorBreigiiB who have aesumea ft throne aflar a reToln- 
t»D ; thus vfl speak of the ompcnr of the French, ibe king <af th« Belgi&ni, 
meaning the ndor of the people, not the owner of the o:>untiTy. 

40 cH0(»cmAO£y£irr qitlv to art akv leaiutlito^ 

to pleaae bini that the Gregorian ctantB, novr in comnion luwi throagl 
ii grt'Ht part of Chris lenflnni, were ijiLrodiirpd into all ihe rhurchra 
or' Ui« west. But Chnrlpmngrfe'Ei chl^i fnini*, npin from liU wnrn, 
rcBtH upoij the Qn<^urug@ai(?iit which he gnve to l^irninc; i\nd art. 
Sculpture, paictiog, aoil nrcliil^cturc were juflt beginning t<» excite 
iiiteicAt. CbHrltuuigtie ertcttd pulillc buildings and ornameDted 
tiiH palace at Aix-tu-Cl]ii{>Cfllc with thn [irrduUH iunrl>ti] of ]taTenn;t 
anJ Flue iqxiils or^ otb^ coDr|t]er8il citita of ICaly, together viith tbe 
gifts of varioufl princt^flr in<ibiding ii clock iT<irkcd by waftT, soot by 
rhc caliph Haroun liI iCaachid. Ho liredp indeed, in Trhnt vrits for 
iJioM day» g(.irgajufi eplendoiir, but tliere wua no indokut; taee 
eonnect*d with it. Ho collected flroiJiid hini learnod snd Bcientific 
men from Jill mttionn, nnd «et jiti example of □nwtnried in- 
dustry to hifl people. Hia grout tcauhtr wna Alcuin, a deacon 
of York afcthcdiali who was peraunded hj the fiuperor to tiike 
lip liirt reaidoncp Jit hb couctn For fourteen yearj* Alcuin tJiiiyht 
publicly and. InboiiTfd privafcly, roaTfiring Hnoient maniiHcripis, pr^- 
p^rLUg a corrected edition of thu Uld and S&vr iV&imenlP, And 
dirfiCting the monka who worked under him to multiply copies, eo 
tliut hII tho prjucipul churohea aud iihheyti i[i ibe ki^igduiii were 
fomifdieEl with the hacr^J hooka. Ilia rojal pupil ^Vf- Limsi'lf 
dili^(*Titly to Bturly, jind made gre^t profrress in asironomyr iiritbme- 
Eio. granjmaF, peslmciflj, and^ in faet. ell the subjects renlly neeesaorv 
to form the biiala of a gooA education. By nature Churleiaaf^e wiw 
emJawed vritli an Enay FUid i^ocpful ulterani^e, ^o that he t^oiild di&- 
coiirse with fluency and cl fames'* upon all mibjifcla. Gorman wan 
the language ^hich he almost idways Hpoke, for hv had far more 
aympnthy with ihc Teutonic roco than with the lComuni»?d Gauls;, 
and hifl dresfl hm aJwayn ihat of a German, The one tJiiuK be could 
□ever do vtatt wridng. lie luid Legau it too l[it«, &ud though be carried 
1:Lblet« about with hinir so th£t he might practise the tormfltion of 
Jottura at every spare moment, be never aucc^ded in doing more than 
iipning his oamo. Probably he wna in Ihiu reeptct surpaasod by 
the young princes whom he oi^lleoted at kia court, and who were xll 
willing to be thi* pupils of rhe &.r'fHUiE^:t Alcuiu in rhe ' school of 
the palace ' at Ais-la-Chapflllt*. Here, nmongftt other noted pGrarHi- 
agefl, came the young iDgbert, king of Wi^h^x, destined atterwurdi to 
be the BretWfllda, or aovcTtign lorJ, of Briljiin, Eind the founder cf 
the pre9t.-nl kiugdom of Eugluiid. Whildt the young^ iiivu pursued 
their sludipji under the direction of their tutor, tha ^tq\o EXOuneidlDn 
of Churlemagne^ with llie emperor himself, ibrmed a kind of liieniry 
society cr dcaJomy, in which the empij^or presided under the n&ine 
of DaWd, wliilet eJic other mcmbora were called Iloaicr, llLinwe, Slc, 
Thflt hnlf^-baibflroua palace at Alx'la-ChapeUe niu«t haye been 
Strangely interesting. The re«torer oF the Westpm Rnipir*', the 


pixrtectOT of bhfl Pope, bod also a full knowledge of the amall affairs 
of bift houwbold. Hin mlt tiguEe. lound li^ud. iliiL-k opck, hhiI lung 
aoM might be Bflen waTching, at appm^rpH nuide in iho galleries of iho 
pi]»ce, the perflona who cnni* in snd out of the imperiaJ dwellin^f. Fto* 
Idj doiaeetu: arranfcments tt^re by no moiine dh utiflfjictory ua hift 
pubLic onet- He had in succc^vn do toaa ihiLn Tiinc wiv'fie; one 
tliem, FufCrado* gOTamedbim corapletelj, *ud toLi?r kDtluenca kiaftw 
«cEB<if cfii^liy raiiy probably le attributed, Womer, indeed, appear 
tlways to have hju) grent power or«rhim. He had many favaciTLiea^ 
i&d hie court vnm iar from preeentiEg nn Oflpf^ct of reepeGtabJUly. 
It b Hud tLtkt, be&idefl lilu aix nnftf he bad ti^ht beautiful and 
gTBcefiil dmugbl4?rB, who ha iceTu cuidd befLraliuuld mArrj, hat who. 
It wu liitt pleoHiiref should ride behind biin when ht tniv«IIi^ or 
««Dt to var- 

Hia three icgitimntt* aons, CbarlcSi PepiHi and Lotik^ were, &c- 
carding W tbcir fatbcr^a InTciition, to share hiii dominiona bptwePTi 
dum aAar his death ; but Pepin &i;d Ctutrle^ died before him, nod 
ChArlcmigiic then declared hi? ynungetit wn, TjOut»< cf Aquiiuinej 
bia flMOCUte jd the gnvemmcnt and farv sole heir Tbcre v 
great necedtdty for thus dttermiiiing the futtire of bU gr&at 
empire- Tho tu4oiui coor^iiered race« had bee[i kept tof^tler by 
dkc ODpeTor'a povreiful hjind, but thty hnd no prineiple of unioD 
■tnawttbeniaelces. Charlemjt^e h&d ^ndeavourn't tii nvilise thtm, 
to civiLiation la the work of centurieH^ and be had laboured but 
a few ^otro. Hia pecpio v/vre still h&rbetiauB- 
<A The emperor was too clear-aighled to be blind bj the condition 
"^ of hia BUbjects- ^Vhen, in the monih i»f Septeailjtr ai3. hi- pre- 
■ADied his 8i:in Louis t/> thi^ hrabopp, coiintO) and fords (f the Prajikfl 
utheir king And «mp(.'ror, he iiddrosaed nioet initchiog words lo the 
[ffiiu^ on his duties towiu'de tho churchy hia Hiibjeizl?^ and hia ncigh- 
boon^ and then ileairiDf^ to testify to rhe ^bsseuilly thattlie power uf 
Iraia ivaa derived from God oloue, he c&uaerl a iirown of froli), 
Bmilar 1o hiA ovn, to be placed upon the altar, and eommandefl hja 
KO to leke it himaelf and phiee it on hia own head- 

Thia was* Hut one year before the emperrir*a JeatlL Ho had done 
^ tLal in him lay to seizure peace and good goTemmeiit to hid 
pmple^ but jjk danger, which he wa^ ^rfectly able to foreiwet but 
v^Ut unable to prevent, threatened th«m- 

Tbe gcaadiaavinaa of tha north — eo dietant that they had 
taAerto bMn scareoly thought of— were boginning to make inroads 
upoD the empire, 

Charternugae cuidi Dot conceal from himifelf what ibid portended. 
He mu one day dininjj; with hU nobles in a niaritime eity of 
VHtflterD iia.uif when a fleet of itmna;e veBStda — pirate— made thoir 
vfty cwea into the port. Somir prt^fiuikt declared them to be Jev^HL 



49 DCATJI OF CIIAnLE»AaK£ — ijQ^lS L£ zisOHtlAlJir.. 

L^uU if. Jitlotmatre. 

mercl^Hiit v^ctat^'la, oLhera Afni'iui !>It!p»t othtra QnLij^h ; liijt Clinrl<?- 
mugne reoogniied th^m at nnte. 'They ure cruel eriemii*,' he 
HaJd ; find nsing fioin the Ubte he went to the window, which looked 
towurda the cost, njid hia eyi-a liUcd with t£arfl aa h« gazod long 
ucd eadly upoo the ScaEidiaaTiAn v&siiels. The pirateA vere pur- 
HUtid uad diitfi]jpcdLred, aud CImrltiiuugEiie, tumirig Lu liJa noblu^ add^ 
* Kqow you, my friendti, wherefore 1 weep biltCTlj 7 CHrtJiiidy I 
ibar not ihone miaarable pir&ten, but I hire deep som^w in my hoarl 
whca I think thiLt eow, cveu duriug my lilctiuie, rin:y hdve been 
tibia akuost to Jnnd upaa our rihorea; imd I aoi oppreaoud by u 
terribie ^nn^ty when I loijk lorwitru lo die evil wliidi ihi'y will 
inflict upon my people in coming vairw.' 

That time, when the empire should be left defenceJesfl, wm 
near at hand. ChjirJcm^gno hud rcAcLicd hiu »venty-4ccond year, 
aud death could not be i'ar off. The emperor set himaeJl* diligently 
to |irejHre for it. He iliviileJ liia Luue between p™.yer, the distri- 
bution of fllmf^, iind Beriptuml studJei- Ha wiks corrporing the Latin 
voraion of the GoBpele, and comparing it with tho SyriiLu and the 
original Greek, up to tlie moment when he wusuttackt'd by the lever 
whidi lermiimted in death. This vtoA in tho middle ol' the Jiionlh 
i.D, cf J[inunry *.D, Kl4. He linger^^ for sev^TaJ days; tliPTi, faeliog 
*^* hifl eud approaching, he received the sacramenr* of the ohmch from 
the hondii of his ntuionet, and stretching out hla linihA i'oT the hut 
long Bleep clo»d bj» &Y^, and murmuitEiiQ;, ^ Into Thy handB I 
commeod my spirit,' expired. He wm interred in the catJiedral of 
AiK-hi-Chapelle, the capital of hii empLr«. 



It hu been said that llie aina and FblJiea of genemtionii, when they 
liiivo reached their heigbtf use always cxpi^iltd by H:mn one in- 
diyiduiLl in himaelf worthy of bniig raverented aa n wiinl ; and c**- 

Jthff misfortunes of Louis [q D^'Iffionaire^ tUo iten and BUoceaeor 
arlemti^e, ore on exempli liciition of the OBBortion. Tli^ir 
origin may be traotd in bygone evtnte. in no way attribuiable to 
biuit but producing rcBiJ^id with which the meek mdntllnesB of his 
dit»po*ition rendered him unefjual to cope. 

Louis had been bnui^'hl up in Ai^aiuine by prieeta, who made 
him for more really r^igioua than IhemBciveu; mud whfla he iound 
himself MTercigu lord of a great emptrft his one wish waa to r«forai 

to refom J 

wnmMiKyT or louis — wkosatiob — ekfibe divioed, AS' 
mk DAmmwmt. 

hia MAoh^fl- He vould huve the 1>UIio[j# g:\t- up Ibeir amiH, their 
hprMi, ifcor epuivt and rdicijuiBh tlL« tyr^naiual fovers which they 
boJ bna mocaAomed to j^acrciac. He aont commis^oncra to eDquitt- 
into iba Male of ibe mouuierie^i cauMd liie ucgt^fod cliacipliae to be 
[■ ■tfatiljiiind. and h&nbhed twoincrtgiiiiig morks who had obuiD«d 
|{i«l mOlMBee ovsr Ch&rl«nagiie, The mnrrn^ra of hh caart aJw 
«v«« Mftnaed, ACti tho prxaceiucfl. hi£ £iat«rs, whme ccmducl hiui 
dimfiblBblfli were rfmored &oni the p&lace and iTomurcd in 
cvJiveatfl, Tuwarda hu ntbjecls lie was judt uad gej]«rouii» 
H«Uv«d,iD ^ctin theniidfiicif thc^m ^HHEhthBr amoi^m hia children, 
D«k«ft| ooon^ and govemad might bear ruta over the affiiln of 
^iatneaa graeroJlf, but tbu poor wi^re lo ba t&fo Iroia theiz 
8asons and AquiUuiitma, the ccnquered TOicca^ yrtm 
to liim diBti any olhi?nk lu his youtli be aIwbjb wore ihe 
of ■& AfjuilHJiian. This wiid x Hpecial order cf CJuirtpinagney 
v^ Km <4ip occanoD particularly ordered hie loo to appEur b^ore 
kia at iUtrbom, accctinp«ni«d by a body of youthft ol his own agt?, 
aJI 4rr«^d Alike in the Guacoh or AquitaDiau costume— the roiuid 
laak, vith long «l«cTe» bAogiDg down to the koe«^^uni Uctd otti 
iUr buutti and juTdimt in their hands. 

thn OM fUaS miftuk« of ihu now emfr^ror waa that of carrying 
b^iVVOlAM b«joad the bi.>Tuida of ptudeace, 

Aa CBfirc bo wi« containing eudiTanoua and uAciviliAed niceft. 
flijrtJ ■ vnrreign wbo coiUd tuaka hiniaelf feared as well am 
BtK Bi the outKt of bis reign Lijiiiii le D^bonnaJre showed 
1m eoold yield dkito i^^tily than be could ^xacL In Charle- 
fiAtxme t^B Pope had felt himfoli' obii^'d to obl&ia tlje 
I luictioD lo bis el4>ction, but Stephen IV,, wbeu «Iecit«d 
in 816, made no appJicdLiuu Ui Luui? for ci^riaeDi; acd the 
pawwd without rKmoDHinince. The Pope, on bis side, 
hf m> ncana ao fergetfnl. The coronaiicn of the aevt emp«rer 
^ia aohdnn act which he deemed that no one but himKif could 
id he accordiagly journeyed to Fraoce, tnct Loiiia at 
and ID atooflt inkpoaiug crmmontal placed tbecmwn upuii hU 
b^ Pram ihsi lime the world waa to vnd^retand iliat the dignity 
rf^wror wni dq«ndent for ite vntidirj upon the Romftc pontjf', 
TwibUow-mg y^ar Louis look bi^firrt pohiicaUy iroponnnt step, 
*l«fc Bffoved to he unfortunate uid itE judged- Chmrlem^ne bad 
htVM to divide ihe euipirs. It wba llie idea t>f tbe age, Louu 
■larad t» fiilUiw out hiB wish. He convoked ttn juwmbly at Aii* 
MtaptUA^attd after appointing bis eldeft non, LoiliairL>, the«bar4irof 
MidMtta tor tbe pment time* prrx^eeded to sppoiiion hia lerritoriee 
*htt h» iaaa^M tbtfldd bo no moru- Lothain waa tbcu lo huve 
niM* and Italy ; Pepb, the eecuod aun, waa to have Aquitauie; 
^ Lotti% iha youiigOBt, Gemapy. 

'44 B£HMA1U) OF A^niTAlNE — EUFKESfl JUl^lTB. 

Ltmia it Domain. 

But thy empflror, when he proflpec rifely gave oitay Italy, fbrgnt 
that there waB another clnimnnt for jt. HU eld<ir brother, Pepin, 
Imi durJnp his KfeCime, been named by ClinHoiuiigtit: king of Italy. 
Fepiu wju dead, but liio illegLtimute Hon, Borovd, conaidered the 
inhmtAncj* to be hia^ and not only no, hni;, as it wouH appeiir, re- 
garded hiriBelf hIho aa the heir of the empire, heing descejidad from 
CbarJomnguc's etdear Boa, Bermird had no doubt t^ nglit on his 
aide, BO tdr as llidy waa coiacfmed^ ^\.-x Chjitlcmagno himself had eon- 
finiied him on tbi; thnme of Italy, lit} uSKUiNed the Lunibard 
lordflf hifl va»iBla, nwA advanced uiivardd the [juhiwh of die Alps ; but 
whtn the army of Louis drew near toUkSet th^^m, Tnany of the fiiith- 
I«^ uobloa uf Italy forsook Uiuir king, und Bernard, in deepnit, 
accepted a aafc-eonduut from the t^mperor. Truating to the prof- 
ftred oiedialiion of the tmprijsa finuengardt, he passed over to hia 
UuHc'h camp. Here aim treachery mi't hitn, EniJpn^jarde dmired 
thp crown of iuly for her own son. She li^d no intention of mving 
b^nmrd. At Chslona-Biir-Saoiic he wait brought before An asaoinbly 
of the Pmnkn, puhiicly accused, and coTidenxned to death, The 
l^atte Louis could not hrlng him?tlf to canacot t^i the e.xecutioDp 
The sentence wan chiinjirtd to perpGtimE hnpnsonment. EnnQagnrda 
inaiBted thut loss of Hic[ht Hhould be oddtd, and the horriMe flcmteace 
vras eo orueiiy executed that Bernard died Jiller throo days. 

LoniP, tilled with rentorae for the crime to which he had con- 
fltiutedf brooded over it uutil it sticmed chnt it could t^iAy be expiated 
by nbdication and r^'tirement to a nionaat^ry. Whiht Ermf^ngnrdc 
juD, iiv«d aitch b. step WB4 itnpoasiblo' but in 819 she di«d^ and he then 
'^ felt free to carry out ^e prpjccti Hia courticm and miniateTs wera 
ulamii^. The ecupcrorS ubdicntion would be their downliill. Thcr 
jtpolie to him of li HicoTid marruige, aiiJ Loulu, (gially perauadedt 
listened to ihe augge^tion. Judith, the brilliani, nccompb'ahed 
diuightsr o£ Goclph, count of BavdriQ^ became bin wife, imd fMHd 
tliat mQment hi4 eiril getiiua, JIlt (olcntii und dodihoti r>£ cbtracter 
^VG her ao imbouoded Lntluf ncs over him, nhilst her ejumpio was 
dcatructivo to ihe purity of hirf court, tier G»vonrite» and the imp 
porter of her tiehemea^ waq an Aquiu^nian noble, l^rnard, the son 
of that duke Will iflcn '^u court inn' hIio had formerly been the 
emperor'a tutor. Brought up togetbtjr, Boraard of A(]uitaino and 
Louia haii long l>ecn intimate frivnda* and now the govemmeDt wna 
carried on only by Bi-rcjinl'ti advice, Li'iiiii wae atLll ]iiis<:nib1e. The 
denth of hie unhiippy m'pbew could not h^ foi^gotten, nitd with thn 
ramembrance came pelf-Tfptoacb lor other deeds, alao eonaected with 
the rolbrmntion of tlie church, which, though at the time he con- 
Bidered them jitfititiable, U'^w seemed to bu orimcA mlliog hj th« 
vcn^etuicu oflleaven. 

Public pf*nuiiuE fbr hla uns eeetaed hia only hop^ nad s,t Atligny* 

Kurtbnn of his Inrge dommtoj^ Lo hb ihicv KoDs^IrBlj^ 
'OHpe<rdv(4 tilJc of empemr, W LirLliiiire, the elitst; 
Lonia; AqiiiTAine to P^pin, But Ifaere wb& now a 
Ui in&Dt, Chu-IcB^ tbo child cf Judith. Hie noth^i 
t BatttiBcd whhout a kingdom for hiiu oiao, and he re- 
tie of king of All<^manuiA. Hu territory, Including Bur- 
!e» and pari nf Swisiflrljiud. hm to be taken oui of tlie 
Loihairt!, from wboin an <inth of prott-clion was ^lacted. 
had beea UfoD over to tbis nrran^eDient bv Ihe tiatr«TiQe 
nt be ioon lepcnft ;d of it UniiUg hiujiwlf witli Louis 
irbo al^u tan' ri^aMin to fear for tWir inlicritauc^T lie 
<Tinigf-d dit dimfftcl^t tijilrit of ibe jii>IjI?i^ luid ul. len^h^ 
g of 830^ iL Irightful r<?b«JI]ou bmke out — a r^bolhon 
■libjeoU againBl ihvit toyatc'tgn, butof sona af^inst their 
unhappy poiperor auirendcrcJ to hia BoosotCompi^gae. 
^qutioiue was LaiuAlieil. the einpresa waa ^umpelJed to 
IB a convent al Foicierer the boy king Charles vim 
ts Arid ccnlinenienr; tud nlthough theemp^ror was 
tain bJB title, the re&l power of goTemmcnt pAS^ lata 
I Lothoire. 

Fsj enniT kJ upscJ, a goTeninjeut than lo esUibtisli 

minH. The very n^xt year the two younger princea 

to reHlore the emperor, aiid by their elibrtB Louii vu 

hjA tljront*, nhti-n ho Iroely pardoaed Lothaire, and ^ave 

. bia kingcEum ofluly. The emprena wna rdtast^ from 

Kuid Bi^niardof AqultAJna Buddcnly uppsirLMl litdbre the 

pncil nt ThmnvilJe, rhalletigfd anyone vho should dam 

M iiAi41lflarinn« ivhioli hni\ Kwn ttntiirrht nnflinvt him HIkl], 

46 THE LttOENP£Lr> — lOHlS 

Louit Iji Dfhonit'iirp- 


Popo Grepnry IV. wua on their aido. lie wbs devoted lo 
XfOthsIre^ and i^omplAin^d thnt tlie emperor bad iioC kept certun 
ngreemcHlfl made at liis coronRtion. In Aliiaw^ — .tlmt <^ommpii hattle- 
fieW of centuripit^-hpcwEen Colniaran*! Biili?, thp trt'OATmiea met- The 
Pope WW present m Lothairfl's camp. Ho winhod to svnid bIo<wj6heJ, 
IJogoriatiotis bogao^ but vrcre not immtidiatflly HUccofiEfTiJ , Suddenly^ 
in tbe coarse of one night, aU the prmcipal tHiroiis of ibe 
cmperoT^^ pATty eileatly quitted hla cnmp, and the next moming 
appeared vrich th^ir troops on the aide of ibe Gnemy. The example 
WAS followed by others, juid in a few days the on\y persona who 
adhered lo Lonia were the cmprcffi Jwdith and hvt son Charlea, and 
a few bi^hopH and connte and inferior Tasialfl. The i«pot whfire iJue 
Hhatncful deai^lion totik plaoe r^^celrcd and long retained the name 
of Llig^^nfeld, or the Field of FEilseliood. 

J^iiiH uubmitted and Bonglit hia boii'b camp. Lothaire rooeivod 
him ooLdijr hut promised him pcr^na! protoction. It would be 
sufficient for hjfl purpofw if the emperor could be di.'gmded by ■ 
puniLdini^nt au huniiliatiDg tliHt he coaJJ never rise Irom it again. 
At Lothajre'fl inetigitcion tbf biahopa of the land called a aolemn 
SMcmblyflt SoiaaonH in the church *>£ St. Medard, Noynmbor 11,8SS, 
They presented tn tlie unhappy emperor a list of the crimM rf 
VThkh litf vtaa to own ]ii[ii>e]f guilt;, 

Lnuifi courcRted nothing. Tliree times he owned that he vna 
guilty^ and with tes-rs «fiirNl«d to hv permitted to do pitbtie penancA 
■Thou, taking off hin militapy belt, the dresa of a peuitent woa pUI 
upon him, and in thia attire he aufferfd himself tn bo cairitrd by his 
Bon a prisoner to Aix-]fl-Chapell«, his capital— the citj in whirfi be 
had onM stood by (Jhflrlemaipie'A aide and lafeen fcsr liim*olf ftoiB 
the aJlar Ibe imperial crown. An infinilo pity was awakened 
tUrougbout tJio enipiri^' The people reoountod iu horror the humllia' 
tiouH to which their sovereign had been Fubjccled. flit alory wb» 
Lu tJifja that of u Scripture hero; ii he had uuued hi> had been led 
lulmy by bin wife. M Adam vns tempted by Ete^ whiki in hi! 
Bulferingn and hU patience ho resembled the florely-triod Job, or erco 
One yet hif:her — the Saviour in the midst of Hie euorDica. 

Th^ nin<] enij>eror found liimHelf exalted eycn by the very depth of 
hifi bijmiEiation. The voici; of the pecpfe condemned Lothairv, and 
the nohlea foreook him. He tied to Italy, nnd the emperor was re- 
placed on hia throne. But there was no peace. Judith waa atiU 
tlie queen of hia councils, and to pleapo her nnd provide a kia^om 
for her Huri CburJca was ntill ihe uue object of his heart. 

Lothaire, a Bcoond time |ardon(*d, had been permitted to reiwn 
hifi kingdom of Italy, on condition of never n^ln n^paaaing iU 
bouudarieA without the coneeni of hia biber. Ilia territorr wai 
■ecured to him^ but the rcat of the empire remained lo be divided^ 


for the «»tiri?Tn^nt mn^^ st t1i« beginmng r>f the i«ign hmd b«<*D upeet 
by Ibe wart which bad followed. Judith urjcd that thv division 
ftobld no loni7er be delayed. The emperor ytctdi^d, and iht einpiro, 
intb the ejiccption of It&lj, waa ftlnioal equiillj diriributnl l>e- 
tween hiswcnnd sun, T#oiii» thp German, hU third son, Pepin of 
Aquirjune, and the yoiiTig Chnrlf*]. Thi* of conne could not be 
done without eoQAJdfirablf ditnlEiLsbing the inherilrxncc which l^ouis 
the GeruMm mad Pepin hod oricjinaUT looked upon as their owa. A 
6w jv&jn tatCT Charlea rticeiv^d rhi? prouilac of a sdl} larger tt^iritory, 
wid when Pepin diti], which \iv dj<l HudJ«n1y in 8^8^ the c-loiniH of 
lus don were enTiiroly s^t aside atvl Aqiiitdine w^a declare*:! Ui 
beliOng to CharloB. 

Judith nitw mnde triendfl wilb Lothaire, And> supported by him, 
compeUed the w«ak emperor to veent lo anothtr most flagrant act 
of injiudce. Loain the Gern^cn war lo content l^imRolf with hi? 
qdaU kiogdom of Bavnrifl^ aod the Tenuindef of the Lmmenae am- 
pii« wftfi to be nbHoluiely divided between Lothaire and Chtirleo. 
LoUiairc cboee the east, Charles rlie west. Louis the Geimaa (hen 
njf'ed die sliuniurd of revuk, and iumded the RFieiuah proTiueeiL 
Hie emperor, Aitiklng under il!ne»«aTid age. led hU troops ngainnr hin 
«>a and conkpelled him lo retrre. But the oQort prov^^d too tnuch 
forbid atrenptJi. MiaeTiible and benrt-fijok, ho lopBtred to a little 
iiUnd on the lihiue, near Mavence, then to await deaih. For aome 
tin« he lingered, his tliuiigbl^ (umiDg now to the heavE!U of ptSM 
Ua whii^h he had no long aighed and bo eameatljr though impeir- 
fecthr HOQgM to prepare himHif, and now fo the wittehed past — 
hU own weabifst atid tbo rebeilioD of hi^ children, 

' 1 nrdcin Lcuia,* he raid ; ' btit Jot him well coQsider with him- 
irif. Ho ban despised the laws of God [ind hnjughi hid father's 
gTVj haira in mrrov to the grate.' 

Looii le D^bonoaire di^on th« SUtb oTJnnd, 840, id iJia axtj- 
itird jear of hie age. 



TVK ani^ of the 4>mpire wae at an end when Louii Is D^bonnaire 
^ed, Xfothaire indcod had the title of emperor, but be wo^ immo- 
dialfly oppcned bv liiri brothers Louia (be German and Cbarlea. A 
peAt bntUe wh fbught at FontfCnaj , J ime 25, 64 ] . Lotiiaire was totally 

4j^ o*th of strarbuwj — TseAxr or vebdch — crarles le chai 

dafcaled and find to AIx-la-ClLapcno, nod LcuIb and Charles, for tti« 
niomeat feeliijg tJifltu^T*o hoantl togellier lij a cotiucoD iateretst, 
agreed to irieeL aL SLrubtrntg* there to furni a pcrniftuent alfjnjice. 

On the day HppoTTitod the princes met, prepjirtd each to take a 
eolemn oath of nlliaDce. Loujg, as th« QldoT, epok^ fimt in thu 
RoDtSDOi} Ifinpti^f, a tuixtiiro ofLiLlin nad Gallic, the JbuDd&tion of 
nHMlern French. Il was the native toni^ite of his brothern NtUB- 
trian and Aquilaniun CroapBT and he rifwred to be luidfirstood by 
them * For the Iotg of God and ihp gnod of nTl Chridttan people, 
and for our comiDon eafetj^, I dwear that henceforth, and vhilft God 
shall give me might acd uiideraTandiDg, I vUl mpporl my brother 
Gharled in alE things, even aA I am bound to do, no long aa he sliaLl 
deal iu like Diaiin^r with me. And sever will I make iinv peace 
with Lothaire which shall bp lo the detriment of ray brother,' 

Charlufi took the lume oath in The Tudofique dialeot, the native 
tongue of the Austmaiatia nnd the foundatioa of modem Gcrmac. 

The tiabopa preseoc iheo dediued thiiD by tlie just judgaieui of 
God Lothttire wrs ilepoHed- 

Tel it waa oot to be open war wrlh Lothairo. The coiiaaal of 
the biflhepu vma for peace, and the two brothers^ sending mceflon- 
gers 10 Lolhairp, n^qnired of him to state what Uflder the circum- 
Btances would he hi a dcDuiiidfl. 

All that he asked wan granted. Four days were spent tt Terdua 
in dividing rbe empire, and Ihen it viae Gnally settled that Lothoire, 
retaining his litle of emperor, ehould content himm-lf with the 
kingdom of Italy ZLud tlmt p<jttioD cf modi?ra Franco whidi lies be- 
twean the lEhint^, th<^ Mcuse, [he SiAne, and thf Khone. The 
northern part of this Terrlt^iry received from Lotlinrre the name of 
Lotharingia, or Lorraine. It hae been disputed ground for centuries 
Cftrtninly it never onpinnlly lioIong^Hl lo Fmrce, hot aa carl*unlf it 
auiDot be aaid to have been an integral portion oC Gerniany, whtcbi 
when it waa recogniseri as the inheritJince of IjOiiia the Gemsn, 
coDffsted only of CharlemigTie's torritoriea on the right bajik of 
the l^hinei with the uitiee of Mayeace, WcrraBr and Spicra oa the 
left biioh. 

Pranue may he said to have farmed the kin^om allotted to 
Charles; yet many ye^ira elapaed Iwdbre i^n ilifTerent portinrkB and 
provinces were oonii^)]! dated tinder one government. The exact 
portion over which Charloe olaimod damiiiion lay to the wi?et of 
ths Meuse, the Sa' ne, and the Rhone, It is 6'om thia treaty of 
^< Verduu, a.d, 84S« that hii^toriana date what may properly be called 
the kingdom of France, 

The empresB Judith liv^ to see her Bon eqtahliahod on hii 
throne. She died in 813, and vras buried at Toura. 

Charlea le Chanve (the Bald), the firat king of Fnutce, na dk- 

t]D^Ah»d from CJariR. lh» tir?! Icing of tbo Fmnlu, wm th« 

devoted a«rTaii( of the church ; and iho actiuU riilor oT the country 

danti^ hin rejgn wjia Hmcmoi-, orcbbi^liop oi I^beiiuB. Hincmar ma 

4 nun ofa nD|£uIarlj coiiraQi^ufl and loiiy nilnJ, and at tbe heuil of 

therJpTgy of Frant^f? he defenrli^ri ih*? clniTnit nf CharlRii a^rain^ ihow of 

I»Qia ihe Genniui, when Ij^tiir, forgptfrng tho Alliniu'f.^ to wfiiith be 

hmd nrorOf wonid lain bflve ma'E« bjm«eJf mtAter of Ai|iiitHin«. 

Such mpport v-u ^mtly needed, for ImiblcB both cf chuTch ncd 

rtaAe marked tlie vrbole of Cliadcp's reign^ In tlie cburch the doc- 

uiiM of Krai]Biib0tanitauon wa^ put forward opeuly bj PaBchuiiu 

RAdbert, a French abbe, and fTint of predft*(ioation bj Gcii*«- 

Cludk, B GennsT] monk. Tb« dinites of tbe Iriah church, who ««■« 

tber coDflidered the roost leamod iknd orthodox in Europe, combated 

boih ibcw iJoctrmoL and Iliucmur. ivbo viai vsp^iaMy oppuwd to 

QoCEffichftlk, appealed for the coQlinuatioD cf lbi< leaching of tlje 

fbarch to as, John ScoiU!^ FTimLLmecL Rrrgena, then id 

high broor at tho eonrl of CbaHcfl tlia Jiald- Charloa, like hii 

awtbcTt Judith, ysna devGterl to JitcrsttLre. He created Kri^na u a 

^nufiar friend, >Jid confide to bin; the nchool oflhe paUco, wherci 

the deepest metapbyncaJ rjueHtinuH were diBcusseiL Krigeua wrois 

m tmlue deaouncing the opintona of Gott^ftchnlk Hod aMciting 

mas'e fr» will. But irbijAt opposing oce error Erigenft fall iiiro 

aoother, for bifl teachinj; exalted rea«oii at ihe expense of faith. Ue 

■od \u9 ibllowera were cQndt?runtid hy The ciitifch of Komer hut 

their jirindpl+w Mill made progreHH, and were deHLuied ia filter yeara 

lo work cot great results 

But tbo kJDp and the hi^bope of Franco could not long afford to 
Bcctipj iJjeniAelrea with tl)« diecuHioD of theological queationingo. 
Ihc NoTChiuea. whom ibtr &r-M«ing CbarJemagne bo dread^t 
ibongfa dereatHi for rhe moment, had returned again and again- 
The joon^flt sooa of the ScAndinavian kingaware their lewiera. 
Thtj looked upon tbe iw aa tbeir mheiitAace, and called tbeta- 
i^Ta floi-kmpa. By yearly inTflaona of fbrf?ign countritw ttoy 
fdilujied butda wbbb thty called tl^eir *jwa. aud sought cJieir wires 
tomuTHnigiC the pBipJe wliuw country tbey )ind ruvnged. Clmrle- 
Tn|m bad itationed vcsoelfl nt the entrance of the rivers to reuot 
tte nvsdem. Hh weak dcHcendants aoked tbe tud of th« piraten to 
MaM thvta in their civil dimonaicD^: and vhcn once ia any degree 
Wihlifihed in tbe country. SYery bandit or fugitive Kit who cboBO 
Id join thoa waa welcomed a» aa addition to lljeir power. On 
Ibe tfMft and by the riTern therw wtu dnxly dread. Ap «ifrn aa the 
bvka of the piratea, ^hich they called dn^ouH or Herpenta, were 
i|cn, 00 BOOQ tbeir jTory home were beard re^oundicp' along the 
teas, every man iled, none danng V^ hjok bock. To tJ^e lova, U> the 
i^bbDiiriag monagUrry, driving their herda before them, ^e 


piia]^^^lt;d hnrriedT hiiijuj^ thi^iiiP^lvas und^ tbe nltare, und trusting 
that ce^erencf for tho relicfl of the eatnia would check the coupw 
of ihi; bp-rhuridus. But tlie ScuudiuavLui pirat^ja luul no apprt^Jn- 
tion of relics. RatWr the more sju-red y/ns ihs imrLCiuiiry, rFi<i more 
*.D. rffHolut^i it woiild s^em^ were they in viotatiii^ it la 6-15, -under the 
*** lead<?rBhip of Hcgtior Lodbrog, they appciired before tlio wjJU of 
Paria, rilled the rich alihcjii o£ St. CoQancvo and St. Gernuun des 
Pt^K, jiDd ontj rtlired on the pa/ineBt by Charlea le Chauvc of 
A.O. 7,000 pomids of silver. Itl 857 ih^y w?re ajain in Puris, map- 
HLcrini the inhnbTtHnU till th** ialpifl (if the Seine weri? whilotied 
with the bones of the yictimo. The nlarm awakened by thesti 
atrocities became at lenj^h so uniycraal lliat men dared aeilier sow 
nor reap ; fortBls Bprenil tlitirist^lYeH orci thu land betTVE^at the Seiot! 
and the Ldire. A trrwp of wolvea traversed Aquiinine, no one beiiig 
xble to Btop litem, and ^iid beasts threatened to tnke poAsea^tioc of 

And whilat theaf bATbariiina desoljited tiie north the Sarac^UB 
infested His w>uth, nith the same object — pilbge. 

The chief st«iTon» of the Northmen were lit the moutbfl of ihe 
Scheliitr tha Seiut^, and the Loiro ; Ihow of the ^urttcetia in 
Provenae and al St. Mnuriuv in the Vniois, On]y one person of 
thut time appears to hate been Able in any way to make heoU 
n^aiimt tlie NortJimeii ; tliis waa KuberC th^ SLrong. tialled ibe 
Maccabnus of hia time. He wsta a nabla of Saxon deacfnT.^ tb« 
goveriiOT of the provincei between the Seine and th« Loire, Bui 
^.0. orca ha could not prevent a dispmccful treaty made in 866, by 
"*'' which Gharlea waa bound lo pay 4,U00 pounds of silver to renLore 
or ransom all Freneh prisonu's wbu had made their ej^ciipt, and to 
give a eonipensatioQ for every rfortljmn-ii who h^td been killed bj a 
Frank. The VEilisnt count Robert wa^ killed the following yoor in 
a tight with the NorthmcUf lod by their fomouB ohief HaBtiag& 
Hifl death wae a heavy blow to the pow^ of tliB Curloviugiwi 

Terrible were the Northmen and the Saraepn^", hut the unforttJ- 
nate Charlefl had yet a more deadly enemy within hie own tcrrito- 
rios. Unable to guard hia pn^nple himsplf^ ho waa obliged to trust 
for iheir defence to hia noblea. Every baron in tbe centre of hia 
rtwi: dtiraain was an absitlute lord, and the siimll Uinlliuldera 
natunJly upplied to him for proiertfon. Tlioy commended thefn- 
oelvGR, according to the phraae then in uae, by promiaing, ia return 
for security, either military service or the payment of a aum of 
money. Tbe baron in liiB own territory declared war or pBaoe» 
iuipoaed Uixes^ nuidti htvtSj even coined moai-y ; am) when At 
length Chflrlea le Chauve consented ic a decree of 'tbe national 
oouQcii by which a nobJo watt penuitUid lo tranamit to Lis ao» 




iM>t only bi3 poaae^aioaa, but hia o^cca and dignitica, iKveial of 
Xhe great borooa became iu actual Jkct* tboiigL not m name, iDde^ 
peodenE kin^. 

Vet whilflt CbarlM le Chauve whs thiu laaing his oHcinaJ 
dommioQS hj ihe invafiioTia of tVm Nortbmea and the Saractfuft, nnd 
Lid autbority bj' the encrc^aclimenU of hu bu-ona, he waa, un Uie 
other hand, gaining new lerriloripB hy llie dealL of Ka lircthur and 

LotbtLirCt who bad retiiDQci the title of omperorT died in ^55| 
Jeanog three sees, Thej inhented bis domiuionB, but died belbre 
l^r anirle CbafJca hciI Icit an dir(.i:t bars. 

According ut the princj|)Ipa i)f heteditarj ■uajeWHOn, Lothaire's 
dnmioioaft ooght then to h:ive jwawd to LonU ibe German; but 
Charles oot oa^y laid claim to rt jtortisa, but ineietvd upon haviog 
tlL« title of emperor. A coudcjI assembled at Pavia adjudged the 
unporial cruwn to both pnai:e& Charln, howcvei, detenumci Lo 
u bp aole emp«T>r, He crofs^ the Alps, ^tn^ over th@ Pop^i John 
'* Vm., to his fiid^ and waa by him {^ruwned on Climtmu Day $75. 
A reneira! ol' war bulweoa the brothers eecraed iii*jvilable ; but 
Looifi the German, the wisest and befit of Charlemagine's ^nd- 
KHU, di«d shortly sfier at Frankfort. Like lii^ brother Lothairef 
he had three stmt to mh«ii hia dominion^ hat ih«y would have 
hbl little chance of eacjiping the grasping ambition cf their uncle 
Gharlea if he had not t>eea euddeaJy a1oppc<] by the hand ol' 
death. He was indeed actually crcjiviiag ih« AJpa to ^ine tbeir 
tCTiTtori** when he wa* nltacltEd by his laat illnea^ In a injsera- 
We catrta upon tb^ pMs oT" Mnnl Cetiis the proud and rertlewi king 
lay on h\a deatb-bed, atlfitidod by a Jewish pbyiLcian, Zed^ki^r 
in whom be phn:«ii pteut conlidtuc*. But treacLicry ia said U> have 
beeiiat work. Zad^kiiL-i ailiuiujateri?d a putiou wbidi provfd pojaou- 
Uew, and on the 6th of Octcibtr, 877, at Uie m^s uf Jifty-four, Charles 
f« Chanve died- 

Tbia piiHod of hifitory ia rendered eictrenidy perplexing by the 
OOn&BffA of namca aad titJea. CbHrlerDognD and his son Louia le 
DAonitaire; it aliouid be remeniberedT were the only moonrchfl 
vboM antbority wa^ ev^n norntnaily recognised by the whole of the 
Fnak empire- Loihaire Efdleti binwelf eniperor, but he wan in 
reality only kin^ of Italy. His brothore were indopaodent mo- 
UTcb^ ai war with him. When LoUiaire died bis ddcar eoo, LouiA, 
tixjk the ^tle, and i^ bcniiatlmtii mentioccfd in hlntorj op thc^ emperor 
Looia II., but he wa* only king OTer a portion of hia fiilher's Itrrito- 
nM, whicb wer« ehar^d b«tvi>efi him and hi« brotbera. Tbe title of 
emperor wna therefore but an ^mpty lionour- 

CLarla le Cbfluve left only one son, ccmmonly known an Louifi le 
Btgtic tthe triammerer). He ws4 a weak and nckly prince, who 


iji. reipietl only a year anil a hnlf, djiJij iti 879, Tli«i follcrwed the 
jraut reign <iE hin twu finn?(, LnuiB iiuJ Carkjiaati: Louis retc:nzT]g in 
ihn north of Frnnct, CartiTnan in Ai^iiitHinenncl Biirfriuidy- We hi«r 
no mora of ilie title of onipcTOrt but Lr^uie iq kDown ju Loniii IIL, 
Ukd mii«l therefore Lave boGU rcckond na tiit miccBiHOt' of bifl 
oouHin IiDuiirh II., tlie bod of I^tlmirt:. The Ivio youn^ kings lire^ 
in jimiFj, jind their joint rei^ waa only dipturb^ by the revolt nf 
duke BoBoa, thfl brolli^r^iQ-lnw nf CbnrJe* f* Chauve, who, being 
BUT>port*>d by tli* hiahop^ und pertplcof the country, pi»<1o himself the 
inctipccclEni novirei^ o(' BuKrundj and ProTcncH. The capiul d 
(he Dfw kingdom was Arl-?*, It niJuntaint*! it* inrf*p*Tidijice for 
150 years, TjOiiis HI. showed Hima vigotir in his p^TO-nment, for, 
•Ithouph not twenty y<?nrfl of ftjarSr ho defeareif the Nonhmt-n near 
AbhcTiUe, and made a treatr irith their Icador, Uafltin^ Sudden 
juk doalh, however* overtook him in AnpruHt 88L', and tiro je*.Tt afWr- 
ui wards, in De-:cnibcr, \.v. ^4, C'arlomiin aleo died from a wound 
which ha rpcpjvpd whPFi hunting the wild bnnr- Tlio aurhority tft 
theee tdiorUlived de^endnDta of the great Charlcma^e mu^ hat* 
niuk "very low, for a writer of the annals of the tiTnf>B says of Loui* 
III., ' He built a wooden {:afllle, bnt ft was of mrire use to the pagami 
aa a fortitication tlian to llic ChriclJan^ n.^ a clefeoce ; fur Kiiig Looia 
ootild find no one to whom? care he could entinf«t it' 

ihe vii:tory gaia^ by LoiiiH ovor the Northmen waa indeed of 
«ome importance, and a Pong comnicmoratinp it. oompoicd in the 
German lan^a^ atdl exisls; bt^t the barbaruuiH were ncit I'lerms- 
neatly weakt^n^, Gottfried, their chief, had luarried Giila, n 
princest of the houa? of Lharlemagnct and had receivAd th« lorddiip 
of PriediUid- H« needed further a totritory on the Khine^ ^ Friwland,' 
ha ttid, 'produced no wine i he mxtat have Coblcnt and AndeimaclL' 
The aomeign cif whom he made this demand waa Charles le GnV 
(the Fat), the snccKHDrof Iajueh 111. and Oirtomnn- Charlie I^ Gnw 

ii owpfl hiP dignity to bis age. The dinvi heir ti the tbronn niter the 
I death of the jnant kin« was a child of fi?e years old, camad oJao 
Charleo, a fon of Loma ic B^e by hia aecoad wifo, Adelaide; 
but the Jioblefl set hi* olaim aaide and chow for their Boveroign the 
jounir*'-«t son of Ldueh the frerman. 
Unhappily Charlea le Gron waa wholly unworthy nf bi« yiA«itioti. 
Hu euonnooB eixe mdored him inaciivc; ha had neither tateni nor 
^O0dnen to maka np fnr it. He wa?, m fact, weak, micl, ireacharow^ 
L and ci>ward1y. He had the title of cmi-emr. and oevrly the whole «/ 
P Cbarlnnagne** dontiaior.f werT> inhrril«d by liim; and yai inhimvign 
the K'^rthnien hw:ame nc powerful that, under the oarnmnrid fif tbeir 
JLA. flunoui It^ur Kolb, A,n. 4tl5. ihey beaiegod Parii. The eaEiiral w«a 
*"* dafaoiiiMJ bf Eadw, oount of Paria, wha, enCraa^ed with 30,rkiW) 
Vi»a in tha iabuid of tJt* dein« which fijrma the outre of iiie oity. 


bdd OQt (or eighteen montha. The king was iliAeDt in Germfluy, 
md took £ttle beed to pisyera for oHfiitiUnca ; and when, ftlW a long 
ddaji be orriTed, he M&doned himself with bis troops on the heights 
of Montniartre. It a eaid th&t a monk tried to roiue hi» oourage 
bj t^llioff him BtoricB of the older days — how Pepm le Bref had cut off 
a lion's head with one blow ; how Charlemagaei, when ia S^iooj, 
killed ereryoDe who was higher than bia owo sword ; how Louin I9 
Dd>oiutaire had astoniahed the Northmen by breakiog the Bwordi 
which they held in their h&ada ; and how a soldier of Charlomapiie^a 
innj carried seven, eighti and ereo nine of the barbarians apitted 
OD hia lance like little birds. But Charles le Gros iioforia'- 
naieW woa not encouraged hj thefie veracioua htstoriesi and Eudes 
tad his aoidiere heard at length, io tBeir unspeakable indignation, 
thai their aovereign had entered into a dirtgiaceful oompromiiK, and 
■gr««d, if the Northmeo, or Normans, would give up the «i^e of 
Puis, to pay SCO poundd of iiilver, and to allow them to retire uuno- 
IrMed into Burgundy. 

There was but one voice of contempt throogbont the country 
when this treaty was mode known. A council of the empire, aflaem- 
Ued at Tribur, near Mayence, depo^ the weak and incapable 
ODperor, whoee mind as well an hia body was diseased^ The monas- 

it\erj of Keacbenau, on the Lake of Conetance, wa« hia ploc^ of 

*" re^ge, and there in 888 be died. 



Tvi last semblance of Charlemagne^a empire was now at an end. 
Dnchiea, counties, lordships, were formed out of the wreck. We 
bau- of Provence, Burgundy, Gaacony» Poitiers, Toulouse, Hainaulc, 
flandera, Vermandoia, the dominions of great leaders, who were for 
the time independent sovereigns. Yet a thread of loyalty and legiti- 
macy may be traced even in that nsoet troubled time. 

After the depoaition of Charles le Groe the crown of Fianc* 
was offered to the gallant Eudea, count of Puna i but bis reign, 
Wiiig ten jeftra, was a coutiaual struggle against Action, and during 
■U thia time it powerful party atill adhered to the Corloviuglan 
bmilj, and were onxioua to place upon the throne the ^ourtg 
flfcariw^ the acm 0^ Louia le B^gue, who had been rejected in hi« 


Vharl^n ie Simple. 

inrruicji but vu now odvanoing to mruihood. Tlic piince ^raCf 
boVTover, uuly fourteen wbea tbe firnt optn altpmpt m bia faToiir 
WiL's made. Dtirlng tlie ribflirifle of Riu^ep ori u military i-jsptdi- 
tion he was coJLvej'efl Us HKeima, wberi^ be w!ib crowned kia^ 

'-■> of FrAne^, tbe ^)Sth of Januaiy, ><ll^. Eudi'S b?iRl?n^d to reaca^rl his 
ftutborily^ flDd a period of fltrile followtd. But Eudca waa gtsneroua, 
ULid the conti^t tuded by the c]ivi:uvin of tlie kiiigdotii. ^ha whole 
Hncceflsioii being guurdnieed to CliHrltti ufter thit de^itb oJ^ Kudes. 
Thv yonng pTinn^ had not long to wnic for the promiH^d inh^riUmce- 

AJh Eudea dUd in 8^8, with hie Jaet breuvh enjoming the beToaB to 
render to Cbarli:a oil duo ullcponce. 

Charieu 111., <jr Charles le t^imple, leigned tweniy-Uve years \ 
but they are yeais of which Tery liitie ie known. Only one event 
— important for Englnnd ks lor Franei? — marka it : th? gcemou of 
Normandy to tbo Pforlhinen, 

On t1jQ banla of the 8eine thoinvadera had hy this time foruted 
colonifis. IlByem, Evrciux, and Chnrtrffl w«re in tbeii hands, aad 

*j^ noWf in 91 1, they were powerfnl enough to njipope the royal Jirmy, 
commonded by Kicliard, duka ot Bur^ndy, mid iCobert, duke of 
FrancCt the brother of Eudea. Dtifoat, accompani^ by terrible 
elanghter, waa thQ f ate of the NDTmiina, and Itollo, tbiiir leadtr, to wed 
a war of t^tfiriuiiuttion in rtvtui^p. Tln'ii ilizke Ruliprt tendered 
his advice to tbe king. ' Let the iiri^hhiahop of Rouen he sent *ia rm 
envoy to Hollo, with tbo oifar of a nifl-priage with the princef« GisAlc 
find iLo bcrcdit&ry Lordship of the inndH bctwten Brittany and tbe 
Epte, on coadition ihiit h? would heiMfme a Chrintion and consent to 

rlivtiin friendhhtp nitlt France.* TbeNonnau cLic^ dcHuied the olTi?t 
insiiftidenl. ' Tho territory protTerod was," ho said, 'eihauatfld. 
He and his folloiVETB could not obtain &ubsi»Lcniic Erom it.' Britlanj 
wail thon Bii^i^ediod, Charhi) tmd no right fi> ^ive it; it waa o 
distinct alate undi-r its own piovlnce ; but Hollo kni^w nothing of 
ibis, or if he did kaotv it dtEemcd it of no crjnBeijueno& Tht 
armngomi'nr; waa finally roncludod, and the French king mot Rolio 
at ^mull vilJago nciLr Gieor^T A-^' ^H- 

The oath of fodty woa tbcrc dcmnodod, and the Norman chiof 
lock it, but he iefurt«d to complete lJie oeremoay by knfiftiiig zmd 
Vimin^ thekiiigV foot, juid ordered one ofhi^ nddii^rs lo perform the 
duty for bim. The man, ptrhapfi iutentionaily, perhaps from 
awkwardnosflj lifted the loot so roughly tliat ChurlM fell hachwarda. 
A burst of liLughter from (he Nonuans followed, but ihe )udi|^aily 
jMiafttd uunijticird by the Franks. They ww^ in uu coudition to 
(]u[litH wiLh their new allips. BoMo wjin now luiplised by the n&me 
of Kobert, aiter bin godfather, tJie duke of Franco- Moat of hiB 
foUowciu III no embraced ChribtJanity. Shortly siW wards La 
mnmed the l^Veiich princcDB, and from tins time beappean u«wiw 


C^^ftm U SimpU. 

rttlcTi goreiiLttig bia dorninioiiA so abij tliat Narmandy aoon tiecama 
a pmsperoufl uid itnporLAnt dtjcby. 

On the oLh^r ttnnd^ rbe incjip&city of QtHrleft la Simple viu 
quicklj appfLFent, For tea years he wna entir^y ^kj^ by the 
ettuosda i>f A mm) of loir birth numed Sn^ajma, whuoo pride aud 
dirJiQDcstj at length so iiTJl&t«d tke ooblea iliat duke Hol^tirt of 
Franccr look upon himself Im huAsi upon Iiii iHocg iliamist^, Tbe 
bipg ivfii9&iJ, and Iha aoblcii ro^ie in rebellion'. 

The evcnui vhicb foU<.-w«d cmi scarcely b« understood without 
tOBUi knowledge of the history of ihnt portion ol^ CbarJem^piiE^B 
iriupire iffhich had been iidioriicd by iiia grjtuJwa Louie the Ircr- 
ima, and which woa dov recofjuUed u the kingdutp ol GemutDy, 
dtetifict from Fnuice. 

It vill bi> rcmeinbered that Chrirle* le Groe wbc for a aJiort titna 
emperor lit ihct as vi^U ju in titEe^ uince ho t-iilod over Fnuice, Gor- 
maujt ^^^ Lorraint ~ but wbtD» afi^r bia Jit^raccFrU treaty with 
tbe Fiorthmcn, he waif deposed und the empire woa brr^en up, lh4 
G«nitBn» tfXffCiizd oji tboir eoT^^rei^Tn Arnizlf^ an i]legitinmt« grandwu 
of LoEiia lijo Gommn. Amulf waa erowncd by the Popo, and thia 
gvre ium a eUim to the title of r^mpcnjr. When be died, in )i^9, 
be leEl bis doiuimoos to bid Eitile buji Luui«, a child of ai.i yeai's old, 
wlio ^rew up lo \.Ai a youtb^ and waA acLually AcknowltHl^i] aa the 
»oTCT eig» ; but his rei^ was but a miBerable itniggle, and in 'Jl 1 
bo £m of a bnken heart. Wn poople imTncdiat^^ly L'lcGt«d Cooiud, 
WQiitt or dnkc, of Francoma, to ho their mooarclL Froni this 
period fur Jtmay ccuturiee the emperon of GcrmaQy irere not berc- 
difary but eleerod Tnooarohn. 

Bnl although Conmd ol^ Frvtcmam waa emperor In oame aod 
inAneuoe, ho did not poefiCas oJi the ttnitorics which belonged to 
C3i«HeinBgne'4 Jkiailr, Lorraine, the per«>nal iuheritance of youug 
Lonu^ ieli to thi? ahare uf bia couain Cburlee le tiimplt;, hiaj^ of 
Prsjice, and it vrna ih^re that Gharlea sought refuge wh^ hiA Ibliy 
liad eauBed a rebelbon, Hia taatea and fiyrupatfaien bad indeed 
&|wpyB be-m Gorman, and chie, no doubt, tended to olteuare hia 
peopW It waa the old feud between Atiatrasia and Neuatria, 
between llm Teutons and tbe Kocuuniaod Gauli^ U larleiangDe's 
family couJd srarcely fail to bs GermnnH, snd the French, who 
danred a vrholly indepcrjdtmt «xiBtenc« an a natieiii lauat hRV« 
TCgarded (hem aa obstaciea to the objoct which they had nt heart. 

The groat Ptni^lo between the two xacoa came to its ulimax at 

th« deibronemeut of Charlee le SiuLple. Duke Itobeit of Fraoce* 

wbo beaded the French nobles in fhi^ir lel^lLinn, wan proflaLmed 

a.iK king, and crowned at Rheimaon the 29t)i oF June, 'yi2j and civil war 

^^ ibcn became geoemL HaganoTi^ ihefrieod and muiiEler ofCharleo, 

mmm nnwi the NoFmaua to bia a±aistAnca, and in a great bL^Ctte bt 


i Ul I 


Soi^ona Robert, duke of France, vas alain ; but the victory 
rcjuaiocd wilih h'la party, vrhioh wu Jod by Koborfa aon, Hugk iV 
BiflEc (the Wliile), aiid Horhorl, oount of Vorniiindoi*. 

Orjcc more CbiLrle^ lied tuLorraJDe; aud the Freui:h iiobl^e agreed 
thftClhE crown alioiild he coof erred on Robert's son-in-law, ItodolpL^ 
dnlce of Jiurguhdv* who hud greatly contribute lo the yiotorj. 
Kodolph waa accordinglj L'rowm^d at Soi^^sonA. No objection jtppAra 
bj liJLVO bf-eii niudo to tha arranjceineiib oa Lhe port of IIu^'lx ibe 
Wtitj;, but the cooiiC of Vermaiidois waa dd oifeaded ul beiiig 
pOfsed orer that he sent a niPiMnge to Cha-Hen, Husuring him nf hi^ 
loyjklty. The king Ijusted himsalf Co hU deceitful va.^rial, and vote 

rtbea ■oiEAd »nd kept od a frlBoner- For sevou y&ita tha unhappy 
Clkailea Was trari&feTred from ooe duiigGon to nDother at ibo cApricc 
of hia cruel jailer- Whenever thofxiLiDEof ViaTiiandoia wwbecj to 
KXtort any favowr from Rodiflph hethreatmrtl m rajdaoe (Jhftileson 
hiB throne, When no fuvuur ^ua nucdod tho miscrulilo kiuji; whs 
kept in bifl cell, Tht count iras noi tudrely inseoaiblti W llie cruelty 
of tliiH cijaducC. The otd clironiclera say diat liu uL I^d^iL vi.iited 
the GJiptivp monarch and entrtnted his pardou, and p4.'rmitted htm 
to reside iii one of the ruv^l pulacoa, but be novor restored hiui to 
^J, liberty, and CbLU-leJ* h Simple, worn out by illneaa uud mlflefy, 
rau died in the coatle of Peronne in Oii^' 

IThij hpir of tin? CurlovineiaTi family waa now o oh t Id of ihraia 
yefU'S cM) t}te »:ori cf ChaH&i le 8implo, bat he va^ mit in FronoG. 
HiH mether, who wai tbo viator ol' ^ihGlatan, kinc; of tliG Aiigio- 
SaxDUft, hod carried him wilh her to Enslaad, The little boy, knuvrn 
by the n^kmi; ol Luuirf d'Outremtr^ on account u£ ihii t^rly ejulc, 
was hrougliL up lit rhrr court of hJii uncle, wliilz^t, koiloFph reij*ned 
flupreme tn France. The EOiint of Vernzandeia, indi^al| etill con- 
litiued lo oppoM him, but ti^iv timt ChjirU« lo bluiplc viaa d^ad 
llio grcHt secret of his power was gone, and Uo waa a.t length obliged 
to leave France and eec^k for the protection of Hocry the Fuwl«r, 
Icing of G'?ntiiiny. A regular treiiy of peace was rhen concluded 
'-fl- between the disputants, And the following year, 936, Rodolph di«d^ 
leaving no diildrea. 

Ilagh the White, count of Pnijid. might at orjoe ha?^Q placeil the 
crown on his owa head. But alter wocertiug ujeaKurea with 
Herbert of Vprmandois and Wilham I-fln^e-Kp^e (LonyHWord }, 
duke oE Normandy, b« Bent au ernba^ifly to England for the le<^ti- 
mote heir, thti tailed eon of Chnrlta le Simple, and oiiki^d for h'ta 
reward oaly the duchy of Boigundj, 

Ix>uia IV- WH« crowiipd at KhdniH, a.U. 9H. thi> aame year ihat 
OtJio thi» Great become kin^; of fiErmany. Hugh ]h Bhino fttained 
hifl foimer titlCj and wati Btill couat of Paris. In came the king 
WOiH Auperioi to tha vasAulr but Louia wa^ nbooluEc lord of only a 


ABiAll pojtloQ of Lis DomLaal kingdom. The coun^ of Laon belong 
to him tM bid penwiiil inli^numcfT but notliing morf^ The rjf>bJe 
vlio had maiie him a lujig was far ^reati^ thait himnelT, and Loub 
feJK ihla bitLbrly. Hugb vtouJd Ikiu buvu ^Tf.nitd him, but Louin 
«na high-apLfit«d antt aweried his tniJf pen delict, nnd Hugh rewunteJ 
it Lci^ewVnmeM followtd, Ibtn optn emmty. For a abort period 
the oiUbicjdc of tliU tbcLmi^ wim delayed. A horde cf irilJ llua- 
^naiw croB«d dud recroued tbt kincdoia like a derFtstatiti^ torrent, 
wd ail other i^bjeclA were put aaidt i[i tbt tfTort bu drive iLerri 
^■^faulL. ButirbeD Uufl was dous ibe uld feud hrolce OQt snitir E^uia 
^^^Hb^t perbapa bare been able to mnintflin hia cauae if hie E^caieQ 
^^^B[ bean ibund cnly in his owa txiuutr/ ; but^ booidtfl Hnjfh and 
^^^b bKTMka leagued wieIl hinif the king had ti foe in Otho of Ger- 
^^^E|Bf, ihe aiotti iidiu£DtiuL mouirch uf lLv liute. Tfilg he had 
^^l^rntd Otho'd giaer, GerbergH, a prioc^fs ol' rikni niptic^ and vhoae 
cresC wish vu to promote peaeo between ber hUAbnnd oad ber 
tfotbcr; but lor a time these personal ties trerc overlooked. The 
ctfUM ui Paris, Wiiliaoi, duke of Normiindy, the count of V«r- 
mandoiaf aud otJier^ uf the reWlllQUfl IdnJn fonualTy propowd Lo 
tnnrfac their alle^aoce to Otbo, and the (rermon king b«fJLin« 
ibcir leader, ood inradiiEg Fraace, cauot'd hiutEcIf to be proclaimed 
king at Attignj. Looia bravely dcfuudcd hia righta, aod wbeu 
Fupe Stepheu YIU. ioterpoBed bia joediaEion tbe French pnnceA 
voa Lnduced Eo TetTim to fh^ir duty. But peace in France vas of 
dwTt doradoD. Diapuieft arciao nat only betwwn the nobles^ hwi 
tbe ttHh^ps; ditfputee Irnportact in cheruaeJvcB, and alao marking 
iba cOuditiQa of society at ttin time, Tbe French bisbopa la 
kIm leadi CE:iitiiry resided lu tlio grtat calLedr;^[ cilueuj vliicb were, 
in fibct, th«r own domam. aubjert Lo them idmoRt in the ftiine degree 
aa ti>c domaicis of the gri?at baron?. When, tb^reforef oj^ liappened 
in the reign of LfOuta IV,. two ciiadiduteB npf>ciLrBd for tha arch- 
bialupcic of Bbeimis oac Auppcited by Hugh b BJano and tbe 
odier bj the king, a rtgnlar war waa the con sequence. The kind's 
an^liaoop was for nimie r!X[ieJled from lib^imif, and the city ihr^w 
off llie royal authohty nltogvtlier; and although thia Atate of things 
did not permanently continue, yet the qiuurol wae kept up during 
tbe vLule of tbe reigu of Louia IV. 

About ihia tilut^ WJ]JiEiia Loi%'ue-Ep^e. duke of Normandy, wda 
■iX>«ainmnrf and the NLirmuud aokaowlejtged om his Bucceifitir bis 
litcte aoD kiohard (afterwards named Sans Peur), then doly t«D 
jtfin of age. LooJa proposed lo lake charge of the boj, and the 
nfftr wa« accepted- But the trcachtrouB kiu^^i in concert with Hugh 
le BCsDC, plgHiid to tidze Nomiaudy, divide ib betrween them, acd 
k«ep cl:* fOQiig dnke a priBOuer. A Arthfid ivrrant diacoyered ihe 
pbr. and conoeaUng tbe cblid in n loud of hny, he carried bim avray 



XoT-i- IV. 

to the castle of Coucj amougHt hU own people. The French king 
made no furtliet eObri w reiakc tha JiltZe duke. &nd ijideod opeiil/ 
renounced Any such intention, brii Hngh le BUnc WJX9 iridignsm, 
and aoQQ cpenJy showed Jii^ cnuiiEy, 

The Norman city oi' Bnvcux was under the goTemmeut of « 
Danish prince, ULLmed ITnrold, but he hod been expelled Irom bia 
lerri[ory hy hia aoii, utid uuw h^ KJU^ht a ccinEi-reDce 'vjth IciQ^ 
I,ouiH nl thp Ford of Heiliiin. Louis rppaired to ihe nppoini»d ^pot 
vrith iL smfll] ratiuue. On n cuddt-n EJ(?nal n troop oi' Harald's 
followers attacked this G?Gort aad put thciu to iHg-ht. Loui^ mounted 
ou a Hwift lituso, fled cctoBfl thi.- fteldn t't Rouen, where, inflteud o£ 4 
re]\[ge, lie foimd tk priwUn for thi: iiilizibitJiiiCH vvtrt> ihe uccuinpllc«« of 
Harold'H perfidy. Hngh Is ftbno then nppesrtd upnn ife aciJie 
with olTiTB of atmelauce, but tLey ^ere of n BUqpiciouR ohitnuster. 
He proposiid thai thf two sona of Louia flhould bo given up to the 
Normana aa brmt^cs for thi^ir father. Gerbei^a, tlic ijutT^i, refused 
to rieJivpr up mr>rr; tJian on*: Hu^h prpvjuled rn tlir Nornjana lo 
agree, and the youti^ prinre wns placei in ihifir ^^lTld^ whilst Lmiia 
was delivered up to Ihe count of Parja. Thfiu Hugh ihrtw off the 
mnak and declared the king hia prifoner. In vain did ihc K-m>n 
king Eduiuiid, ilio brotljtr of -iidieblonT intercede for hici, Hugh 
k^e hifl u^jhnpTiy i?overi?ign 0. rAptive, loaded him with reproaeheft, 
iLud takijig odviinlu^ of hiH uCfer helpleaan^ui, refuaeil to hsI hixa 
free unJo.'H he wouLd consont to give Up LooHf the moot valunblo 
town in his hereditAry doiumunA. 

At tJiiii jirice l^iiiifi d'OiJtreiiier \Ka» at lengtl^ mt at liberty. At 
Compi^gne hia wile awniied him with miiny of tlii> bifihopfl anri some 
al hia tnoBt faithful Jriand^. In their prHsenee he cmdd not reslrnin 
hia bitter indignation ogBiaat hie cuemy, ^ Hugh t Hu|-h T ho 
eaehkiniBii, * wliat poaaesaionH hast thou robbed me of! What evils 
ImKt thuu inflicted upon me 1 Thou hast fleizirtl Lhetown of KheimB; 
thou hitsx (MmpoU&d me minwarea to give up Ijion. In those two 
towns could 1 find ^foty. Thty were my only ramparts. My father, 
a captive like myflclf, wjis delivered from his misery by death ; blW 
I, alas I rcdac^d to the Kune extremitv— ^ king ouiy in iLAme— long 
to dip., and yet am cmmpetled to I'lVt [ ' 

Help, however, waa not entirely wilfdield from the nnfortnnBtS 
king> Hia cauae wm taken up by hi* brother-in-IawT Oihothe GraU, 
hy whose aid Kheimei wau retaken, A couuciE of biatopfl was 
thfm flummDaeil lo IngelheiiEif at the contniand of Otho, to con»idfir 
tha RGCiiisationB brcir;jht by Louis d'Outremer ngainat his gruL 
vnasalf the eount of PuruL 

The king of Franco oppeatsd hefore thia foreign taaamblv lo 
[>]fad hia own cause. Sented by the side of Otho, he IJ^itcued wEtilal 
the papal legate uinounced the ubjecL of the eycud. Tiieii he ron 



and spoke ob ibSlows ;—* There i*no [jQeheTe present who iaignomnt 
(luit tlie meraeagerB of couitt Hu^ &nd cif lie otLer harona of 
Fnnce came to aedi me in th« ooontiy beyond the s&i, invidng me 
to rAhju to the kJagdoin which was my pat^jmaJ uJit^iiTJUicc I 
iroa ooEU^orated and crowned by the wiflfica, and with ihc: acclama- 
tiocui, of all the gre&t l^adera and thg whale anu/^ of FniQce, But 
ahortlj after count Hugh hy tniadH-ry seized, depo^ed^ unci im^ 
priscFDcd ma for a whnle year, and nnt till I luid agreed to i^elivev up 
LaoD, tba only Idwq of my herodiUry (xtseeBeioaa whtoh remamed 
in di^ hAsde of my own ]>Qop]t, vna 1 abio to obtain my Irccdont' 
IT aoyone here pr«aent cvi vay tL:kt those erUa have come ii{>on nie 
by my owu Ikulc. I am reddy u> defend luyHdT from accusadiiri 
eithef by the judgroent of the king and nynod now ptewnt or by 
ijngle combflt.' 

No ouQ of ibo fiiends of (he eount of P&ria yits prepared to 
■UMver on apptal of tliLs kind mudc: to a foreign tribunal. Tbtj 
OOttfidl WEkS removed tik Tr^ve^ and the It'gute pronounced 
MnlCDce of PTCornTnnn]ciIii~iii ap;ain4l the great bnron. Thiti provi^d 
eflective, and Hugh wita induced onco nioro to tender itllugianco to 
ihc kiBg- PeACO woa lor iha time reatorcdf btittha wild Bun^;arian4 
ODce more made their ajj^pcarBDce iii Fmuct, ruvagiiig the ixiuiitry 
■round Laoo and IZheim^. The Icinir hnnt^neJ Uy rejmlse them, iini 
AC he wjw (raveraing the i«fld between the two cities a wolf crofieed 
bu path I be nuhed forwiird alter ir, but hia horeo fell, imd ho 
Lb r^odTod A Iftlal injury- In the month of Sept^mWr 9J>4 Loui^ 
'^ d'Outreiner died. He vtab but thirty-three year* of at^e ; he bad 
oloii and pourafeT and, cjcwpt in bin treutment of Kichnrd of Ncr- 
nwidy, he exhtbitod many noble qLiRlittes, but the untoi^ard cir- 
aunMance? of hia position were txi airong for him- Power and 
mfloaice were puwing into other hands, and his aCtiig^Jea to retain 
hia rrown served only to show that the apirtt of the great Charle- 
magne waA not (tntirf<ly lo»jt; in bia deecendanTH. 

The line of the (.'ArloTingion kir^ga wna non font haeUming to its 
end, Lothaire, the bod of Ltmia d'Outrerner, though only a boy uf 
lburt«eEi, waa achiiovle^jged u Jds father^a Euccoswrt A.D, ^oA. 
Hugh le BkiUi^ tuude iiu eJIbrt to setze the throne; he died t^o 
jian afterwarits. So tt might have aeemfd that Lothalre would have 
hoen alloved to enjoy hit iDbentance in peace; but the spirit of 
ootint Hofiii bad descended to hid ^n, atlenriLrda known aa Hugh 
Oapett and the old enmity waa dcatin^d ag^iin to break forth, though 
ivC to the fomn t^i^^ent- There 'vavt peat^e ai ^tsI. If LothjLite was 
but fourteen, Hugh Capet waa huE ten yearfi of age, and the two 
buy» mete brought up with common intareBt^ and relationahipa, for 
ihej were cotuiim. Hedwi^ the mother of Hugh Citpel, and Ger- 
bn^ the moth^ of Loiliain?, were ^Kith sisters of king Otlto of 




GermaQy, aod both d^oirod Ut p1»ce their c^hildren under tua powerful 
protctcjfm ; but perBOdl iiUiiLacea haTe fievtr bi^eii Mo long to 
wirJiataDd thfi forL;a of poLitica] iLatAj^ooimn^ WLiloL Oduj the GrcuC 
livi>d Lhi^rc MouJd HUtiiii Lo have bten tiu ctjcUula In^wi'tin G^rntany 
and Franc?, but when h& died, and was aucccetlod hy hia son, kinowa 
UH OlUiJ U-, tbo strong tio was broken* uod Lorraint, iJie borderland 
botwoBQ tLe t^u countrici^f becanm ugain Lhcir cpplo of dibcord ; it 
was contiideied a province of the empire, but Chailea, iht) brotlift of 
Lotbalre, luid iidjei^itud mj^li^ jKntioii of ii in tight of his mutbcr, 
Olhii ot' (lerniaDj prnjiospd t^fi.t thf^p lani^s i^hnuld hi> held a.4 a fief 
from him; Lothaire iotiUttii on being himaeil' reco^niued aa the 
Buzerniu. War ^ns the rceuitt Lothaii'i: £ccrc:tly collected hifi trcnp^ 
and Imalened to jVis-U-Cbipellt!, whcrthenairly surprised Otho him- 
aelfi otjcvipiud the town UEid Lhe pakiu^, ovi.7Lhrcw ihe tuyul luiBifDs, 
CHrncd away i[^G imp^rinl banners, and, in mockery oftha prpcipirjLFi- 
flightuftboGemuiJiBti-(>nithetorrUjtiumed lo thcfloUEh-east the bmuce 
cdgle ^Thtch bni bean placed by ChDrU-m*piti on the top of hia palace, 
iVElh i[a ouiApretid wiaga lowcrJa the wt]«t. Then be retired, hAving 
aiLtl^^Htul bU JrtdignatiEin^ buL obfiLiEied iio rnU advanl-ige^ And now il 
waj Olh*"j'n turn lo ahow hri wrath by making repripn}*. Aq LnLh^iire 
hwl ndvnnceii to Aii-Ja-ChupeUe, bo he advanced lo l*ajiaj Uermaa«T 
LorraiziorA* FJoDiicga, and Suxonit in hia iruin, au jirmy of sixty 
tboui^uud ia iLumhi^r, On tht; hul^hld oi Mualiuortre ihey encaniEied, 
and from ib^nu* (be eriipuior <»r Gtirrrmny sunL a irn^sTifngiT rn Hugh 
Gtpel, wlio was prepared in Jri^fend dip capitul, Hngb wan u frietid 
to the chnrchf and iho nicbhaL.-c bo rocfiivod woa dictatod in ecom of 
hia devotion to bcr. ' Let cjunt Hugh know, ' was iho juipon, ' iliirf 
Wis mra flhulJ be fiiluUd witli a Luder AUeluift tJiau he liu ever veE 
L«ard -' ami when the notuebad b<-^n given the prii^Bisacconifianyin^ 
the Germ an army brolte Itirth ititoninf the TeDeum, whiletfhe imil*d 
Tallies of tbK vafitajmy ofBoldiDraj^ivothe rflBpoDBea, The ihuiulvriog 
ecned sLiaTtled (hv aalonialied Partaiaiift, but (heir alarm waa needleiis, 
Otho lb, cdQteiiLfid with hirtbiayjido, renminnl buL ihrtednys bi:'f*>re 
lb<? ciiy and Then retirr-d. llij< reireat waa disuirrnuB^ Lntfiaire 
attjLck&d and defeui^d bint m-^ir S^ihidsoim, aud ail lu8 baggnge and 
alorea fell into ihe handa o£ thu Ficnch. 

■Teace followed, aud hfjihajre, Hf^ainat the wiohu of his people, 
and cuuirary 1,0 the witlteb of llii^h Capel^ gave up Lorraiuu to 
Garmfiny. Onwafterwar^l*, after the dcnth of Oiho IL, he attempr«l 
to r«[ak« the province^ hul failed ; ytt (he atlempt pleaaod his enb- 
jeots and giiiaed him a li[t|<> popularity. His povv^r, bowcvcrt wac 
decreuaiug and Kia authority puAOtn^^ into (he hand^ of Ilugb Capet 
' LatliaJfo,' wjote GerberL, one u£ ihe mo^t diatin^unJicd ecdeaaiptici 
□f \h& tEiiith izL'ucury, ' ia king only in name. Hugh does not, indeed, 
heur the titJo, but be i* ao in act and deed.' 


^J^ Lotbaire died at Rbeims, the 2nd of March, 98fi, at the age of forly. 
fi»iir. His heir, Louis V., was a youth Fally coDsciona of his own 
weaknen and Uie power of the mi^h^ Hugh Capet, His public 
addrcBs to the great barona showed the position which the)' wooJd 
faenceibrth hold towards one another. 

'When my &ther was dying/ said the yonng king, adrsncing 
towards count HugbT 'be recommended me to govern the kingdom 
with your aid. He assored me that with this aesistance I ahonJd 
pruwn ricbea, armiea, and the strong places of the kingdom ; Jet it 
pie«n yon, tbeOf to giTe roe the benefit of yoijj connflel^ In you I 
place my hope ; to you I devote my will and my liitare.' From 
ttcnce&Tth count Hugh was of course the king^s master. 

This mngnlar ntlatiDii between a aoTerei^ and his tasi^l was 
but of short doralion- After a year of discord Louis V. died sud- 
denly and mysteriously, it is supposed of poison administered 1o him 
hj lua wif^ He was the last of ihe direct deflcendanla of Charle- 
magne. His tmcle Cfaarlefl, duke of Lower Lorraine, nii^t indeed 
Urly have laid clum to the throne ; but Charles wan a man bo entirely 
witbout talent or inf uencc that there were few to support bis pre- 
tcDsioDa. Under ^ese circumsCancea Adalberon, the arcbhiahop 
of Bheims, convoked a national aiuembly at Senlis for the purpose 
of considering the election of a soTcreign. The spirit in which be 
addrvned the people expressed their wtsbee as well as his own. 

' If,^ he 9t^df ' you wiph to ensure the misery of the kingdom, 
yon will make CharleB your king- If, on the contrary, you desire 
that the country should be happy and proRperous, you will crown 

,^ Hugh, the iiluatrious duke/ And Hugh accordingly was crowned 

>T by AdalberoD, at Noyon, on the Ist of June, 987. 



At the aoccadon of Hugh Capet the duchy of France, which com- 
poaad the royal inheritance, consisted only of a portion of the terri- 
lory between the Somme and the Loire. It was bounded on the 
Borth by die domains of the countfi of Flanders and Vermandoia ; 
on the wes* hy Brittany and the duchy o£ Nownandy, to which 
Brittanr wns ftndally snbjeet; on the east by the territory of 
liie count of Champagne; and on the south by the duchy of 

These four statea, (ogellier wlih the duchy of Burgundy and 
the county of TouIouhc^ formed the great fiefa of the crown of 
France. Thtiir lurda v^-t^ie. in moit ren^cii, ahic to not lu indcpcn- 
dent iioveK!igQ3. They were tenucd peers of France, and na such, 
HccurJing to llm fti^liii law, could unly bt judged by their fellow 
nobles, the Icing presidlug over the i:tiurt.-+. Thin RjatPm of tlie 
feiiiiil Uw hecame regulArly e^liihhshed in Fntncfl ahoat T.he tirac of 
Hugh Capat, though iu lorm may bo traced long boforo ic the 
BBciimt historic^ of th<^ Gorman tribuo, aiid especially in the dU- 
tiDciioa cifulerr^ npoQ the yocug waniors who alt-icheJ llieinseives 
to the perron of their chiftf, anrl reckonfld i: diHgraeefnl lo ff;irvi»e a 
coriflici in which he woa kilfcd, Pres^nta of horse* nnd weapons of 
war wtre n sul3icE«it flcknawJedgnL^^nt of ihia tlerotion tbon, but 
when tie I'fiinke were aortlfd in Gaul land becnniethc mofttcOTeled 
rewjird, and v/m btntaired tindtr ci^rlaiii cx>Ddi];io[iH. Forlion^^ of 
the romjuered urritoiy htcanm tht prnpenj of the TJctoricGP chiofe 
absolutely. These wwre called a/fodiol lands, and, according to thd 
langiio^s of tho moat imcicnt chartor^ wciro held cjnEy of God and 
tha BwoL-d, AllodiEd propneCore atnongnt the Franks bore no part in 
the public burdL-UA beyoud thai of sharing in the defence of tbo 
cnuntrj snd in warlike expeditions. This liability to raUicary hct- 
Tice ajeme to haro becQ tlie origin of the claim ai^twurds made by 
the feudal lord to dispose of hia vflseukra daughter and heiress in 
marringEf, ^wbicli doubtleu arose from the nirceasily of providing 
fotnc one who unild fulfil the military tufrvlce in the plnce of the 

The iJiodiixl holdings diminii-hf^d as timo wont on, for rnnny of 
the Iciuwr iDdepencIant proprictGr4f finding thcmsclTCB BUrroundct) by 
ii ru^ttf population, »(^re gW to seek piol^ciiuu frcui their euperion 
in poWE^r, and excbango their allodial for feudal lenuro.'i. Thin e£- 
ch&n^Q waf< eJTect^ by the freeholder app«u-tng before the noble 
with a clod of turf or the branch of n tree in hia hand and definitely 
giving up hia freehold, which won imtnedintely restored to him to 
enjoy ditd diajwee of as befcire, upon the condition of torteio ser- 
vicos txiing paid in return for ihe prol&clion nf the f^ent lord. 

Allixlial property waa alao frequently alienated, by the pmctic* 
of mnkiog donations to ohurchcfi nnd rokgiouf bo usee ; but the 
L eccleaiaetica] ownera of the land were nol esempt from milibiTj 

I iuTvici>t nnd biBhopfl nnd abbot4f were bound Ic iippeiir theniaelvea in 

I Arm»i At the hejid of ihfiir r«tainerB, until Charlemaj^ne pcnnitMd. 

\ them to aetid Ihoir Tuesals to the camp instead- But there waa & 

I Mcond form of property dnttng^ from ilie ^cttlcmetvt of the Franks in 

I GquI — tbnt of the beneficitim. or fief. Tliin vas land which had from. 

m the very bi'fpnning bi?i*n gninM*d iijmn i^pecial conditkina to soma 

I iflTourite follower. If the condition^ were not kept, the land mighL 

Huu mm wm uu nmu^ luui, 

by peraoDS who were not thtf cwner«, but who paid » fixed 
r<:Tnt tc the foqdal pnjprii-tjra. The poorer perwcfl of this 
ere accuotomeii Co camnietid llieciselvea in llic prot«:tiDD of 
Kjwerful ntible, and paiJ in rctiuri a stijiulated HervicCp ur curiae, 
ras called. Tlie^ loruf'^Ji; were oIIpji vtry oppressive^ and 
□g after, fll the outbreak or the Froncli revolutioD, n gr**oX 
of Utc huCrcd shown by the puafiaala to tbuir lorda. On all cBtikt«fl 
were beaideo B&rSi, or a!aycfi| who vcro tbo abaoluM piopertjr of 

IE IbudaJ ayawm was an admimbte iuBtitutlcin fortlie prot^crjon 
ividnalfl againit barbarous vtok-cco, but c^>uve^ttd eat^b fi^f 
hat irji;2:hi almost be termed an independent sULte, On tiic 
km of ITugb Cap^t there irere no E^ra than 150 lordn, or 
, wbo jMjfiDeawJ tj^it rigbt to coin raoupy, inake pnvato war, 
tpo«« tuicei, and ivbo dtcidpil cnwa of life and death. Muny 
n pD^usned territciTiea t'uHy as large aa thoso of LUq kiag. 
.pt<^ry of yruncG for ecvcral centurica is in DOnuqacnce Itttle 
titan u liistory o£ tbc atrufglo b&tween tbe kiog and the gri^t 
the ^.iduai HubjugatLun of rhe hiii«t, aud the uJLliUikte coii- 
tjan of all powtr in tb(> hjinrls of ttic moTtaroh. 
» aceefluon of Hugh Capet ia cEpeciaJly noteworthy becauao 
Mad a dyrukaty upon the throDe vhicb wa4 esachtially French 
to theCerman Carl ovin Brians, nnd tbc great lords de^red 
\g one of llik?lr own order iiEid nice. Tlit duchy of France 
most ceutiBl and importAiil fid' in the hiTigdom, imd Ibr 
Hugh Capet waa deemed the fitteat pcrtou to be kinp, 
br &« mepoa re«:ariied hitn an a H-v«rei£ii lo whom 


and had recoiirae to treacherj. By the aid of the unprincipled 
Adalberon, bishop o£ LaoD, he contriTed to introduce a body of 
French troopA into KhcLms while Charles and his officers were on- 

Mi gaged in the solemn services of Holy Woek, a.d. 9dk The unfor- 
tunate prince of Lorraine and hia young wife, Agnea of Vermandoia, 
were seized, and sent as prisoners Co Oriean^f and there, after a Few 
months^ Imprisonment, Charles died. His eldest son became duke 
of Lower Lorr^ne and died without issue, and the two younger sons 
took refuge in Genoanyt where their deeceudante became landgravcA 
of Thuringia. 

Hugh was now relieved of his gr^test danger, but difficuldos 
still remained. The barona of the aouth rofiised to recognise bis 
titJe. ' Who made thee count ? ' asked Hugh of the powerful count of 
Perigord, who had overrun Tonraine. * Who made thee king 7 ' was 
the haughty rbply. Tbe b^t support for Hugh Capet lay id the 
clergy, and apparently with this view he showed such marked &vour 
to tbe church that it obtained for him the title of its defender; 
and so marked was his outward respect for religion that during the 
whole of his life he refosed to -wear his crown, and appi^ared before 
hia people not in the robes of a king^ but in the ecclesiastical drees 
which belonged to him as lay abbot of St, Martinis of Tours. 

Tbe nine years of the reign of Hugh Capet were without any very 

J^' marked events, and on the 24th of October, a j>. 996, he died at Pans 
in the ^fty-seventh year of bis age^ Hia last injuucdons to his son 
Bobert, whom he had prudently caused Co be crowned before hts own 
d^tb, were to protect the church, and on no account to alienate 
tbe endowments belonging to abbeys and convents, lest be should 
incur the wrath of their founder, St. Benedict. 

The custom in France of making gifts of land— ^knoiim aa 
Manages — to the younger sons of tbe king datoe from the acoesBion 
of the Capetian family. These eetatea at last became provinoest 
and for a long time tbe custom of apanagea greatly interfered with 
the tarritoiial unity of the kingdom. 


A.D. 900-103 L 

It was a tiuiveiml belief of the age in which the Gapetjan dynaatf 
was established on the throne of France that the world would come 
to an end in Che year 1000. Christianity, which inculeatee the doo- 

'*tCTATtOg OP THE LkWf OAT — n^OO !» AqPltAIim- 6& 

tiT&c that DiAC la a ettaagt^r and a pit^riiu in a worid diK-nied to dc- 
•Aracdoo, laid lb<; fc/undadoii of the Uul, autl cLg sbkte of aocieiy 
fiiTtbered it Life, in th« middle age^, wa4 chaos and ironteal; tn4>n 
Tha vmtiired In think and reason loogtd for urd^r and repoae ; feur 
ha^ finy expectation of licding thorn Hive in dt-nth- 

Tlie end of this weary world waa, in fact, alike their hcppeand theit 
dread. The empire of Home had crumbled to duAi. so had ihaL of 
ChArifTnagne. CbtintiAnit^, ihough il Ifsfn&d The ^vils of life, and 
^T« power for tbcir onduranc^, fttiU made no pronaiap oftermuiattng 
thciD. Mij^cry succeeded miwr^f min V9s heapi?d on ruin« Some 
ictapDsIdoa of God voold fiirely coa\t I Anil it voa waited fcr, 
Tb« captive iiL Ilia dungeoD, the wrf vrurkiiig at the pluugli uoder 
[|te ahaidow of hia oppre^isor'a caiille, the monh in the m^iitTids of The 
ctoiater iFtriTing againit the temptittiona □£ Viis own heart and tbo 
iUa^o&fl of the ^piriU of erii whom hia facrv conjured up to tr^rnfr 
hiiu. aU alike crared relief^ all ahke Tdt iLal It wae butter to iail 
mifl the Hands of God and kni>w ih<^ir fnra for ever, than i*i smiggla 
for on oxiictecce without charm and withoat hopo under che opprea- 
dte Tuis of fierce and heartli;&s mcu- 

This awftit e^rpcctation of the speedy coming of the Last Day 
waa detpenetl by ihe calnmi'ies wliich preceiled or quickly followed 
iL tlie dawn of the jf^r 1 OQO. A ti^rrible plugue d«fii>lated Aqniiaine. 
The 1]«t of the uohappy vioiime who wcro etrickan by it fell off 
ia flak« aa thou^'b bu/nt; and io this atato of Ltiag de<:aj they 
libmigeil the roadn asd the Mcred vlirmeA, and crowding around 
ihe chun<hw iiiM^Tiiiified lh« evil hy ihe ponutluri ot' the air- The 
totishtra bifibopfi ordered tbi? rvIicH of tbo saioti^ to b^ brought forth 
from the chtirchea. Then the crowd increased; the prtHBuro re- 
dmibUd, aad the miserable aufierers died otn whikt ootualij louoh- 
iog ihe reitce which it wss HuppoarrJ qotild be tbeir cure. 

In ibe general tpmw the rch, carclesa of the po#fieHfti*nifl for 
whioli in loo many cEisea xh*iy hoid rlnked ihelr eonla, voiight oaly to 
alooe for tbeir miiideedti bj gifia and rcetitutiono. Laodef houaeB, 
wHi, were offered ro the church- The legal deeds by which tliCM 
diioaticiia vrere Hicured ahow thu prevalent belif^f. ^ The night of 
lb« world draws near' — Huch in the langungB UBod.— ' povh dayheapa 
ruin upoa roin. 1 (counter baron) give to wtKh a chikrch, for tli© 
welfare of my eoul; ' — and then foUoWB the description of the gifta.- 
Or a^io, * Seeing that sUvejy is coutraty to CliriaiaaJi liberty, 1 
mt free «uch an dae, my serf — be, his children, aod their de- 

But La many cafea gifU and reslit^utian did not mtiafy th« re- 
pentant eoldicTB- They desired to rdin<iuLeh the aword and aticlier 
tliemaelvea &oni ibe comiag evils under the habit of the raonk. 
Piiocefl and Doblea had often but one wish — to enter a monustery. 


S(j jrr- UESRY Cf n^tiUAHT — EDtJCATlOa OF BOBIRT — HARniAaE. 

William T., duke of Normandy, wotild have giv&n up everyiliin^T 
and n^red to tbe abbey of Jumii*gca If the abbot wouJd have per- 
mitted it; nupt L, duke ofBurguodj, was oqIj presented Irom 
bpcomin^ a monk hj iJip intfrposiMiiii cif tbe Pope und thfl vmpernr ; 
Mpnry ir. of GermBiiy actunlly renDiincpd his empfre, mada the "vo^ff 
of obedience to the abbot c^ri^t. Vannes, nnd only reflumed hia royal 
dutioB vhen compellod b^ tho abbot^B ordfirB. His name hafl bew 
buiid^ dcAn to ub as St, Hcnrj^ 

Aiiolbef- BOvomgQ e^fuaJly a. rain t, bin not canonraed. wiiaEubert. 
AmTnamod ih^ Pioiia, tbe son nnd sncceiisor of Hugh CHptt, king cf 
France. Ho wna id hia tweoty-foiirth year when, by tfio dpatti of 
Kia father, he bi^came aolc king. Gcntltf, btncvolcut, aimplc, reined 
ju Tiia l-iHtets and eminently devotional in i^iint, Robert would eeem 
to have been prenlinrly fitted for the doipter ; bai Providejiijfl had 
mnrkpd him out for a throne, and hifl father, in order to prepare 
him Ibr it, placed Kim aader the care of G^rb^rt, arcbbiahop of 
liheims, the mo&t learned atid ocieniific; mini of Ina timt, who h*d 
nludiifd algebra at Cordova among^ the Spaoinh Moora, had Tcamt 
how lAJ coriPtTUf-t a rlrrk, and had dived an derply \j>\>\ the ravsteriia 
of phyniciil knowled^ that hja wondering cont'mporarieflri.'gflrded him 
ana nvaffi<^i[Ln, The jounH[binK jrrt*w up well versed in eo^'eral hranchea 
of aecula.r learning, b^dpB being akilled in niusii^. He conipoaed 
hymns for c^huroh Htrvii^en and sUf)erin Tended the building of 
caibcdralft ; but something more was r^qujrod aC; that »itarmy peHod 
of the world's htfttory^ and Roherl'i reign was destined to be a sorrow- 
ful struggle between hia principles and tutea and the ceccsaitjea of 
hia poHilioa. 

The moat Lnj|«rtaDL event of hid life before he became sole king 
had been his marriage. His wilb, Bertha, the widow of Eudi^A, 
cftunt of BloJe, aud the daughter of C-otmd, date of Eui^undy, 
wa» jOQng and heantiful, and the object of hia tcnderpal allf^cion. 
Bui the moxiirt^ hiul jvlao been one of policy, for Bertha had a daiiii 
to the duchy of Burgim<ly. whicb^ when she married Robert, might 
be trannnUted to Fraace, T\\t? allinnoe proved moRt diAQslrens- 
Tbe emperor of Germany, Oiho HL, deejred to annojt Bur^ndy to 
the empire, and he pers^^ed the Pope, Gregory V., to proooimoo 
Robert's marnago invnlid, on the plea ibAt, According to tl^e canonical 
law, ho and Rerthn were too nearly rclafed. They were oouaina in 
the hsurth degree, and had atood t^pon^ior^ for the rame goddiUdp 
the laller being conn dered a spiritual relntionahip which rcndertd 
'■K marrti^e itiadmiHiible. In 906i two jeara afler Uobert's acceaaioT], 
tJic Pope ifaui^d hia decrw: — 

' King Itnhert, who haa married hia relation Bertha, in dj>Qance 
of the laws of Ibe ehurch, will renounce her, ^nd do penance for 
acTon yeara, aocording lo canoaical usage. If he re£uw to 

to o btfr< I 


lei him he aaaiharu; And let the nme ifctence be ip^li^d to 

J>cvot«d to the church though king Robert Tindoublcdly was, j*t 
lite fizcoEumiuiicatiou ir^uacdliiiD to lel^jelliaa. Ut refoficd to separate 
Irimi bU bt^loved EerlLu. Evin die neat approach of the cirHiidec! jeur 
of daara Bfvtnfl to hitve haj] buc liitle eWbCt upon him. Perbo-pB he 
felt th«t tha justice of God nontd then revoke the harsh docroe of 
DUO, The Pope, indif^anl at his dUobedioace, pl(u»c] the Icin^om 
Dkdvui intailit^L The jmb^ic eervlces of th« church were f^rbiddtrL; 
no ncmnieDi uii^hc beadministereil to the living, ne words uf blewt' 
ia^ nu^fat hallo» the gnvei ef the defid. The cburch bellfl were 
nJojced ; the pictures wore taken down from tho wtdU of the sacred 
traililiiigs; the ^itatuea were removed from their pedeatolfl and laid 
upon bedfl of ashes and thorns The mtMrj wbith the people eo- 
dnrsd from the interdict at leiigt}i flubdub the Iting'^ ApiritL liertlia 
w»« [mt AWBf, but hiM ^ove remained imoltered, ond the anguish of 
eepuDtion yrsm feltdurin^ tho remiLiridi^T orhie life. 

And Dov the dreaded year wns put. The elereuth century 
hail dawni^d, and rhe judgment of (ind was aiiJ] deferrer]. The 
imiTer«U penitt^nce rieemed, indeed, tohnve twen aeeepfed, for blaia- 
■ inp were again voaehBaiGd. The harvest of lOlil waa one of re- 
mnrkftble nbuadance. !□ tohen of thankinlneas a gencroJ effort 
wss made* not ooly lit Fnuice, but thj-gughuut Chriatendooi, to t^jii- 
bclliflh and restore the caihedmEfl, nnd some of the most beanriftij 
aicbiLecluml monuments tkf ChH^Ctan art, fluch ua thfr magiLiEic4.'at 
■Abbeys of CLuny and VezeJai, date from ibis period ot reavifed Life 
&ud hope. 

The unhappy king Holjert atone appearei] marked ouc for iu* 
CTOSBUg trial- A second mnrri^ige wa* required of him, that the 
throne miphi descend to hiit children- ConHtLiice, duu^hter of the 
ooont of TouJonae, wau fitted by htr birth to become the i^ueen of 
P^BOOe; bot her impericjusi even cruel diapuutiim euilcd ill with the 
king'i^ IFeDtlenesH. Roberl married her, but hia afler lift* wuh 
uiaer^ble. ConstflQce, brought up in the lnmriouft south, airracced 
to ber court b crowd o£ strangers vrhoao luxury And extravagance, 
e.qj««i^ly ID dr1:^A, ha'l a pemicioun cfTect upon the hitherto simple 
nuDuers of the Frtn^li court. ' Tliey arc tht vaineHt, most f ri^ oloaa 
of m^Ti,' Ayt n monkir^h hiAiorian of the period. 'Their mode of 
liriag, their appeflranee, their armour, the hameea of their horses, 
•r« uJ eqttalLy whimsical. Short hoiri shaven chiJis, ndiouloiu boots 
tiuned up at the ti~«H, Bnd gcrterol peculiarity of dreoe mark the 
wart of order mid ri|7;ht piinci;jle in their mindB/ Lilc'Eaturv, indeed, 
ud civitiA&iton w^re introduced by the AquitacianB, m veEl a» 
ahflord fiuhtons; for the poeidon of their country had brougtjt thom 
iaiA cloee jnfercouree with the SunicenSi who had conquered tho 



G8 noBERT'a MuacAL i-astk — his supebstitiods DEcf.prioya. 


f;reflt(^r part nf Spain, and who wpre at tbat *inie tie moat ^n- 
lightpniHl pettpJe of Europe. BuL the haLits of tlie aomh vdre cer- 
tainlj not in Rceordance with flo spvpriiy of the moiinfllir diaciplitie, 
and muBt have Iwgti (SKpednSly ollendivfl to ting Ktihcrt- Miieio 
waa })U one pcrmiTtcd plcLiBUre, but it vma coiiaccnite<i Er>1dr 
lo religion. IlJn ]«s3]oq for it ltd him lo tnke a peraonal fliare 
in the publit! nerviceM, ami tifteii in tlie clmrcL of St, Deiiia, At 
matinfl, tnafla^ and ve*p#nt, he miphf Im! si^en, orowneil And droeaed m 
Lifl royal robefi, dirccIiDg tho cboir, and nn^ng wilh the monks. 
One day Tcturmnjic after hi-s earnest and pctiiti^ntjal prnjets, he fniind 
thathiB vaiii vnie bad ciused hin ianci: to bi" ornaci'-^iTf^ with ailver. 
Kuberc esnminpd it, anil ihsn went out into the fttreeta, and m«^Qg 
a ragged bi^ggtir nnked him to fetch lorae inBtniment by which the 
jLJlvvr ornaments attached to the lance could he taken fiff- The mnn 
went away, and Robert occupied the time of his nbBCnce with prajer. 
When (hp inDtriimtnt wua brought tlie k!n^ shut himself i^p Ln a 
roorn with the beg^r, exit off tlie aKvpr r^m^ment^ nnd placing l^iem 
in the itum'a ponchf recommtitided him^ A4 wiui his wont m nil <!neoB 
whunhe riada any epecia! gift, to tafca prcot care that the queen did 
not know iC' To snve himAeEffrom bis wife's indignation he liad 
recnnrie to tx Jalsehood, which pivea n oiiHoiin illuKtratim of bin ideas 
oi morahty. Ho told Conntince that hfl did i)oI know how Lt hap- 
pened that the lance ^vilg despoiled oL' it« omainenta. What amount 
of credit Constance pave to tbia aaflurance uannot be known, but 
certainly king Hubert's little fict^ of what we ahDuld caH deeepiioa, 
tliongh taused by a piouB scruple would be b flcandal in the present 

It was ciifitomnry at that period to awoar by pome eacred relic, 
wliich Wft9 con«derrd to make the nath binding. ItobeTt c^iised a 
cryKial uhrine to be made, apparently for the purpo»: of contiiining 
a reliD, but in which he tiwk carf there should be nothing of ihe 
kinil, ir^ then made hie noble-i tw^ar upon thin ehnne, nod oven 
occasionally took an outh binisdf upon it, and believed that In the 
absenci^ of the r«lic there woijld be lepaajQ in breaking it. 

The king'H wiint nf windiLni vraa nnfiiriunately a» remarkable aA 
hifl chanty. He waa eHpei-inlly tender- h en rtpd Toward? eriniinalB, 
On oriQ occBflion he enw a privRt fleorf^tly st>?iil n eaudleetrck froni a 
church- Queen ConHtanec declared that Iho other prier^iswho onplit 
to have guarded the cbufcb should lose llieir eyed if the eaadle- 
Ftick waB not restored. As ftjon aa die kiiiji hearil ihia, he sent ftr 
the thief and Baid, * Friend, hnDten away, lost my qticen, Con»itaace, 
ahould diseOTW and dovour theo. Thou hant nuvr the mcwDfi of 
Teaching thy native place, and may God bo with thee.' The thiiJ 
flepArtt^ and as soon hs the king bcliered him to be enfe, he tiimed 


rilj Xa his attandanls and nsk^df ' Why rraubU yoiinielvefl bo 
roueb fthoitt a oandJ^'BCick ? Gort has givao it t . ogq of Hie f-oor." 

Yet Jigbert waa cupablo ol eaveriiy. but it was only rownrJs 
lurelica. Ttfo ptiHtA, caaooa oJ' tba church of ih^ (July Crtj*^ hd 
Orleuis, &nd one o^ ihem tlie *:i>nfrB«ir cE (}Ut-ea CoiiHiaace, wepi? 
fiiacovered to be the Jeadera of a seel who denied tha inspiration at 
the OJd Testament and Ihf d'KJtriae of the Trinity, condeained tho 
oitiuiflDCa of iiuima^"T and Uircw discredit U}>oii obediuooe Eo llie 
mOTol Uvr. Every eSort was made to induce llie prieela to rccattt, 
but vliea thify oliHliuaifiy rtifuscd Lhi-y wen deh\ered over Ui iho 
fnghtful pAinishnif^t r^i^i^rved for ioch offences, and condemood, wiih 
Atoron &th«TSi to be burnt ot lh« euke- Tlio kmg beJieved thftt La 
Waa peribrming an act of piety in being prcaf:iit at thfl awful apec- 
taole; audu tbe uuitappy iii^ti were led lo exti-cuiiuti) ConAtance. 
iiuerlj regardleteof hutuAEiiiy. HirLH^ her confL-aflor bo viultviiJy widi 
& KUuJ itBfT tipped ^'ith iron that one of his eye^ was ilnihed out, 
Tba brutajit}' and bigotry of tiie Jige not onty excused the nut, but 
eveu nppn>ved it 

TLt here&j' wjis for the time snpprcwedi but only lo reappev in 
a inor^ advarjced lonn At n later dAie. 

Tbo Jewi ixltti wens ^rii'voualy opprsawd at Ibia period, and vrere 
oatni^i;ed and pLtof^t-d ythh impunity, the people itiUB revetigiOM 
Vpt>D ibeiD the miaefies inilicieJ by tJie cruel noblea. The king raw 
iwB'tria]/^ all ikrouiid him, but becould oniy pnrLiuUy relieve Jt. Hi^ 
fearon* were too strong for him, nvd any i-ower whi^h )ie puwu?ssed 
tTBA, ID iiid declming yeura, conipelled lo he exert>-d af^ini^t his own 
childidi. The iruoicct and tuctioua conduct of ConitJincfl fi^iiter&d 
a rvbeUioufl B^^rit in ber sone. They seizud th<^ roy&l caqtieti and 
appropnaied to ihemftelves llie revenuea of tbe royul doiiiaJDa; the 
king had no reeuurce but To t&ke up arms ngninKl thetn, and jiE't^r a 
lengthened campaign in Durgundy the rebi'Llioa wa« subdued. But 
Hiobert waa hiniaelf overcome by an effort bo contrary to his gentlo 
aaiure. He fell ill at the caslle of Mtjluu^ and died ou the ^l^th ol 
JtiLy. lOJl] at the agi? ol aisty. Hia ruigu hui] lasted tbJrLy-Sre 



A.n. tiMl-llGB. ' 

Tvt funoral of king Robert had no sooiker taken place ab fll. Denia 
than Co04tacoe began tn couapire with some of the cliief barons to 
ob^a ibe crown for ter ^vouritc eon, Hobart, to the exelumon 

ffemy L 

of hift elder brother, Henry, Ths indnlent cbarftct-er of Henry 
Gjipccrod lilcol^ to furttier ter deeign^ , but thu very wtiakiteiiA 
compcSled hiju to ecok tho &Ld of tha greutcet of his vobboIb, 
Robert, duke of Noniiaudy» tlie jounger brolher of IlidiarJ Snua 
Peur- Rumour mid tbnt Kobarl had guintri hia aovertJgnry by 
nm^rd^ng hia brother, nrd ^^rtajn ii is that^ after a great bunqiiel 
^veii by Hohert at FjilaiM^ at vrhicb Hichjird hnd becu sumptuoiuJy 
ejitartuin^d, tbc gueana were fluddcnly taken ill and died is a few 
liouru uidi evident avuiptouiB of ptmoii. Ad Itubert imiiieObtely 
aftenvFirdt took po«e!«ioti of the dud^y, RtiiL imprisiMiitd I^h brothi^t'^ 
orphoii cldld in )i convent, it wan natural to tcnclude that he had 
boon n partaker in thii crime. But he waa likdy to pove a bold 
and prudent ruler in perilous bimca, and tho NormanB verc aoon re- 
couciled lu hie government. riiBtoriana have named him Robert 
the M.ignificeril.^ and when his hdplPBS BUKerain, Henry, np- 
poaled to him far Uii Bupport, he proved himw^r in Home feapecta 
worthy of histitb. Tho barons who upheld (.'ouBtuncoverc defeated 
in thro* pitched battles, snd the reckJeas daring of Robert iuaptred 
such dnuul that he iKcoint popularly known by the name of RD^>ert 
■ le Diable/ One by one the rehel nciblea ahandoned the t^uno of the 
queen mother, acd Constance at length Bought r<!conciliation with 
Henry. The indolent king ahowcd the best points of hjs chamctcr 
on thi« occasion. The duL^h/of Burgundy was given to hia brotJier, 
and ot^rUkin favoiira which bia mother demanded were granted; 
but Constance cr>nld ill hear rhe huinilratian of defeat, and obortLy 
A.ti, after died at Melun, July lOblT. 

1'"^ Henry waa now culled upon to pay tha prico for the psdotance 
which had placed hiui peaceably upon the Chiune. The duke of 
NormaTidy required uf him T.n cede the territoTy mlled ihe Ve^in, a 
district eompriacd between ihe two rivera th« Oioe and th^ Epte- 
Tb« loBH of thia lerritory muat hava coat him a panR of great un- 
euinen when he thought of the futuren for it brought the Normui 
frontier wiiLin twenty miles of the capital of France. 

War wna now at an end, bul a new trial fell upon France. For 
thr«e ^ce4-^Te yeoTH the hatveat4 failed, and a famine almost ua- 
parallolcd in hietory vioitcd the country. The rich fed on acauty fiirc 
uid loHt BtrengthT tne poor at« ihe root8 found in the fureata, whklet 
many rn their drapoir app^owd thidr hunger t^ven by human Heah. 
The deAd Iny unhnried in the lields, nnd the hungry wolven devoured 
tha oorpufiond thou turned to attack the living, until at length the moA 
marcilu! amongat the strong dug ditchofl for graroB, and when the 
h&ad of death woa upon the auFtrars tlie aoa dragged thither hia 
faihcrp the brother his brolbpr, the mother her child, and, to aftVH 
them from n more borrihla litter buried thsm with thems«Jvefl in A 
living tomb. 


Misery to uppalliog aL length Eubdaed, La some degree, tlieh^arta 

of all- When th& iword of God was eft TJsiMj eficn, th^ aword of mnn 

was ulmoftt of iiecefifiiTj oheuthed. The ctergy c^iSied togetbsF syDoda, 

in wLicL decrees were posaod, inculcctiuj' mutual forbearoDco and 

l&B piovidJng for ihe prolecrion ol' Ut'o and property- In the jtw lU35 

I tht Feiici; uT God was prcK:l2dmvd and bailed with lliaaklultitut by 

I OTCTy clasfi. Bill when ptenty and ppospcrity relumpd, oppreefljon 

[^^and DUtrikge ogajc preimU«d ; and in lOJl it wa^ titt:«esary tp inati- 

tute * the Tmco of Gfrd/ whiofa provided that hoatilitk'S, public and 

\ privdlj;, abouIJ W au^penJeJ during tbt^ seAautiaoJ^ Adrent and Leat, 

'l aa HtlL as during iliat portion uf tha wuek (^fruni Wednt^ay evening 

fill the foHowing Mcinday momin|zj which, being marked by the 

' memory of tbe Kedocmarti Hofibring, death, and reaurrecnon, was 

coQflidered iho roost holy. 

1% waa at the lluiQ of the faniiuo that duke Robert of NornLandy, 
bubcKrCprobfiMyBolleited by (hf! awful TJHJtati on of God, resalved fn 
linderlate a pitgrimag^ to Ihe Holy Lond^ and do pennace for hie 
siAB At hu9 Saviour's tomb. AaaembUng bis naUee, U« aanounccd 
bia intention, and was met by an earnej^ sntreaty that tb« ccmuiry 
might not be left without a head. Hubert had no lawful beir, but 
he praunted to ibem his illegilimatB boq Willlfiin, a child af ieven 
yvare of age. To ihia hoy, afterwards luoous as WiHiam, iho 
CoDqueror of England, the KormiLa borons took thoceth of allegiaoue, 
and Robert djeti xet out on blji pilgrimage un {ogI. Ilu leauhed 
Jerusilem safvly, Btid with every uuEWJird mark of true rtpentance 
diacbarged the vow he bad tak^a ; but on hja homeward jou-rney he 
wae aeued with a dangoroua ^UnosSf aad, haring with diHicuity 
reached Ntcera, in Blthynla, hfs died in the oanie year in which the 
F«Bioe of God wud proi^laiuied. When the news of the dtath of duke 
Robert reiched Nortnandy ihe proud barou^ rduscd tc ac^knowlodge 
ti* Bon B9 their lord, and a civil «var broke ouu Young William 
iougbt ani obtained aid from H&ary I- of France, but a£ y^ara went 
by and tbe txtnteat continued the wo^lc kmg changed sides, and 
actually attacked the son of hia former friend- Tbe geiAins aihd 
courage of Jhe duke were, howeuBr^ far puperior to the king's, and 
Uaary wan aoon made tc feel bia own inferionty. 

Ilia domeatic afiatTA had, up to this time, proved Ob un- 
fiucceaaful as bia public ones; be had been twice married, but 
be had oo children. This dLsHppointuLcaC he attributed lo having 
zoarried within the prohibited dsgreeH. His third choice ahould^ he 
daterminedi be froe Irom any auch Plain, and ho demanded the hand 
of Anne, the daughter of tlie grand duke of Muscovy, a country 
BCurcly rvcogniaed as belougiag to Eu;ope, aud the iidiabttanl;!! of 
,* which bad only reeenily been converted to C+iriaiianity. The 
nnuftiage "M cttlobrated in ll>51^ By tbJB wife Henry bad twDAon^^ 

Philip 1. 

ilie tildar received the name of PbUip, (tulu n Imdittoti iJjdA hi^ 
muLher, Anne, ua.t deHcttiiil&l fmtn lliti faiiioua Philip nf Macetlon. 

]<iW lo lOfhfi, fleven jeiirs nftp.r liia thin! mnrrijige^ Henr^y xras bo EEifralj' 
defeatod JQ lialtl*. hy WilliutJi of Normaridy tJjat bo wan glad to 
c^ce to pcm:Q, ouJ uflcr that he iiovcr jigum intcHfircd iu lliti jiBiiirs 

K.n. of NoruiEuidy, Bjit h« oulj h^eJ two ye&Xb louder. Jjing in 1060, 

'""^ in the twenty-ninth yeRr nf his refgn- 

llie son boTH to Henry t. of France *o lnf« in Ufe waa but 
eight yeiLFH of oi^e at hiB Eather'ii dmith. Forei^eeing ihe prubitbihty 
of a luzi^ miiiorityi HfiTtry ^voa m^xiotis to appoint a, gujirdi^m Eor 
hia i^hlld ^vhi> uii^ht nlvj l^e a gouJ repeat o^ the kjiLL'ili>ui- His 
clioii^e fell iipozi Baldwiii, count of Flbinder^, who U'aa his brother- 
jn-'liiw. Far sevan yenra Bnldwin goverutd France well, but fct 
tho Gild of thut time ho died, nad thu young kitig Pbiltp I. wji6 
lufl at the ago of fiilr&n to his own guidonco. This >voa f&tul Ic 
hie dmrucier ; a. ttindeiity lo &elf-jridul|jtii]te of li^efy kind wtt* hjn 
tempEDtioD, nnd neither his good ediieation nor hU nniural inrelli- 
g^ncc enabled hem to wLtlietnnd the ampre opportuniti^is which pre- 
Bcnted themriolvea for yielding to it. 

Yet BtirrJng e^'Bntu met hiui zit the very beginning of bia career. 
WilliHtikH duke of Normandy, cktmed the unmn of Eujjlaud, and 
Wiu mediTJiting ibv inTflAion of the oonntry. By the feurTfll (awfl he 
wiu horned to nfk the support of hia HUzerain^ and aL-cordingly he 
appeari-d beii>ro hie young lord al St, Gormnin-en-Layo, ivud, de- 
claring hia inttintJonS) naked PhJIip^a coauiirreacfl, proniiain^; at tha 
KBjne time that if he wert BueuubafEil hu would hold his kingLbm. 
like hia duchy, a& a ll^f of France. Philip, 1>eing ndviAed hy bi« 
barono, declined having anything to do with the pro[>oifld cxpodition, 
and WillJiun of Normnndj undorlook il on hia own rcB|>onBLbJJity. 
\u A very eWtrt time came »tar Jing mrwa. William had lundcd 

niw ^^ '''^G'^'"^* ihi" battle ofllaBtingBhwlbeeti fungbt, 1066, and thedulco 
o£ JVormandyr vho on tin aooea^on bad baan rejected by bia own 
ijRronfiT wafi the acknowledged king of Englnnd. PhihpH jeiiloiiEy 
WEkH cxgitcd. Tho NormanB were making thcmaelvcd h nantt! in 
Europa which llireattiiied to lajlipat that o£ ihu Frauub. Only a few 
yeara previouBly the Bomi of Sir Tnncrpd de Hnnteville, a S'onnan 
knight, had taken possensioTi of the 8outl]em purt trf luly, snd 
whilst oner brother had bccomo count of Apulia, anolhiir bad cod- 
quettid Sicily. The fdttii: of thems brillijuit exploits h^ resounded 
(brongh Bnrr^pe, and now the gcucrnl tEtiuialion of Nnrman vnlour 
va% iacri^ged by tho prowei-fi of th& bold duke who had ntuked 
his reputation on hia claim to the crown of Eogland, and had won 
the day^ Rut ycflra went by bcibro Philip ^ould openly avow hi* 
i "^ tnniitj, then, in 11)75, ht barft3.'«?d Wiiliani by auppori.itj^ the uiuM 

of one of Ujq king of Knglattd^s re\olL«d vus^la. Alan, duki; 



nutH OK WILLIAU TM CO\(irtB01t GttKOORY Vll, 73 


Brittany, and HtiU morti grievonaly injured him Jiy encouraging 
biA SOQ Robert Courthose m o[ieQ relwUitiu, Kobert bod txjiect<d 
Ui be made hy hia lather gtneraor of Nonnaudy, and when h# 
found hiin.wlf disappointed lie Tcifl*? in arms:, and, aided by Pyjip, 
nuLin^n^l for several y^rn n civil nut jn ths ducby- Grcutjy 
irritAted by this oocdiiictf WiJIititn dcnmuded tho rflvtomtiuD of U]« 
district of the Ve:im, which hid htcc aajmily taktrn frcm bmi 
many yearit before when Iw whh siiJi a hoy^ nnd Philip, flelEiah ncd 
ccflTvej not only refo«d to listen to the dpmand, but maJe a rud* 
JQfll upon the kingoi Hugbndt perBonaJ Rppc9nn<?e. IViltiiUii} who 
wzta uien in Normflndy, inalautly invaded the Vcxin, und after 
taking the t^wn vt Mautea biimt it lo the ground. The ruiiirt of 
the unfonunatt city yrere utilJ itinuliing when WiUiftin rodn fiT» 
thenip His horsf atepped upon some bot HAbeb ; be wm thrown for- 
wird, and rccdvod ad injury &o eoriou-i ibat eix waekn aJlorwurds, 

t« CPU the lOth of September^ 1087. he died, 

Pljilip WBfi now relievtd fmiu the dread of h\6 chief (mi^niy, but 
by his proftigacy be hud arouied aootber, in ods aeiuc no lesa 

Pope Urogoiy VIL — often known by the rmng of Hildebrand, 
whicl* he bore l>efore be cnme lo llie papal liirone — was a maa of 

rD TirtuBt griAt udeat, Ami LUflomiiJtbJe wilL Tbe one abjtici of 
life was to purify die dttiri'li nnd to AMsert her dominion over 
IT tlie prinoefl of the earth, for thus aLone did ho hope tc restore & 
I defTfrded world. He asserted tiio right oftho Pop; to depose kioE^ 
and lo be the ulbiniate judge in nalionnl quorrelo* and he futbade 
ili« exerciae of ihp right *\i' invflstitnTe, by which a king f»n- 
ferred on a biidjop the ti.'Tiipura1 pciii!U?t«ti>ii» belongicg lo bis eeo 
by delivering to him a pafiloraJ elaff or ring. Over tlie eler|^y 
Gnffoiy eiercioed a atem didolplme, uid carrying; uut a principle 
which liad long b&cii luakiug ita way in the chiirchi he forbailtr 
ibero to marry, and i^oiumanded rboBt who w^e mnrrifd to put 
bway their wiv««f wbdst pnnces, who were Ivudtng nuholy lives, 
received public rebuke ft>T their offences, and were puniafaod by the 
KQlenc^ ure;iLuuifjiiiuic«tio;j, 

Grrgory would lukW uiift wtlh niudi grealer dilTiculty in tAtry- 
Xag out hifi eilmvagunt viewft of the papal aathorily il' he liad 
Dot hun«clf Bet a aiem example of Bell-dieuipline, But Hie 
nuMt jitoHigiUc princcB uf hia day acknowledged the inilucnce of 
his cbanut^p even ibough they delitd hie power. Henry IV,, 
emperor of Gtrmriny, narrit^i on a life-long iin-uygle uguiniit h'm 
fr^Uinei&a$^ but wil4 uj^un and agoin obliged to yield. And 
tbia waming no doubt ttfid ita i;ffect upon Philip^ and led him to 
pmftna CkutffiiJnon lo the Holy See. though he made no real 
change in his owu mode of lile. Gicgoiy had ind^pd great cause Ut 


PhiUp I. 

rebuko cno wbo vtbe eo utterly dt'ttant of tho Ijtws of God and mui- 
Philip, icipovenBled hy bU luxurioufl edE- indulgence, offcrtd 
bishoprics aad oilier cbuTch prGferments to ihe highest bidder, und 
fij)ttit the procet^ of thg Bale in riot and proiligscy. Gwgofy 
threaU-ned excu!Eunt]ni{!ALion, an interdict, evaa depoaitioa, and 
Philip promiiiL-d nmeudmcat; but wbQti the Pope turned liia nttcQ- 
tJofi to the German emperor the French king reaiimed hip. former 
career. Greff[>ry wan unable again to interfijre, for bu was too much 
occupied with hia own affiUrp in Itily. Ki'enta were turning ftgaintt 
bim- Tbe emperor, nho h&d bcJore be«n compelLed ignominiauaJy to 
Bubmit to him, hud invaded Italy- Hooxe was in liia power and 
Gregory nuauhliued tolTee. Woni with a^and trJJil,tbQ Pope'* proud 
Hpirit WKfl unahlft ta wiibsuiad ihiH Bt'cumtilution of mialbrtune- 
lilneanBttacIi^dhinif and witbfhe words ooliis lips, ^1 havelop^ rigb- 
teooBUOse and hat^d iniquity, and thcrcforG Idlo id eixiJo,' be expired. 
Freed by death frcm tho man who would hnve been nioal 
lih€t/ to put obntacJeu Id bJA path, Pbllip beoirne bolder in 1i!a 
vioea. Me had trarried Bertha^ danghter of tho count of Fland^^rs, and 
fl)ie had borne hini Beveral ehildren ; but growing weary of her, be 
iroatedhcr vritk the grfntoet ncgEecb, and at Lengtii impiisoncd ttr tn 
A.V. th^i cuatlti of Monrreiiih Iti 1U92 he vas viaiting Fulk, cuuul 
^*^ of AnJQUf at Tours, wLfii he waa introdiHiisl to tbe count's wife, 
Bertnde de Montfort, who waA ooosidered the most beautiful womari 
lu tbo kingitom. The cotinCcBB of Anjou had no aSeetioQ for her 
btisband, and wh^u the kiDg professed his udmiracion, ehe was 
ejui!y iuduci'd to listen ro the dictales of ajubicLou. On one con- 
dition (die wnuld foreaike Fiilk aTid follow Philip to Orleamo- 
Sbe muft bo publicly accepted aa tbe bine's wife, and the so-CAlJed 
mftrriago must have the Banction of tbo church. Tht king, diou^h 
with great difficulty^ prcToiled on bifl biahopB to [>cirForm the Htjpu- 
luted terenmiLy, and the Po|je, Urliau 11., the Bucceasor of Gregory, 
lofit no timi^ in tnking nipji.41] rett for liie punishment of this ouC- 
ragvouG oSiinae- A papal legate wuh t^etit to Fnuiee, and at a 
nationnl council aaaeipibltHl cl Aumn Philip and Bortrado were ei- 
i:omjuunii:atoil4 mid FLjlip whs forbidden to appear in public aa a 
king uuleflS ho would ranB^ct to neparatR from the counteM of 
Anjou, Th* king, alarmed, laid aside hia crown and sceptre, and 
implored forgiven uisa, but rttll ho refused to fi^Te up Bertrode, 

Pope Urban IT-t though not equal to Gregory, was sliJl a oian 
of energy and principle, who would iierer have pubnutted to tliis 
continued diaregard nf the BUlhoriiy of the church if hia mind 
bad not been absorbed by a momentous ucdertaking which at this 

J&riod began lo occupy the atCfntioa of Europe. Some years be&re 
ernealem, whicli had long bean in the power of thu Mabotneian 
trib« of Sanceo^ bad beeii conqutred from them by ihe barbarian 

nru THE firiEtfiT— cooKOiL or olkrxoxt— iicTEamcT- 7^ 

Tnrics. MMhom^tnfiB also, but ni^ire fierce anr^ rocktesB. ChriitJui 

L plgrims voro dow insallcd ; the helplcsp inhubitcnte of tho ciEj 

I VBtc treatod with mvo^ crticltyr and their cry i>{ dietrfea reached 

r Burope, Who would help thtm ? Gr^jgory VH. had Joojei ij> do 

io, bm the nmggle between Germany and tTaly prevented hitn^ 

Tbe nchfippy Chruti&nc rif the pom vere leltto Eheirikt?, till, in the 

^ JcftT li>£f4, Peter, cftUed the Hermit, b poor monk oV tbe diocmc 

I of Amicus, having made a pilgrima^ir to Jeruflbleai. returned U> 

EuiDpe with his ht^art w? Hbinr^ and hia mind hi eituitfd by the 

TDuericB h^ had witneued, tlint hi' coniHfJerei] iiimselr i^lie inftm- 

menl ehonen by Heaven to redreg* fi^ich prieToUB wrong. Hftsteoing 

I to Rome, he told the tult: oi' horror to irrban 11,, who diemiaj^vd hita 

I With ■ charge to |iroc!iiirn throiiehout Enrope a war for the de- 

liFpniDue al JertiAdlvm from the bjmda of the iiiGdd. 

Franc£ more tlian any otIict etuintry rcapondai to the R^ 
peaL The wiid attire^ the enthnaia^a elcqiiencfii ot^ tbo Hermit, 
aul«d hy Lis oclf-dcnyinf charity and fervent piotfr niade a power- 
I ful UDprauoD on the excitable multitude. Rich and poor ahke 
I ptvpared loenFw under the Jaered banner, and when in tbe follow- 
ing yeapT ltl95, LTrhan oalled a oounpil, to be held at ClermoTil, in 
_Auv?rgQei so that the eanoEion of the r^hurcb might be pablicly 
to tbe andcrtaklng^ the concoijrae waa so great that it was 
ta hold the moeujig^i in the mar kei- place, oud at last eren 
ifl th£ open Seldd bevond iUn city. On the tenth day of the Benaion, 
Peter, bearing hi* hermit's elalT and wearing bia coureo wovden 
dook, stood by Urban '« Uhrone, which ws£ plocod in the great 
square of tbe city, and addrewed the tnultilude. He told the atotry 
oTthe deeolation and torture which he had himnelf witne*J«<l, and 
whttL be had end<*d the Pope, in burning wordH, ajMed u]>on hia 
hearerv to males the glorioua chnioe of ^elf-flsmtice in this uroHd 
for tho crown of glory in the world to oome. Tben bur&t forth the 
cry of tbe multitude : ' It ir> the will of God ! It b the will of 
GodE' and kut^ing beEbre Urban t]iou;«ud.s bound ibe crosn of 
rtd on llicir rijbi shrjuldern and nwore to avenge the cause of the 
Bodeetaer by taking part in Iho holy war thenoeforword to be 
Kylcd the Onuade. 

The principal leaders of the expeditioQ were French, bid 
the Freneh monsrcb himself was neither wtlliru; nor able to bc- 
company it. At tbe aame coiuii^il of Clerruont which Pope Urbvn 
anembled for tbe purpoeo of calling upon the princea of Chneton- 
Aaai bo takt up anna for Christ* PhiJip whs a second time anathc- 
mati^» and all plrii:ea at which h« and B^rtmie might aqj^uni were 
■coJD declared to b» under an interdict. The result woa as before ; 
Sllip anbtnitted in words and made no alteration io deed- 
Bolode irvd crowned, and the title of qncon was gtvf^n her. 

Philip L 

akhoiigh llie four chilrirfn ivhDm slie bore tn Pliilip were never 
aoknowkdgtid as le^tiiuatc, whiUt the unhappy Berths, Phiiip'a 
luxrliil wife, remained shut up m her prttioci uc Montrcuil, till at 
JeugtL aIib OiQtl of [L brukeu bviLrt. 

In tJiH riiKBiitiiiiff lIiu pTiipamili^itfi fur- Lha crumdc proceeded vitli 
Tigoiir. Gfidfrey de RoiiilloD, diilcE of Lower Lorrjjne, was c>ntritsl«d 
with tho chi<!r {Hiaitnand ; ivuil innuy ol^ Lho priuceH mid nobles of 
Europe — ttnjon?.flt llitm Hugh, count cf VcrniotidoiflT brother of 
PliJh[> of France* uiid Kuhmt Cuiu-thobe, eldest wu of WUIinm 
iht Com^UHror — uonM^nled in acl miller hliii. 

But belbre the discEpIined AoldierK were in readia^sa to march, ft 
body of QO [oBB thnn lCU,t)00 humbler jiilgrJmH, jK:coHipflm<?d by the 
Hermit luid a priest immed Gott^echnlk, nnd under tlicEuidauce o£ a 
BurguDdinii knlgbc, callt^d WuJitr the Pt^imiles^ weru uii ibdr •kkj 
to the Holy Land, crciB^ing l^un^rj And BitlgfLrio, r<i Con^tantiiLople, 
uid Jrom th^Dce tnltring Asiil Minor, The expioditLOQ vu4 n^ fatal 
in im endue it v^iis wild und imptudvnt in icii beginning. Theptl^rims 
were attacked uear Nititu by ihe Turkiali anlljui, iind only S,Ot>0 
out of [h« j^reut inuhJtudu rc^innini^d to e^^H the udf of thtir defeHt. 

The regular annv of LTitsiidcre fidvunced upon The whole mors 
A,b. BXiucc^ullyf and rLiacbud JfirUEatum on the 7th of' Junc^ lO^y ; but 
only 60*000 were then in a cundition to Hght. The rest uf the 
imnienst force^ uumbifnug) it ea Hkid* 100,000 hon<4:mc.-n ui^J GOO.Ot^O 
fuor Ai^ldiera, hjid f.illen victimB to fiimme, pestilence* and ihe ftwcird. 
40,U0U Turkfl defended the holy city. The sieffe In^t^d rathertiiore 
than n month, and an the \b\Xi of July tJie Bujjner oftJiid Cru.-4 wju 
planted on tht; hatdemeniB of Jeniajderji- A iiKrce caruage oi' the 
Turk*! fdllownl- When thp fury of the pnisiidcrs wiis sjiliatud 
Godfrey end hiH jitiendj»nt nobles repuireJ tc fhi* ohuri^h of the Holy 
S^ulcliri? to pour Ibrth their ^idorulione and tbanlcsgrving. 

Tht acta appear to ua ptiinfully iricontiiattint, but ihcy cnn bo 
ac^ounled fur by iht^ apiril of tJie agt! and thti ti-'achiu^ whiuh hid 
led the cnosnders to believe ihai the slaughter of the iTifidel was, 
undor all cireumNmnce*, a tJeed (U'tfeptahlo in the iipht of God. 

Tho Lutia kingdom of JcrusnJunk woa now cetahliBhed. Jt4 £rat 
DioniLich WHA Godfrey de Bouillon, v^hi/ uaA choaeij by the 
Uoauiuioua voice of the tinaadlug princea. Dul Godftey rcfuaed to 
ivear a crown of gold where, Jia he himivlf said, ' his Redeemer had 
worn a crown of ttiorriR,' and the only lille whieh he anaumed was 
lluit of ftdvooate and bacoo of the Holy Sepulchra. Even this Jw 
i^t>_ enjcfjtd hut ooe year. He died in July 1 100, and hio bro 
vw ^Idwin Lhfln hecuniLi the H^oud king of Jeruti^lem. 

Whilst the fame of the French wurriors whs thiifl Hpread 
throughout the Gaat, thi^ir king rareiained Httnlc in B(?lf-indEilg«ni in- 
dolence. But Lhealmnhcfing conscieoca 111 length nwtike, Philip*** 


pww I 

ttATs or PTiLiF I- — cniLCfloop OF Lovis Yu — m$ pcyiivions. 77 

■ffljct^d by a gTE^vouK ilJ^L^fi^^ i^ whicri h« rccogtiuu^ tlip judgmpnt 
of God for his bide. The Miitance of cxconiTminicntion woighod 
heavily upon him* find the terrors of futQro jiid^cnt liaunted him, 

(He Applied to the Popt for abftolutiim, aod waa j>erniiitod iv Jo pui>- 
Uc pnnnncp fi»r his offcnrps, anH thfl sentence wan then r<*movrtL 
BcTtradft WM iT«ire(l with muoh Ipus sevt-rity. SIip wn* indeed no 
lOD^'fir con^iderod ihe scttial vife of PhJipf hut sh^ reUiined her ont- 
AD, irarii poaitjon aa queen conwrt to the end of hei daya. In 110$ 
r^ PLiiip, fe^Eiijg h^s end apprcmcbinc^ Euaiiined tlio huhJc of a Tlentdic- 
line utontf and Khortlj alier he- {lii'd at M^^lun nn the 2dth cif July, 
harin^ reigned mora thjin fortj-wveu yoara. At hJa own r«|iiOBt he 
was not buried at ^L Dsniu, an Le doooiod hiioself anworth^ to rest 
bftflide bio predecepaorav 


LOUia VI,, LE GROfl (iHt. FaT), 
i_D. 1108-1137- 

LocuVT,, the non of Philip and Bertha, U generally knewn bj the 
q>ith?t fe Oroit. from his great ȣo: but on hia accewtou to the throne 
he WM palled I'Ev^ilJe, or the Awnkcnt-d. And reTtainly bin reign, 
from its very cnrnmcnoennunt^ mui^ huye b^eii a ^eat awakening lor 
France when contracted wrth th'^ eluaiberinff incapacity nf Iijb r'nthor. 
He ha*] b<*n awndated io the pjFernment with Philip flver since 
the Tftir 1 1 ftOf and had thiu* early flcfjuirpJ a ThH know!pdgp of the 
necdfl af hia people. His bealrh ocmid never have bo*n good, for in 
hia cbildbood he had bcnn poitsonc^l, and although hia lilb waa 
STed be norer fully recovered ; and to thia the ainRuIar palenete of 
hia ftevi, aud prcboblv the hizl^ o\' hia ptTAon, muHti liave been ^Ctri- 
bntabl^, Hia hoilily infirm i tips, however, were of ernnpratively 
little Tn'^ment to hj« vubjccts, for ho wa« a maix of elaar inteUeet, de- 
cided will, and hipb mfirai parpoaoi and hia frjetid and prime 
minLster, 8ug«T, abbot <if St, Dtmian was well fitted to ciu-ry nut bis 
viewfl tar the enhirLrement of the kiiii^oin und tlii! ^oud ^vemnieat 
of th« people. Ar the death af Philip the imniedinte dntninione of 
tfae king of France coiiBintcd only of the Hve eitiOH of Parift, Melun, 
Ktampeo, OrleaDi. and SenflT with tbe dJAtricta or countica atttiohed 
Id tboc; and even these cities werervally Hpnruted fronj aneancither. 
Fierce barona had hnili tftwera OTerlroking the highwayn, and from 
Ibem d«acended to attack uovary imTellera, crirrying thein to tbf 
dtrngconc of their c&atlcM jtnd demandia^ enorinoim raneoma Eor 
theni, Tbe kin^ himwlf could nof, trarel from Paria to Orleans 
vitboiit a ctroog Ibrce to pmiect him, Hr the lord of Montrh^ry had 

76 imsATE coMjmos of thk couttirt — trrtcn op ntE cBVBAbK. 

buill bin csBtle on the way and exaptwl a toll from all piuwrs-by. 
From PariB to St. Denia Eha rood was safe, but beyond Ihia BtTotdfcod 
tbe Rlooiay forest of MontmoreQC^i which ofme might venture to 
trnvtrse aiive with hin laoce iireparerl for AHock. Tbe country wna 
in jlict giv<!Ei up to briganci:ige ; it wv tbe natunJ remli uf Philip'd 
long reign of indolpnce. 

Tha lirpt Piibrla of LonJs were for the protection of the church. 
Abbeys, monflsteriea, ond conTcnt/s the only naylnma of order and 
peace, were not free iiom llie atlflckp of iht robtier nublea. Ltmb 
iirmed hm TtnopA for ihcdr dt^fenei-, nnd ibe biuliopH uud abboEa, 
on their part, urmed their serin to asBisI the roynl forcei. whtlsT a 
number of p&asanis flocked lo tho Mng\ standaji}, led by their puiah 
pricata. By ihia united aJd tlie great roada from Tonn and Orle&iu 
to P;l^i^ arid from Paris to RheiiiiB, were rendered fiaft» while tiw 
coanC of BloiB gnve bis hdp lo the king in prni^ting the eountry 
lying between tha Loire, the Saine^ and the Mame — a amnlL circle of 
territory ooeloacd between tha great proTinoee of AnjoUj Normntidy, 
and Flander*. 

But tbe eniMde vrim the greaieEt UEsitiUuice to Louis, fur it carried 
off the fieroe barons. Even tbe terrible lord of Montl'hery anaLimed 
the red ctobb, bat he went no ffirther thna Antiocb. Wljen the 
Chriatians wcro besieged there he dcftcrted his companicma in v,rm% 
let bimself down from the wulla by uitiiiua of a rope, and returned 
bom^j boQonred wirJi the aumanie of Rope-dancer. Tlie espedixioo 
ap[iears to have hod a salutary eflect upon him. He gave hifl 
daughter itk marriage to one of the kin^*8 eonn, ond witb her Le gnve 
^Iao hia cBstle, which was, in fact, yieldiog to the king the highway 
betwt*D Pari* nod Orleans, The luuiit of Blois, whose expJoits 
rit-nllpd thaie of the lord of MonTl'hory, was imongat the noblej* who 
joined the crUBade. The count of Poitiers, deal reus orbeiuganaccom- 
pliphed Jenip;ht, followed his cstamplc- The great Icudal c}uol!^| in fact, 
Cpent tlie thief part of Lticir lives in the L^nlabdmg liighwaye 
bttMeen France nnd Jeruaalem. The king alone rtmained faithful 
I tA the 4oil of Fmnce ; and every day, na hit bnronp departed on iheir 

I expoditionPf he grew more and moro powerful. Ue h^gan ako to be 

■ recogniBed in Europe aa an authority- IUb fierce bnrona might defy 
I bim ia hU owa country^ but he receivi^d a letiter ^um the emperor 
I Henry lY. of Germany, nddresaed to him as king of the Kelt8, and 

■ complaining to him of the violence of tha Pope. Hi« title of kin^, 
f indeed^ ao imposed upon tbe world e.t a diE^tance that the count of Bar- 
L oelona wrote to him from Spain i^ntreatiag IJa aid against the Moora* 
I No one du^trusted ttie hiug of Prance. Ilia only real dnDgvr 
I nroee from the neigh bourbcMid of the Norman»<, They liail tAken 
I (iiBora, in tbe Vexin, and extended Iheir authority ftlmoUt to PaHi. 
fc The oidaII kingdom of Fraiice would have been able to make bu(_ 




little bead •gaiEHl tliera but for the eupporl given to Louis \ty l!ie 
jealooft coimts uf Flaoiiera and Anjoa. The count nF Anjou naked 
fax Qod ohtninod the titJe of Beneftclml of France, which guve him 
the right of pnttiug tho diflhea oa. the king's tahJc, The feudal »je- 
Mcm mode nuc^h o Jliccfl. vrben exerdaed tcwarda the noT«Tei^, boncpur- 
abltt, uid the priaciplQ Iju descended Lo our own days, Ji» we see lu 
ihfi olBceq cf groom of iHh &rcl^, lord or \vAj of the bedchamber, Ao. 
Tbe count of Acjou coneidpred his acceptance m BCfnoschal of 
Fwice lo be equiTitlent to a luAgcte witll (he kmg ogrunal hifl 
neig^hboura the nggrcsaiv-c NormiLaa, 

To iucreaite tbe natural eaaiii/ belweeu theNonnans auJ French 

XiOTLtfl wan abont thia lime oillei Tipctn lo lake up jkmifl ajziainat the 

kin^ of Enj^land rmd duke orNornmndji^ Jn a cuuBe inphicb had muoh 

to justify the act Robert CourthoM, the ddeat eon of William the 

Conqueror, after Sgbtiitg biafclj' in the llolj Land, had relumed cnlj/ 

to carry on a war with hia brother Henry, king nf Enghir^L Being 

taken prifioner at ihe batr.le of Ti^nchebnii in I lOfi, he hnd heen ira- 

pnaoned in Cardiff Ciwtle, where he died. Hib young &kn, Willmm 

ClilcTi^ Bed to France and threw hiniBolf on the protoction of Louis 

le Grra. A long aud mdetiftivB w:ir followed. The battle of 

la BrenneTilIe, iri lllfl, in which the two kings mei En person, was the 

"^' moat importanl ef the conflif^is; jet ma different were the conlentA of 

the middle ages froca those of the prenent day thnt^ if wo arc to 

bdicTt the old chroniclers, tbero were oniy three men killed- The 

NomiRre claimed the vii:toTy, but il had no reeultSt and the ntrugglo 

CDfilinu^il at iutervolA till William Cliron was killed in baiile in 

^ \\^%. And during all thiit titne Louia waft Btoadily j4trcugtheDing 

IbepowcF of ihc BovoroigUj the church, and the people, bo as to moke 

Ijwd against tbe barona^ It in the moat remarkable T^Ature of the 

rdgn of Louiit le GroH this uaiou (i£ kiug and comuionalty, 

and from it arose n great ehnnge in the ronntitiiiinn of the country, 

vhich IF' known in France as the ' uflrimchiat^ment de& commuDeFi,' 

(the freedom of the cornmonn). When the middle and lower cloaaefl 

were united for mutual preaervntion the? became powerful, ajid 

the great U>wdb were able to di^inand eert&ln [jriTllegeu nhicb h^oureil 

the perMtnal fireedom of the inhnbitanu and gave them a veica in 

the man^cmeat of public aOoirs. 

In tlie aouib inch iK^lf-i^Yeming or municipal cities hod been 
common ever aince llie time of the Romany's who first est nblisbed 
them. Now they Iietauje mori; geueral, and the gieater part of these 
bdtotighi' paid a jearlv eon iribntion to the royal traisury, ard pro- 
fided ftoldion to aid the king in hia wnra, 

Amauij de Montfort, an ancentOT of the famona Simon dc Mom- 
ent, wTio Mma ye&rs niter headed the 1>aron« ol England in demaud- 
iog their pdvilegra from Hanrf QI., waa, we are told, the ftrst p«T- 


B{iQ "ho aduWd Louin Vf., nfter hU deteit M Brenneville, to 
oppoee iho forcea of the communea^ marching under ibo hAoacps 
of their roap^cliro parJahoai Co tboHc of the NnmiiLnfl, And verf 
proud were the brave citiEeos wbeu they saw Uie etJil^ly koi^hu on 
their proiid wnr-horftea flee het'oTC the ^tAnilftrd oj' the commane. 
Tb«n it VQ3 that tht^ «iid lo thpmHeEvflS witb the poA of the twelfth 
centurji Itobert Waca — 

Nu Bdmcfl homee cam H bruU 
Tbx mnmlpnu nTum cum j[ aai 
Et altreai ^mna cnrj atuiq, 
£t attretiiDt sofVir poum. 

We MB men u itey are. 

The uidD limbd hnvo *a th&t Ch«j baroi 

Aod eqfltr Rft tutipK oin we. 

It la singiJar that Loniti would not allow tbe t^vo great town* of 
F&riB&nd Orleune to be cuiumuues ; jet Paris eapecialiy required 
protection, Jinr it was siibj<>ci to three aE^pamTi? mtutLer?: the king,n)i count 
of PftfiBj waa IopI of tha wjjatoni part of fbe cir? ; the archbishop 
governed the eas^tem port; and the pwot, who was a kind of aherifl", 
had a certain poivur o\cr tlit whole- The people were thus aiibject 
to great oppr^Raion, eap^t^iJiUy wbi^n^^ver the tJng CAme to Pftriic 
Hia flergeants had then a rjg!tt to nmaaizlc private lioiucfl nnd tiili« 
whatever thay hkeJ (iir thp ukg of the royaJ fj-mily- Pans woa at 
this time the worjit built and dirtieat city io France. The OrJ^nal 
towDf built on the Litcio itiljtnd in ihe Seine, Etill remained encloacd 
by vFallg, but the i^ppoeiie ebotes of the river were studded with 
biuldmgB, many of which wero religious boitBca shut m by atrong 

But Louiii, though be csteemmi the citizens of the commuaet 
waa inclined to rest nuim fuUy for support upon the churxih. His 
ontWBfd conduct ahowetl hia respecl for It. He wna hiniw^if. at* cotrlit 
of the Vosin, a vaaaal of the great abbey of St. DeoiB^ and he did not 
diadain to bcor^ on horseback the famous oriflaminc,' the Htaudanl 
of the abbey, which wfla recogaised as the □Hlional bmmet. The 
hiubopH, on their part, feared tufatl under rhe power of the luipi^rious 
Norman kings, and \he Poj»e bo entirely trusted Loula thnt he wju 
allowod M> esercitfe the right of invPHtitute, for asserting which other 
BovcrcignB bad been excommunicated- 

Louifl had been on the wliolc fiuccesaful in hia public alTairB, but 
grievous domfsfic trial waa in Hlnre for him, Han eldest mn, Philip, 
a boy of fiivteait, anri, aoeording to the oM chrooiclera, a Toay-cbeAked, 

' 80 i»lled borniLHi thti ataflT waa of gold and th« lowri pari of ibfl bauavr 
cut ■> u UJ nprueot fiiucee. 


pifatiuit youth of freni prinniiR?, whom he had intended to bhju'e Lis 
tfaroD«, was nding in ibu uarro^r, crowded fitivotii of Pnria, wlien a 
'dia1:>o]it:nI pi;;,' Ji* we en: (old, ma. between the Ic^ cf liiEi lionw, 
<[iid PbilJp wftA Lhrowii heavilj* on t}ie gr^miid, itiid f43 JiniG}i injured 
that beforf ni^drt he ^icpirfd. Lrtiiiri woa incflnsolubfiy ^ the abltat 
Soger, h« grait friend, loured evon Tor his life. But public iTitcreflt 
TOTued Jum- ThL> Popo, IriDoccnt It,, vran in France wUdUog- the 
eupport i:>f Louie agniuut tbu aiici-Popv, AuscletUA IIL A ccniiici] 
uv wru to \ts htld at llhmma in tha middle ofOctiUlmr J 131, nod thither 
^^'^ Sugerand ihe king^A rrioids p^rauuded LnuU to go rind predd^at the 
confiecralion of bii second un, Louis, genorully known aa ^ le J cube,* 
(the Yoim^), in^c pEocc of hia brother Philip. In tbe prceefjce of 
the Pope, prelate». mid nobles Loqeq made a prajor fur Ul& diad 
etiti, and (he Pope then nddrepsed to him words of comfort. ' Your 
child,' he HUJd, 'full of ]Dno<^tD<;i>T bai^ depitrted; but God, who has 
takoi to Mimeclf one of^our aona, bne left you others to rsigTi ailer 
you. Lay aaid^i thereForf^ tbia ^ief. To u^, stroDj^TB drJTeu £n>m 
OUT flees, you havi; given txjusjU^uun^ M^y Gcril rtpay you for it in 
that City of which glorious things are api^keii ; — in which life knrwR 
bO deathf eternity no Ihiliog, and joy ito end.' 

TbetL the Popo rooc ^d abAolvfa the eoul of tho dead prince, and 
the kiug, much booth<^d, prepan^ for the mozrow'a festival, when hia 
necond boy, heing brought to tlie nltnr and i-oiiBecrated with the 
oil witJ] which St. Remigiuy had anointed ClctviB obhis converBioa, 
vM made a Uiarcr of hie power. 

Two years after thia gjtflt faaiily affliction the chief enemy of 
Looisi, Henry I-, difd, Dtc^ujber 1135, and a uivil war immediately 
* hrole out in England between Stephen, iho nephew of Hetiry, and 
Maude, HBorya daughter. Maude hud be^o twiee married. Her 
tint huabnnd wqp the emperor Henry V,; her second, Geofirey 
Pluilageuet, count of Anjott, One of the priDcipal olliea of 
Geoffrvy was William^ duke of Aiiuirainf*, a princt; nouiritfus for hi§ 
ricea, bnt whose conscii^ce wan, kfter many yeaTB of crime, no far 
anakened that fae resolved to undertake au a peconeo a piJgrima^ 
(0 the ibrioB of St. Jnmes of Couipi>stclla in Spain. 

In the uncertainly v^ hin return be decimed IiIh daughter 
Eleanor hiH M^Ze Iji-utiaj, and plactd her undtr the guardlaaBhip of 
Looit VL, Mrilh the iinderstanding thut Eleanor should ni*irry ibe 
bag'* BODf Louia lo Jc-unc, The chamctcr c£ tho young princes* 
iod tJic education received in bcr nntire land promimd ill for 
doioeatJc happinew, Aquitaine and Pro'ein^o were oa noted foi 
Iwiiry aa for cidtiTntion of mind and outward refinement Poetry 
«rttned ibe natural Linguage of the jteople, and the ronmnee of love 
Ibdr one utterc&t. Every l»dj eminent for rank or beauty hikd a 
ip«cial |ioet to eiag her prauea in the Froveu^ul tonguoj ch« 




Langue d'Oc, which vns aov oommonlj acceptedas tbe laogiiage of 
the troubadourri, or eouthtrn pocta ; ' and Kleflnir of Aquitaine luid 
ihun beuu aC(;UHtA>nied fruui her Infuncy to iho aioat cxlraviignjjli ad- 
mlralinn. Tht c^han^ frcmi the sunny diraHte, the yaii?lj, luxiirj-, 
and IreedoTTi g£ Kouth^m Euanni^ra V^ the sev^r^ propriety of tho 
nortJi, whcro tbo gravu and pood abl/ot Sugar, the tutor of young 
LfOui^ bdd away ovci tho public miad, waa liltlc likely to be at- 
tractive to her. But the ulliaiice was poULjoillj advii^able, tiooci after 
it had been propoiwd Eleanor became duchess of AquTtaine in her 
own right, her Jkther having died at Compfwtclla, in the month of 
April ]l37r and ia Au^^uat of tto satno year the marringe wiU 
flolemitised at Bordeaux, whore pni:tci> Louifl, accom^vuLied by a 
hrillLrmt suite, OH^b Eleanor and her couri, Imniiidiately ader the 
oeremuny the prince and his brhlt? prt'pared to return to Paris, but 
beJQF^ ihey bad reached PoitierH they were mut by the tiidings o£ 
th« di:iaih of tho kijig^ who had been Jittockod by a auddon iUaefls, and 
ajspirwl on ihf Int of Atigual, fhe very day beloro hi* son'fl marriage* 
Th« DutbuiBt of regret whifli from all parts of France fi>lltiw«] 
thia ftirrowful newa RulBcienily provfn] the alTeeTiou witli which 
Louia YI- was rcc^"!^' tl« had found the kingdom weak ; ha lelt 
it uTroDg. Ho had found it inaigiLilieiuit irt eise. and he h^ it ea- 
InrgeU in a great d^^e to its ancient and natural e^^tcnt. lit: had 
retitiired pi>ftce tiad wcurity, ami, following tlie flugge^tLoim of Suger, 
had ofitablisherl a ?yRtem which pwurad juatict* throughout the king- 
dom. The T?ii>fj tiomifijci^ OT judicial circuitB, Hrtit set on foot by 
Chnrlcmii;*ne, were now revived, livery year two nohlemen 
truvelled through Ftnute prejiared to hear i^Hiieee, to reform ubuwf^ 
and all cla^flva proved their atnHo at these bi^efita by their increasing 

And yet at the very time when rororancQ for tha <^UTGh and at- 
tochinontto the naveralgn were thus fitreagthcoing, another power, 
in a certain sense antagonistic to both, was niaJung itaelf felt 
throughout Europe. ItA hietory belongs rather to the time of Louu 
VIL than of Louis YJ., but as Abelatd^ one of the chief leader* 
of the new movement, was first brought into notice in the reign of 
the latter, it may he desirable to gire a ahort akotch of hia jiriaclpl^ 
and of bis early career. 

Long yeara beforei hthr in the reign of Chflrlema^e, John 
I Sootils, or Erigeaa^ had ventured to put forth doclrines viueh 

I tended to ohaka the faith of the unlearned in the teaching of tbe 

I church, Similar opiniona were anid to havo been held even by 

< The pneU af th« noTtti wsm rAJIed rriiu ri^r», and fjieir liinguace vaa 
Lhi Frauch Waltoon. or Jjiugao tl'Oit. frjai wliich mcdora FrDneh i» dpilTBd. 
IbBy -wrtAa proK runjucen a» vail as longa. 


r# VL 
GerbettT aftrrwaftlH Pope S^lvcater ir, thu ^end and tutor of king 
Robert uf Fnmce. From tiniQ to tln^c oLher bold ihinkers ap- 
peared, wlio, though cenHcreii by the church aatlioritiea, could not 
! be enlirely fiilenc^d. The queetiona thua brought forward trere of the 
noAt ab«Crii?u^ kinJ. 8ome touched npou the oature of tho Holy 
I Tnoity, ot^icm upon th& ori^ of idepa The Nominaliets, nn tha 
&ev tluBkera were called, aafcrted thut virtue, rioe, beauty, purity, 
I grace — in fkct^ nil ab^tmct kkaa — .were only name4, thut b virtuous 
man wha n fcality, but viituo in the abfltmct only a sound. The 
I Bcaliflt«i on the other haoH, dt-chtrc-d that vo could have nij abAtmct 
ideoB of anything which did not dctualiy e^ciet; that perfect h«AUty, 
, Jbr InstADcet wufi w>m<^thiug dlaiinct fruiu a beautiful fact or a bt»u- 
tiihl flower ; and tihercTore, a<i we all iiniier^iATid whiii^ pi^rfect beAucy 
DQCBfii, a.[tbough wi; hare never veoo it, it mutit have an exifiteQCQ 
vomcTrheTv, or^ in other words, thiit it ia pnrt of the Bejug of God. 
Aiuelm, archbishop of Canterbaryn iu the rei|;n of WiJliara Kufus, 
waa oQa of ihe HLO^ di^tin^niished Roiilista. ETi^ famnu^ argument 
for the e?ciMten4!e of Ih^ iiiiE»^eu God wa^, that if God did not exitt 
maa would not be nble to conceive the Idea of Uim. The Barae 
Itiaciple wnacamcd out xjx Jia^^uHsigin upon other oubjecta. and thus 
COatrofenies vtTt a^vuki'Ui'O whiL:h involved troths of the very 
deepest IrapurtanCT. In France iheae rtetaphyaicfl] contests were 
(■B*rly carried on, and m i'ftria &, public ecclnfiiadtical wbool or 
mtTcrmty had hitdy been oatablithod, which wilb gmdually bocom- 
hig the centre of Rur<^|>ean learning- William ofChainj>eauM was the 
EuM &moua ecdeaiuiAJLul proftdaor of th« Pariu tmi\eralty. 
Amcmgtt hid prafesed R^holarti appeared Ab<!lard, a Bri^ron by 
Mrtb, ofa noble family, haodrioine, faecioating in mAnniir^ and with 
btilliant talcotB. He atctcd liim«clf humbW nmoii;C;3t the pupila ol 
dkef^rtat Pari* ptoJ*eaor, confeaoed hia diOicultieB, and begged for 
■ whjtion of theiiK Wtllifliu of CluLmpcaux wa» unable biitEiUacUirily 
Iftjuifwer, and Abplard depart <?d^ with the dotprminatiou lo Uka 
nanner to ditcomtit Kune other teacher. So he went from place to 
pUce, cacryukg on a ki(;d nf mctaphyaical toiimameat, in which it wao 
Uagiait object to ovcrthrow^ hifl advursuy^a argiuni^nta and ri^duce 
ami ui ailence. 

The jirodigioiiB BTicceSfl o£ Abelard wm, donbtli*SH, in a ojeat 
MilMMIfr due to hia language. The church tcachin;^ was uiirried on 
n ibe rude Latin of ihi: middle agca. Abclard ftjohc in a tnnguo 
vtuch aU could undurat&ud ; he dimplified evt^rylhing which hj^d 
hHberto appeared obaenre; The mysteries of rpliginn waflH to be 
njitene* whfii he djocoiirted of them; he treated the ChrLatiaa 
iaih with apparent vcapoet, but in reatiiy it melted away in hif! 
pi^. But htfl firat atla<:k waa upon morslity, though it woa made 
« a scarcely to be perceptible { crime, he enid, was not in die act, 

g % 


IjmlA Vl. 

but in tho intention i thus tli(>ri? wcni no Mtth lltin^ia as aicia of 
ImVit or i^uorantt. Tlit fftllai^j of th.J9 iHiSBrlioii U eyident wlieti 
ve cuuHidur ibai meu ain not aulj wLhq tLey dtliberately break 
God'abwa, but alia when ihey do not earnestly itnrpto Leep ihem; 
but tho teaahiiig was naluirkUy vory uitractive to humun weatnaM, 
WhcQ DQCG [lie fact of SETL IS dctLicd OT cxUiQiintod^ tbe denJ^l nf the 
necesfuly for »il iiixiu^mcat follows natumJly. The (eoclun^ of 
Abelard tended lo this, tlimigb he did iKft np^nly aiwrt tt ; be pro- 
f«H»>d, indeed, to defend Chri^ti unity, but 1\\% pr^umeitta in ii» suj)- 
port i*efG fo<?bIe. The result o£ big ifiiuhing wna Boon practicjiMy 
flhown. lieing received into tli€ bouao oi' the canon Fulbert aa the 
miriLruct^r of hb beiiutifiil uii^ue Ildoisa, he gjiliivd ber aCeijUoaaf 
and li^ her inro conduct, which pro^ei n difgntre to herwlf and 4 
mo^t bitltjr grief to her unci*. Yet when Abelnrd ottered to raniry 
her eho refuwl, for marria^ would huve shut him mt from aU 
ccclesioalica] ofBcEs, and llfloUa look^ forward to hja bein^ aome 
^\i^y f\ prior, an abbot, a bisliop, a Qirdinjif, or even a |»ope. Kidhert, 
toweverT iii'dsr<^d, and a ^<crfit nuirriflge tcn^ic ptjkce at Pari*, The 
ould'beartod Ab^hird n^vertbelesB urged HdoLSH to deny it; and, 
obedient to hU least wiab. she t*ck the veil in a nunnery, «hilst he 
Limaeb' eut*red u mLmaatery. By tliia time hii fntru? hud apreud 
far and wide ; an immenne connoursH of achalars flrwUed to him^ nnd 
be becurn^ y«t bolder in bis apecuIatioriB. Hia hereaiea ^v«r» eJt- 
citing the eGf>c<iijil nticulion of tiiG gmiLt authoritice of the chtirch 
lowardo the latter end ol' tha reign of Louia VL, buttlie period was 
riEie whiLb did not adniiC of auy active iutcTferouce on the pui^ of 
ibe Popt>, Tha condition of Itnly wna moJit unsatisfiiCTOiy ; ther*- 
werfl Dot only two rival Popes— -Inutn^eht 1 L, acknowledged by Ggt- 
niEkny, Friknuc, und KngLand ; and Aaacloiua IH-, the anti-Pope, 
uphrLi by B^veml of the leader Btntca — but at the j^mo time Arnold 
of Brcada, a disdple of Abelard, yet a m^o of atrlct morale, was 
Ptirring; up the pj?opl0 of Rome no efltubliti}! a repiEbbc iik oppoflitloti 
to tb« pupal goferninGnt, Innooent U. bjid been nbUged to leave 
Jtoly and oefik in Franoe thi? support of Louin VL, and was for 
^veral years an euEe ^ and the uuly Jiian besidoiit wlio could be 
La Dppo?ti Abelurd wna sir inu^'b o^L-upled with cbi' afli^n 
the papacy that he was unAble (o nttend to the irnporlnnt 
znGtaphyaical queetioni which at any other time would have excited 
tho deepeat LateFoat. 

Thin niaa wqq DfiTLord, ahboL of CliiETfaiiic, a Burguiidiau, and, 
like Abelard, a man of uEible bJrtli, marvellous i^nergy, und great 
lalenta, whicJ* W4?re deviated solely to tbe chub* of roljgion. Many 
might ba found to differ from Bernard in dHtrlne, but no one fculd 
deny tbe ho]iu«u of his chnmcter, Boginning life aa a aimpJe tu(ink 
Cjf tiie Benodictiae moimatery of Gil«aUJLj nhiuh h& i^altted when he 


fomided Ckirr&ax, h« rose to bo the arbiter of die deatiniea of 
£arc'p«. KiDgn, pop««> no1jLe«, and cleigy cui^aented to 1>e ^liJviI 
by lu£ advii^a. When ihe gutsEion as ici ilti; rival pops vas to be 
dect<l4^d, rtniJ Louid VL hiul declared for Innocont II,, whitrit Henry 
IL of KngliUkd heaitotod, it woe Bomard wLo, by a f<;uv ^vurJa 
addreased to Henry, brought him at once to }^\vk his support Lo 
luuDceuL. lie rukdt yet in u cerULJii eende it wna a^nat JjU witJ, 
for biB beort was GlHewb«r6 ; human [Kia>^ons And ^xcjlement vtre 
lost in the one nbeorbing^ fcetiD^ of the lova of Gi>L EntbtiBiftBti- 
CoUj ftffectionAto in hia triondaliijis, they tvvre cherished odIj ea Ear 
aa Aey wincided trith the hi^-hor Wo wliicb aauctiiied thcni^ und 
Hben he ejwke to bis felLow ijilti of Jio Hubjtcia (;t>aac] wJlIl 
thfjr viemal interests, lh«y r^gittd^d ibe nlighi, fnir-faair&d Tuimk, 
wLd addreaoed tb«m in iu^jh ^'orda uf heart-^iirrLDg and touching 
tJo^^UfUCCf oa a spirit ruthur thim a living inun of flesh nad Uc'uii. 
Tc xucb a maiL Lhe cb!Lni<:ttrr Aiid ^riudplea uf Abr^Utrd wi^re ei^pi^ciiiliy 
aniagoniHtic ; his oftii fjiiih wh* stj fi-rveni Ji-nd real thsit he c<inld 
Jillj? undeniand rhe difficuJiJ^ of scepiiiMl minda, wbilat hiw tjevere 
iell -disci pliQO misod him abova tho Uinif itatione whtuh bod caat eo 
gR&t a blrt on the choracicr of Ahcljird. But the tinin wuj not 
/et oome when Beniani couM openly coHtroTort tha opinions oiLho 
gTMt heretic- When Loiiia VI. died he was in luily^ upboEJjng 
IaiUM«Tkt IL ogajnr^l AnacJetiis, and the ht^toij of hja contettt wilh 
AbcUrd mu^t be referred for the raign of Loiua Vlh 



*.a 1137-1 1 ao. 

Lonis TIT. was only eightci-n yeare of nge vrhen ho became the aole 
raler of France. Well drsp<.wed, wiiJi banevoleni Iselijiga, uiuctie 
piflty^ aad a tair amount of luleii^ itn young king was nu'V^TClietesfl 
unfitted lo copo wllh tlie ditlicijliee of hia position. HU one great 
adTanlsg? had been the educatioo piven him by Suger, a man whom 
e*en St, Bernard loifked upon widi admiration. Wlien the abbot of 
CluTTAOX viaiied the fmme minitter at St. DenJF, and aaw ihe noble 
bnildiikg which SuRer had oonatructed. resGrving Only a cdl for 
tumsdi^ be ej^cIaJmed with a di^p aigh, ' This man condemnsus aEI; 
ba b^uldfi not far lii[iiatlf» aa we bviihl for ouraelren, but aokly for 
God_* In feet, during the whole tliQ« thm Sui^r governed France, ho 
lited in Ihia onepoom, liftetm fi^tt long simi ten feet wido ; jhert' he de- 
Voted hie ftvf houTB of kiaorfl lo dovocion and study, and when right 


cnmeheal(?ptupon ab«d of slra^^ nhioti i^urmg th« day vda hidden 
by adeceQtcarpBt,aQd covered himatlf with a rqugK wcwJkn counter- 
pone. Uoder such n tutor LouiH le Jeiuie had l>ccn carefully edijc^tcd 
In ilu' iibhey oE Bl Denid in principlts uf m^Tf-dcnial anH h>n-lmGBs; 
hul 11 woul J Heem its though his pBrly m/irringe with l!ie pirh hfir*M 
of AquitJitnfl had he'^n Too mueh tor hia wflak characWr, At the 
very outset of his roj^ he would fain huvc jnado war f'n the couot of 
Tuuloiiie, uiilhi: [pretext that Eleanor bnd ssime title to theiuUHt'sUo- 
iDmlonn. huthisbaruiiarcJiiHcdtoaccouipriny him, and hti wasohllg^ 
to ralinqiiiiJi the iden. His ni^xt untlerfuking brDiipfht dinn^Troua 
roaulCd. ilc ventiirodto withataQd the Pope, Inzioccnt U., vrhn, with- 
out any rcfcrenOG to the hiog of FrancCj had fjivcn tho archbishopric 
uf Biiurgea, the capital of Aquitainen to a person connected wllli the 
papal court, St. Bi^mard yiroiJ*Bted against thi? ant, but Louis did 
moT©; h© gave orders lor n freah eleoiTOii. The Pope in return es- 
cominunicated him^ and laid an interdict upon evtry place where he 
laight Hojeurn; but the j'oun^ ^ing, in no yvay Ltlarmed, seenwd 
deieniiined to drive m^tTers atiJI further to eMremhy- 

It happened ihni ^ihont ihiii time a qiTiirrel had broten onl 
between Loiu»^ and Thibald, the powerful count of Champagne. It 
was on a question of nn entirely donieatic tiaturo. Count Thibold'a 
niece liud married Ralph, count of Vernmndoia, but Krilph, having 
fallen lie^pty in love with Petronifla> the siater cf queen Eleaaar, 
divorced hi-* first wife and mnrriyd Petroniiln. The eouni of Cham- 
pugDe appealed to the Pope on behalf of hia Dieee, and Kaljih and 
Petronillii were pxcomiuunicflted, Queen Eleanor urged Louia to take 
Up PetrouilWd iiuarrel and invade the terriiGriLii of the Cf^unl of 
Champagne, who wan upheld hj the Pope. The king enCfred Cham- 
pagne, ravaged the country^ and eei lire lo the town of Vitry. The 
flame? eprcad to the principal churchf where tlio greater pnrt ofthe 
inhahirouta — about iLirteeeu hundreJ mi?n, women, otid children- 
had tnktFL rd\^e. Tliuirerlua runclK^J tilmears of the king, but ji wua 
too late in »tkva them and nil within the diureh perii^hf^ij. Thia 
horrible event compietBly crushed the apirit of Louis; he was ever- 
whelfiied by the acnae of the misery' he had caused. He became at 
once anbmisajve to the Pope, and sought for a reconcLliatign at aay 
pHtt. Hiaconsfience, awakeued upon one point, reproached him upon 
Otheni. He thought him'ifllfresponfliblefrirall the lacrilpges committed 
in Ibe three yeara for which the interdict had hinted, and the idea 
BcrioUftly auggeetcd itself to hia mind of mnhing n pilgrimage to iha 
Holy Land, as a penance for his sina, but the momuut for such * 
reparation had noi yet arrivwl. 

TVhilat thege event* wbtp pawdng the eoDteii between the great 
St. Bcmnrdand Ahelard had b^un and boon carried on with vigonr. 
U3S It will towarJi the clofle of the year 1139, the second year of the 


Urn riz. 

rmgn of Xxmn Vll., tbot Bomnni's Rpeciftl ati^DtioD wns directtHJ to 
Ui« teaeiiing of Abelard. Hb appealed to tbo Pop« to reproM the «TtE, 
ftndAbelariJ, aJAroied, sougliT thi.^ proE'sctioa oflhGorchljiafaop ofS^^DB, 
hlio ffu9 about U* fireafie over a ayn^td. At this b/uoJ BeniariT met 
him. Slan<lmg in a piilpit whifli wis In bf^ Been at Sena up to the 
time o( the Freni?h revotiitioo^ he re*d or cnuied to be read tha paa- 
Bage in Abclard'g writtngs wbich he had markod aa worthy of coa- 
derunatiori. To his (ireat flurprir^e Abelflrd roK up. refuaed all cx- 
pljuiatlona, and Srtid tliat h« appealed for a hennTig lo llie Pope. He 
vnu* fillowed To dapttrt, but lim writtnf^ vera pubticTj- denounci^d by 
Bernard, who» io aletler to Pope Innoeenl, tiUy diBCUHaad the orrow 
into w}iioh hiB opponent hcid litlli3n. It would bqpiu that ivbal Bcr- 
nard fvured wa^more tL« prindplea of argument vthi^b Abclord bad 
iDtroducF^ ib&Q tho ar^meuLs themselves. Abelord c^rtuinly did 
not go Ba &r a^ tho«> who followed hLm, hni ho wua a]ndemn4?d to 
aileoce, and hU dii>cipleB were excomiDiTniealed. AboJard himoclf 
never reached Rome ; be wastakeo 111 on tha way, and sought shelter 
b the abbey of Clugny, where the abbot» Peter the VenerabJc, pro- 
tected him daring the short reioalDder of \iia IJfe, and even brought 
' aboulanoutffardreconciliationwith Bernard. At thn time he entered 
into a correppondoocQ with Ueloifia, who wai now abbcfs of the 
coiiTeDtof the Paraclete, but hU heart appears to hare bteo far more 
■^Dnelfiah tliau hera; ht gave her advice;, but vi?ry little aJfectioUk In 
^e year 1142, two yflars after hit* concI[?ninalinri at ftena, be died. 

Lou^fl Vn, appaira to have lakon no very decided port in the 
OoQiroYcnj between Benuird nnd x^betru-d, though he was preaeat 
at the cOQDoil of Sena, Affaba immediately connected with 
his postinn oceu^ed hiin; and aatlme went on, aad the uneaaiueu 
of hifl conKjence b^eame more and mor? felt, whiitt hia ihoiightA 
*«re concentrated on the idea cf a pilgnm^e to the Holy I^nd. 
Eveatd occurred whJch chaaged hid prc^iig wi^lL into a pnicticnl 
renilutioD of the greuteai imp^irtance to himself and hia people. 

The period wm oEie of du-4turbance both in Europe aud Aflia- 
f^Dgland WB5 iiftfiet^d bv a dts^mcttve war between Stephen and 
^iade, the wife of Geoflrey ofAnjoo, the war beiug earned on in 
Normanrlj aa part of the English poaufi^ona, and in Anjou aa the 
territory of GeoBrey, Fulk V,, the fiither of Geoffrey, was BtUI 
livbg. but he wiu in Palejftini*, wliRre he had married the prJuceaa 
Hp^sende^ the daughter of Baldwin^ king of JerunaleTn- He had no 
*iah to return to Exirope, and hia Bon thoreJbro became iho ruling 
CDLiab. GeoQriiy waa yoiin^r than Maudt:, who dcepiacd and op- 
Joatd him, and gnve nil her love and ijiltreat to Hi^ury, afterwania 
Henry JT of England, her ran by her lirst huHhajii In A<initaine 
■id the Bouth of France there ware likewiw contending elaim* for 
I^ auoo^efiion to Home of the great lordsljipa which haid no direct 



Lctiu VU. 

heji mtds. Wars and Gommcitions Indeed t^nrrounded Louis oa 
every Hide, but none »i muaei! hia zai\ rmd bouclitid his heart as thQ 
my from the ChntitifliiR in the Holy Land. 

For the Urat llilrty yoare of the tivdiUi oentiiTy the kingdoni of 
JeruubJt^TH, ^HmbUaljcd by God&cy dc Bouillon, bud aucceijefull^ re- 
aiated Jla tneniJeaT ^^* flfier thut time tlie emir of Afossui com- 
menced an aggrPBive war against t\\e Christiana, and EdeKSBj rho 
gnut Lhnntiian fortrepfl nnd arrotigbold, fell into hia bnnd*. The 
newB of the Jnea epr<'-Qd tluough the tLiiropeoD tettlemoniiL m Palea- 
tine^ and at tlie vpry Time when Louie Vll. yfos pondsriii^ in hia 
miud the idea which wiiH» he hoptd, to brinj^ peaut i* his hmdeiied 
conBcienoe, na eltx|nent appi^al irom Pope Knpeniua IIT, exhfirteH hini 
and hifl people to take upflrms for the dy fence of ihe Holy .Sufnilthru 
Aad tho support of 1.U1: Friink dominion in Puibatine TUe jmpAl 
authority in France had on Lhia ot^cjaion b^eti ddt-g^ted bo St. Ber- 
nard, He irns -worn by i^are and inllmiily uiid yeart-, buL no one 
eonid so loneh the heart and ronHB the en^r^y of a unlicm ; and, 
following hia advice, Louia cali«d 1 great national council at V^ezelaf, 

*°Mn Burgundy, It van the fcnat of Eoatcr 1146. Qn the aJopo of 
A hill overlookiag the tovru the aMeuiblj was held. Lmiia, w&a- 
ing hxB rojnl robes, was there, with the prnud and bHauriful Elesuior. 
Hia uoblea and knights enrroundi'd hini, and below woe the \nBC 
crowd of the commoo people. The f^tue of all oliko yma ^xvd upoa 
the pnlci attenuated nionfc who tooil by the king's aide. In iinpaa- 
aooed ^vords Bemaid of GlaiiraiEi addressed the mtiltiTude. The 
very sound of hid voice opemicd upon cheni an n fip^ll, and as 
he spoke of the periU to irhi^h their brvthrso were exposed, and 
of the otcmol disgrace ^vhich would rest on Christendom ahould the 
land of the Rcdctmor ngoin laU into tlie poBaeaflion of the infidel, h 
murmur arose like that vrhich had in a bygoae day followed the Ji})- 
p*?al of IJrhjin U. It flwelM, mjd deepi?ned, and spread^ rit] the cry 
tif * Cm^&t I CrOBfiCB I ' wde heard n£ (rom ooe voice; aitd Btinuird, 
already prepar^ for the reEjuit &f his addreEs, Gcatiered umoogHt 
the mvdtJEude the badgea which ho had brought with biiUt »nr] 
which ^t^re &^r\y EeJTed aa pledges of devotion to the tiered cnuse. 
Louia knelt At Bernard's Ibei, and recpiirsd the boTy sign from 
hie hand, Eleanor, always open to imprenaioas from e>cjCfimont, 
Bciaed it for hcrecslf, and □ largo number of nobicn and knightt 
followed her example, whilst tJie crowd below WEre no eAt^oc to 
assimie the Cru^a tlLUt Bernard nnil his ns^hmnt inonki^ were obliged 
to Uar their own gnrmentfi to pieces To nupjily Chem- 

A year wont by before tbo expedition was fully in readineaa 
By that time the ranks oE the ctUBaders hi%id hocwt ^rengthencd bj 
1J1C aupport of Conntd, etnparor of Germunyf and sevend of tlie 
a4j moat dialinguished princes of the empire. And at Easter 1147 

Pope £i]£ctiiiia risit^d Pitri^ hqiJ bestowed hiB lipostoUcAl benedic- 
^oa upon Louis in the nbbej tf Sl Dcnii!, giviug Litn ikt lie simc 

Suger nlotie looked oo eoldly. He waa to h& left to govom the 
kingdom wilb the UfAJflUnce of tbe count of Vertmitidom mid cho 
i^cbbisbop of Uboims, Tbe distm^tioD y^-nA do Tctuptatioa, lor Sugcr 
wad williout aiubiliou, at [(aat for thU worlJ, lie would fiun buve 
ittaincd Louia by pilniing out bin duties to bin people, but ihe 
Iting wus not only fltimulftted by ilia g^nt-r*! impulHa, but hy bin 
own Bpcrot rcmorsCf uud vofy wdq nfttir iiia intervit^w wLtb Lbo 
pope hv departoi ior Mets, there Co meet ihc cruBadicg army 
cf ItXvitOO barooa aud tuUierai btsides & vast number oE piigrima. 
TbE Uhine wop croaatfi ac Worma, ibi^ Dimulie Rt Fiatisbon, and the 
cruAaders^ rnveruog the vtde pUioH of Hungary, entered tbe lerri- 
toriea of tbo vn^tom etapcror Manuel ConxncniiE' Tbe Grtek eta- 
peiOTA bitd (totn tbe tir&t b«en jentcu^ ofllie crusitdingepirit. A& ^e 
gufeniTTtent of CoiiaUirjlinopli! Liul hctti a bitidniocti rather iban a 
help to Godfrey de BouiKon^ ta now Mjinuel Comotoua, tbough 
he eJiowed ivJl outward mark* of friendship, worked aocrelly 
to d«fltmy the Frank anny. Tho guides whom he profcfOcd 
to proride wbai die 4:Fti6adt:ra IcEt CunHtJiDtioopJo luid entered 
Asia MiDOT werc^ faitblc'»i. Tbci portion of tbe Hrmv led by 
the emperor (Jonmd was uneipoct^ly npflimltod by [he Turlcc, and a 
tumble defeat followed^ Li>u.ii« hjkfU'Ued to Coamd's tuaisULnce, but 
the emperor, who bad been wounded in tbo battle, was oblipeJ to 
return i^i Cou»1utitiDup[e to recruit LJa sirejigib. LouIn uiid tJie 
Freni^h ironp^i puab^ on, bcpitig ui reocb th? peajiort of AiULlin^ in 
PnaipbylJa. They eucceeded aJ^ier & journey fraught with dit5cul- 
deOi from wbiob tbey were saved by the courage imd wisdom of a 
knjght, kflovin to ub ouly by liie Dome of Gilbert^ and who, when 
h*r arrireJ al Atralia, eonaidered bis Uu<k fini.Jied, nnd resumed his 
private rtatTon. A difference of opinion now aroae botwfwn t}ie king 
laJ btfl boronH. Tbero vr&i yet a njarcb ot forty days before they 
ctpuJd hope to reach AiLtioi^h, but the patrence and zeal of the 
baroite were exhausted. Tte king o^iilil not control them. They 
doctared thaiibcy irouid goby flea. Tim Grvukfi fumiihbed HbJpa for 
all who could pay ; the reflt^ chiefly pilgrim^ wore left bobind under 
tb« eare oftwo barotis and a body of hired Greeks^ LouiA gnve all he 
JuMaeased at the iQnmeDt for tlie support of ihosewbo were tbue aban- 
doned, and then tmbarked himeeEf witli Eleanor for Antlodi, wkei-B 
th<y wete received hy count Kaymond of Poitiers priiUHi of the little 
Clirittiiti principality of Anliooh, nod ii near relation of the rjueen. 
Kc mofier wua th^ kin^ jjone tlian the treacherous epirit of the 
Grwka ubowed itself. The unhappy pitgrima, who were nominally 
under ibe protection of the Greek emporur, were not only forbidden 

Z»ii Fll 

CD enter the ci^, but the Greeks Jnlbnned their eaemiai of their 
condition, and immediaiely the TutlcTi fell upon the pilgrinw 
and maavaci^ hy iar the gri3ati-t nuoiher. So fatlpl^Ht were they 
thai nt Jn3t even tUcir foea piiiod Ihein, and the Turks nuTBed 
ihe wgimd^ mid fed thr aick und Bl^trrini;, irhi]!**' tlie Gr«^k3 seued 
the Etroag mid kepi ihvin aa i^lavee, ^itcb we're ihe ddin^a which 
ri'achpd Louis at Antioch, and vory tprribly must they hnTe added 
to the dome'itic tnjil whioh had just now dawned ujcn him. The 
light- m in dtd Elsuior showed such Jevitj of coadutt in her loleT- 
couTHC with GDiinCi Itayuiiiud iLat Louiu h;iBiiTy IcH Antiuch, niidf 
taking hiawlfe wich him, pmc{fedeil aa a pilirrim trr .leniwiJi^iTi. The 
emperor Conrad, having remvered from hisillneasj had precadad him 
Ih&ro, BJid hiirinfl TiBitid ths iio]y places, had Riit out on a U^nr of 
inspection of the kingdom, vitiiting iho scoport^. and urging the 
Tflrionfl kojghta and pilgrims who had J'ulJillBd the vuwb ihey had 
made, and witp preparing to rctiim to Enmpe, tn rnnviin and ni^wHt in 
Hr>me entet7inBe iigMinst (he heaihen. Lonis )ia6 reuched Tyre on 
hia way to JeniHalein, when he rcaeived a uu'^e&ij^Q from ConradjWho 
was at Ptolemaip, Tirgin^ lliat theyaJiould meet h.\lf-way betweonlhe 
two cities uud cnacart meitsujoa for the prctecliou of the Holy LRod. 
The resnh of the interview was nn attaek npon Piunnnoiis, one of 
the most important cilieB of (ho Sarncen empire ■ but the ChristiAnd 
were unnhle to take it, and when Conriid and Lottia nuitly rcturaod 
to JeruHileni, the form{!T at once revolTcd to give up tha cniaade mtd 
go hack to RurojiH. Lfjuia lingered at Jeriimlein during the 
%riiiterj holding, however, hin liiile communication with the Di^bl«fl 
of tho kingdom. He ceiebmted Eoater in the hoir city, nnd theri, io 
cooeeqiience of an earnest remonatrance eent him by Suger, 
at«rt«d for Europe- His homeward voyage waa adventuroua. Tho 
Greek enipemr and Boger, count of Sidly^ were at war, and the 
Greek floet, cruiang in the ModitermnoDni captured tl it veaeel in 
which Louin was, and wore nbout to cnrry him a pri'nii^ to Cooatau- 
tinople, when the SiciU?in adniiml and his fleet came In flii;htj and 
having atliu;ked and defeated tlie Gieekis net the kJu^ of France free. 

Sad and humtlinting was the landing of Lnma in hi« natjve 
oountty. Buger had indeed governed it wieely during his abaenoe, 
and there was no lack of prosperity in the country ; pnhiic ord^r had 
been iriaint^ned, the royal Jouiaina improved, but the expectutloua 
cf both the king and hia aubjcct» bad betn bitterly diaappointed. Of 
the mightyhoat which rather more than two years before had set forth 
from Palestine only ii^<ivt 200 or 300 knights dieomhurkod with 
their eoverci^ at Provcticfi. 

But a further trial, mora especially touching himself^ wu 
in fflare for Lotnii. Eleanor'n condiiL*t in PalentTue hftd jifiven him 
caQHe for complaints of tha mofit aerious kin<^. In hie conEidoatiil 


Woke -LSD asaSABEK— divorce ANQR^aARfElAQEOFELEAnOIi. 91 

ccmmUTiioatioiiu with Suger he Hpob^ of tbi^m opvnl^'^ md nith & 
^fTATC diBpitoflitre which ehciwcd ikit the idea of separating irom 
bei wa* gftiuiug grtiund in hh mind. Sugar entreated lum, if poB- 
eible, to OTcrlook what had hi-wi amiHs; hi]t FJrainor urns us anxiflos 
a± ter Luflband for the Bojmration, nnd the diannmn Wtwflon ihv 
bmg and his Kif^j ^ua soon eyjdent to Ihe vhnle norld. 
' Elinor taunted Loiua vrith the ill auMcaa of the crnsadea. ^ Hcwa*,' 
I ^e oid. 'a monk mthei ihau b ujijiiardi,* Ah rtganJed the 
' divorce, aht dpmiLnded it on the pltn lihat her husJuind nnd herwtf, 
according to ihe lil^*a of the ehnrch, were too nenrt? related fot 
marruige. Tho iiucetion was Jo£t open for eomo time, but thflrti 
' couJd be Eo doabt as lo the final result. In the mcttntinie Suger 
', retired to hjfl cell In Sl D^'n[H, houoated nitb the titte of the 
' F*il»ercFfhiflCoamry, Grentlyna halin<i regroited tlie king's eriginn! 
determins-tiari to utidertnlc^ (he ^^rtuade, he still grievciUE,lj lnmf>nled 
itj &iluTe, and now bia tbouf^ihti tuTnod to tho possibility of collect- 
j irg money* and troop* for another e^ort in the enHt. Hih inlerest 
ma shared by St. Bernard, ou nbom ihe newa vf the fjiilure of tli« 
[ crna&de hjid fallen likfi a thnnderboU, whilit the opprohrinm poai 
[ upon himcelf lor the pnri ho hod taken in farthering tho oxptKlitlon 
«a« lood and univLTSal- Bcmjird accepted the trial, aa ho did eterj 
ttialf in a >piril of humble resignatjop, yet it cant a cloud over hh 
\Mtter days. His health wrs vEPiiblj Ihiling at the vptv time thut he 
was giving the aid i^f his cotinwl to Sitger, who was dreaming of a 
new <]niie»dB, and demoting h-U hia own private funds to the object- 
But tho abbot died it year befofo Bernard. Ho woa token ill in the 
ui. midsL of hh preparatcone, and i?jip!red at BL DeiiJh on the l^tb uf 
jjjjanimry, 115?, aod in the following year, llfifl, St Bernard waa 
•lao taken to hia real. 

The king's beet friend wm gone when SugOr diod. A Qcuncil 
to conaider the quertion *j( ih^ divorce was Huramon©! at Beaugency 
b March 1 152, otid only tliiue montlips iltor the deatJi of the wiue 
nuniiter Louk and Elinor were pronounced no longer man and 
wil«. Six weeks later it wiui aoaonnGed to Ihe world tbnt the 
dirorced queen had bcatowtd bor hand and her large poaHeAaioaa 
Upon young Henry Plantagenet, duke of Normandy, son of Geof- 
avf of Aujou, and uckciQ^ledged belr to tht! Eagliah throne. 

From ihia time Elennor of Atjuitaine pasfiee ont of the domain 
<f French bjetory. Wo hear oi~ her, indeed, but it is in cannectJon 
*itb ercnta having a more Rpeoial reference to England. Sho is 
koowD to ua as thi? imjierioUB queen, the unnatural mother, Btimng 
Dp hvT children to rebi>llion against tJieir fuiher, and at length 
iaifffiKin«il by ber huahand, ihnt ahe might no loTiger distnrb the 
|Hc« of the kingd«ni. Only oao rodconiing trait ia givon ub in 
tfie eObrta which ahe made to ndae tho mnsom required to reieaae 


Loaia VJi. 

bcr Hon Kichord I. from CAptirity. The mornaga of EJcanor 
and Henry Plaalflgenet diamembored Fnmce o£ more ttfln Wf ter 
itiriitotiea. When, two yeurg ul^er, Heory becaoie king of Engliiodi 
it WA» evidently i mfKisfli blf? that peace could be long mBrnfJuned- 
The reoorda ol' the oe^fL twenty yeora Jire littEc more ibon a Liatory 
of di-^puti^s in vrbiuli Ht^nrj ulmtya hnd the advtiDto^. Pelttio and 
dever, hv condtflcended to griitify Louis by doing liuinngt fci llie ooti- 
tinpninl poaseRninjta, l>:a he manag^^d nt the name time Ui eslJibliHb 
hU claim fl*i fliizsram of BrittsTiy, and to obUJn poji^pwion of the 
cx>Qnty of Njta^B, and e-imitar Ehrcwdncse wq^ manilc^Ied in all hifl 
tTflafliitliona. Aftar lUe separatioii from Eleanor Ixiuia mmried 
OoDBltauis; uf CoHtlLe, and nLtn <& Jauglitor wus bom to diem Ileory 
propOH^d nn iilluinctf b^iw^en tbe two Ihrnilioa fay (bo betrotbrd of his 
eldesi »on^ Henry, then a cfaUd of four jejiiH, ^vitb the fattlfl piiticeM 
Mjirgucfrito. Lcuib wiUirpJy jigroed, but ibc proposal waa evidently 
greatly to the advantage of tiie Kn^liab muQarchn wbo niiglit tliUB — 
should LouJH have no bou — louk furwiu-d ui a-Hng bU own Kun hair 
Lji. to both kingdomg, CouBLaDCV of Cailiile, however, d\&\ in 1 \tt\y. 
*'''* OEid Louis thea Tiiarriad a tbird wife, AUco, eiatcr to the count of 
A-it- Chanipi;inCf and on iho SSJnd of AagUAt, llGfi, to tbo great joy <d 
tbe king und hiA people, the ijuc-tm f^ve birth to a Hon. Tbe obiJd 
vaa bapLJHEd by the nrinif of Pbiiip, nnd in the general rejuicing 
h« was called Hieudonae, or ll^e Irift of God, but he is inoj-« 
generally ki^ovn aa tbe ronowtied i'bilip AuguatUB, 

Eni^laod wfl^ at ihia period distnrbed by the contest between H^U^y 
II. aud Dbe JirchbihljoporCcntfrbuiy. Thomna ^ Bucket, wljich hiLd for 
\XA origin th*^ KBpcc:iv*i rights of ihe ahurch and the erown. When 
Beckel fled to Fmnee LoiiIb upheld him; a petty war bdwen 
the two kings llpllowtd, always to the diaa^Jvantago af Louia In 
i]«D llGD peace was mado' Louia and Henry met Jit Meittujirail, and 
Becket ofTflred Ui snbrait to Ills sovereign, but kt was evidt'iitly no 
real aubmianion. The aTcbbifiliop returned lo England. Ueniy 
oponly eTCpreeaed h\9 disiruet of hira and hia ^^cnJro to be frood from 
hio opposition. The few Imrty words wert interpreted to moaD a 
winh for Dccket'e dtatb, and a iicnly ofknigliU followed the orchbiahup 
10 CaultTbury and bjirbjirously miirderpd him betnre the altar id 
I the cathedral. An interdict, of which Louih wiu the lEBtigaior, 

I waa the puniahmcnt of this oficnce. It vr&& laid on nli Henry's 

I ccDtinental poAaesaioDa, and nob tJU the En^liah king had imdured t 

I degrading fH^nance was he ugain r«:i:ived into eomuuiaion with ihe 

W cbureh. 

I Betn-een Louis VII. And H«nry There was from Ibst time a bitter 

B haired, shewing itaelf, on tho part of Louib, by conduct that no mo- 

■ tivei could juAtify. He suppuittid Henry's wuh in a ri^bellioa 

I igainst diar fiitbtrr, which waa auggeated bj queeD Eleanor, The 


htragt'le lut«*l for jettr^ find rb^n Louin wan compelled to yii>ld- 
UncL- morfi peace 'whs made, nud tlii^ tiinc it vua not again brokeot 
U. for t}»e fdgn of Louie VII, wns rapidly druvinp lo tdoae. In 117!) 
^^ the king, dtfurcufi of usaociuting v'lih LiiufAi' hlu buu Ptilijj, t}ieu 
fiPr^n jreara old, prepared (o havi> Mm crowned at Rli^Jma ; hui the 
diy before the ceremony toolc place the joung prince went on & 
hunting expD<JJtioQ, nnd hcin^ fit-pnratcd from h\a componiona, loet 
bU waj ii> a fonsl and wnndorcd. aboQl all aight. Fatigue ami ox- 
poanrc lo cold brought ua a duu^eiou^ UIdu^ and the bJDg, id LLi 
anxiety for hk only aou, reaolvtid io ninke a pitgrimikga to the nhnDe 
of Xhi^ouia k Becket, who hod \ateij bE:4!n caDonisett. He wait abst^at 
oiily txc daySf in that ape ft sip^uiarly short period for a journey 
lo Enghuid and back. But bia great uneasineas nude him LoHtea 
BKire tbui W119 pnideoU Ho retiimeil to fiad hiH son recovtring, hut 
he bimseJf was ctruek by pal^y ; pod when tbe splenilid cci^viution 
of Philip jiotuolly took place the king was too ill to be present. For 
many monthA Louib Unbred, trhiUt the gDY^mment naturally fdl 
btj Lbe bands o£ tJie quetn and htr brotbera; but Philip, boy 
though he v^e in age, knew biuiBulf Tn he n crowned king, and 
would admit of no controL So singuhtrLy nndutlli]] indeed was 
be tbat the aged king of England, Henry IL, Vfho bad suffered ao 
mocli ftt'ia th*? conduct of hia own children, acltuJij nought an lEiter- 
Tiew with bim to entreat him not lu sully hia nume l*y dcKrespect to 
his ffioth«r'« winbfs, 
j5J In tlie autumn of 1180 it became evident tbat the life of Loiua 
VH- could not much Jonger be pro!onpi:d. Ordering hia money, 
clotbet, and jewels to be brought to bim, he caused a i^eitnla number 
nf the poor to bd aRwmbled, nnd with hia uwn handn diatrihuted bis 
richat amonffft^ them, and sfion afterward™, on the IWihof September, 
ha died, in the pixtiotb yur of hie age and tho forty-third of hia 

The goveniment of Louis had on the whole been benelieia] to 
France. The number of cummun^ was inrreased, and npecial 
pviTil^^ were cmferred on the merchants of Pnrifl. The conditicn 
of Slie lower clo^t-a wna also irnprovi'd by the ins[:itutioD o(' what 
VGTv cntled ^ vJIIes neuvee,' or new townr^ in which the eerfii who ware 
»1 fm by the small lund progjrictura mi^ht dwell, rectiivjng ciicb a 
■mall fftant of land. The irerpa^iEi^ mfluenoe of the middle and 
lower oItlugb wai fell at this tJme in othtr countriaB than France^ 
and in ItttTy e^pe^tully the Biru^lo betwei'O the emperor Ftederick 
Barbaroesi aad the cities of Loinbardy, eupported by the Pope, was 
the be^Tiping of a war whic:Fi, under the name of the war of 
the Ghibetlitei (Ihe emperor'a party) and the Guelpba (the Pope's 
pnty), deEOlut«d th? land for yeara. 






Phtlip Aitgitstus — flo allied either bpcnuBe he wm bom in iha 
iDcnth of August or becnUEC Lhe ?pilh«t Aiif:U3l.Ufl ia B^aonycioiiH 
with * the Great ' or *tho Imperial '-^he^^uii Jiiftrcign hj liQ (Kitoppoaed 
to his mother^ft wiahcs. He mzLrried Isabella gf Ilolnnult, niece of 
the t^uuatiofFJanJers. I^ was an act of aelliali v,ad ambitious policy, 
for thfl roiint ofFinnder^ nt once yieMod ATnifun to ihe Iting, and 
promised him Artoiit, VniuLS, mid VemumdoiB- but It vfaa also 
popular. laibello waa a diratt descendant of Chflrleoiapie, (lad moch 
rejoicing accuuipuul^ Iier coiojiatiuu, uliich took pluci^at St. Dejua. 
Tbe new kiog evidently liad a very fkr-Nj^ing »ye ub well as 
VCnderful fiaPTgy of ch.irflcier. Ths independence of the great 
vaa&aLa wna tha otii] almost iQBurmnimtabla obatiLclo to his own 
Bapreme authority, ^nd at tbe very ouUet of bis reign he attacked 
the pcwerfnl duke of Burgundy, who Imd rtfua*^ to make umenda 
for acta of TioTtnce againitt Lhe cliurfb. A iorce vtaa sunt into Bur- 
gundy; tbci duke B Kwtle waa assaulted and his eldest son taken 
pri&oiiOT ; and a ueolul loeson wad by tbia meaiiB given to any other 
tioble who might be danirous of following audi a rebellious e*ftciplt 
ThH nt^xi Dxli^bition of energy wna for inoic opeD lo couBurG^ though 
it wiis in iiocordnnci* wiih tbe prJnciplea of the age. Following the 
advice of a HUppo&ud anJntJy hermit of Paris, Pbilip rcaolvfld to rep«l 
the Jewfl from hie dominioaa- The dtht due to ibem he remitted, with 
the t:iccpdon of the fiflb part, ^hich he took for himself, and ihrefi 
months only were allowed them before tljeir i]e[]Qiture. Their 
nynoj^gueH were then H>nvertfd into Christian cbiirob™. No doubt 
Philrp gave himself credit for the net, aa also for tbe ae^ere penaltiM 
which at tbe aamc time he denounced against heretics, blaaphemera, 
gomeat^ns aweurcr^t and buffovne^ hni Iila true cbarttcLflr ahowed 
\if<e\( in the utterly autfab eharueter of IiIa foreign piliry. Following 
tiB fntber^a examjde, h« suppotteil tbe Hoaa o1' Henry II. of England 
in their uiinatural rebellion^ liicEiard, the Bccotid fton, was hiJ 
chenjtbcd companion ; wbcn together, they ato irom the same pUle 
and alepl in tbe mue bed ; and Hii^burd was his fatber^H sworn Tim. 
Family disunion Boomed to be lhe n^ttiral heritage of the hoiwo fif 
Anjou, A priest once came wiiii iht ctca^ in hi« hand siipplicaling 
Geoflrey, Henry's third eon, to bo TOconciJed to hia father^ and not to 
mutate AbttaJom. Geof&ey'a r«ply was, * It it the deaULUiy of 


lunily la li^Ce estch othc^r. We hire receiT^I it ju our ioliBrllAnce* 
■D<J ihen Live« not one imOEgtt u« wim wUf recoiince it/ 

Th« two &roarite eons nf the EogUfch kinj?, Hoary ntid Uoo&i?r» 
4i«d A fcw yeam aftflr Philip came lo the ttroae. IticliarJ, then 
acknowledged aa heir, was impatieat to reign. He nuide tlt:uiiiiidd 
ttfcich hU C^dier onulii not gratify, and in rJ^Ttjago for the rduaal look 
up srau agiic^ him, Philip's eupport vriifi ^wea on this occaaon 
oa the Bcore of griorAQiM^ peculiar to hiinBelf^ - Hia balf-aister 
UAr^eritc, tb« daughter of LouIa TIL and GoD»tAacQ of C*«tjls. had 
wmimd prmi^ Henry at EiigUud. Uer huabaod betug d«&d, Philip 
daounded the rEfltArHtii^n of he? dower, and the king of Enfflund re- 
fti—J to ffire it up. So af^} AJtct!. Pbifip'i youngt^ai aiE^r, had been 
b«lioU»d to pha«e Kictard, oiid had even been Bent to EDgkcd to 
bt «doca>ed. Bot ths king of Eng^Jand delayed tJit? mairUge, vid 
■*V), it ma uid, dpairei.3 ta hava the youn;^ pdacen for Limaeir. 
Tfatfr wtf^ mfficieat caiivs for eoinjiy. Yet, thoDgh war wat 
b^aa, ikrte wera do rifgular battle«. Heinry'4 ■treagth hiy ruther 
ia MaAtfviiov aud diflcuaioDiit and at Jen^ tha two kiagB azr«d to 
■nC ftt ft tpot near Guor<, where b ma^nifinrnt eiui-tree L^ for 
iMinr faa anoi], murking the Inkumlur^ hetvreea France acd Xor- 
idj, bat before the appointed day of met>tirtg arrived tidioff^ were 
ed from the caa vhict diverted tlie thoughts of th^j rival 
from their ovm petty vtmiirels Eo the ccnditjoa of tlie Chri^ 
iti ibe Holy Laud. 
Sakdio, the cultan t^f Ecrypt, had undertaken the ta^k of re- 
•tfiog Pa]e«tiiie ]<ir che MahonK-uinB. A great battle hm) be«a 
at Tibenae. Tbe ClirLebnna had bsea dtfeaE«d, and tlie 
Saladin, paMO^ onwarda to Jeni&olem. h^ ojoiiuhed and 
l^itt U* The inlefligeuce iron hiought to Europe in ilie uutiiinn of 
iha jaar I IM7- Mi-n talked of it ererywhepe* hut no plana had bc«D 
Mlli^il tiJi ll«Dryor tCngljuid nnd Philip of France, atU^ded bypFiDM 
Bicfaard and a multiLadc of hni^hia and noble*, mot nt the g^eat 
iIm of GUoti ta the month of Jaikiiary lld8> 

Ttaa discuaaiun ^f private (joeatiooaof dispntehad Bavt^Ij beguu 
lite i^ed orchhi^hop of Tyro pranoted himielf be^re rhe 
J imploring thij lungs and prinwa proaeot to forget all mit- 
of ur«jDal quaiTuI and to join in defending tht caiuo of the 
11w 'PP**! *" ^"^ which coutd scarcely in those days be loade 
vaifi. Hnuy, Philip, Kichard, and the chief of the atiendant 
Md the Crott. Tho ta^i of a tenth f^ the property of all 
At uu^ilun m* imposod, and tvo yt^rj were allowed ^r pnjm- 
Hmk wa« no real reconciliation, however, between Fraute 
England. Bcfurv the next jyai had poceed ihe two kin^ were 
at deadly enmity, and ai iengili Philip, Jinding that Hcnrj 


pmp a. 

could nertlkCT be intimidjited nor Unttered into agreement l^'ith hfa 
dem.inds, cat dnwn the elm oi' Giiore, vowiug thut no lugre lucetiiLga 
for r*U(jc should ever agnui bu hdJ under it. 

The fuiuilj oorrcvTA of ileiir^ 11. s^cte now braucht bo a climax* 
rd oprtnly rflnfjiirctcj hia ImHuige, and in liis (Ulber'a prcNenc© 
ed lo Philip ii.rid dMnrt-rl himself his vus.'bI, Oppn wariara 
ToJlDwcd, sitd (.he En^rU^ti king, "with LiafiLilin^ t^traiagth, Wid kkjd re- 
diiced ti? tha jiccciaAicy uf tiiakin^ a iitoat humiliating pence vriiU 
PhiJJp, ^11 iJii^ buTcma who hjid takc^n up aruiH in TLichiird'e £tvour 
being ppnnitted to remiiin the prince'fl vassalu. He wa* ^till ia 
NoTTUflndy when tlie atubafisadcrfl of I'hilip, who wers lo witueu tba 
coDfirnmUon o( the treaty, viniltid him. Thay found him ill and 
in bad. Henry dtmiitided a lUt of SkWd'a supportera. Tbs 
Grat Dame wiLi that of ihe king's }'uuugesi oud favourite aoD. John ; 
And th& unhflppy fiitlier, jih he r^ntl it, ff-ll haclt ujion his piliow^ and. 
turning hia faco to tha wnlt excEjiim^ * Let all be a^ it mny ; h@QE-e- 
forth I ULTC not for mjticif oor Ibr aught that ihie wirtrld cact f^ve/ 

IliA heoi-t Trap brohcti. Ho retired to the cattle of CbinoQf uid 
there diud. o:i the titFi of Za\y, 1 189. 

Upou the death of Heory^ Phi lip'a groat iHsnd Richard, »a ting 
of England, bi-cumc bis rival— a briihdut rivulT with fdl t^ic- delects 
of a hero of the nxiddlfl ngcs, Gencroua though BolliBh, Kictiurd 
gare, Bold, lost, frltitin^ u^ay his iTLheritdnce. to gratify hia ji^talou 
for WEir ;ind obtain money fi^r tlie crusides, the nijcessiiy for 
which WD>] pr^stiing- The Chrisriana in the Holy Land luid Jut 
HPurly uQ but the cUiea on the coojit of Palestine. Tyre iteelf h&d 
fallen into the honda of the inGdcIs, To excite fympikthy the prince 
of Tyre, Coprad of Moatffrrat, who aspired tu be kia^ of Jernaali 
had milked \t> be borne throiighnut Europe a ri^presentation of the 
fortunato cify Mud Qi' tho Holy Sepulchre, with a Saractn caTali* 
trDDjpUng on iho tomb of the Kedeetncr ; uod loud wisre the 
JamButatioofl'if tlic Cht bliftiiA uf tlie went, ^b, i^uJng upon the pici 

and beatiog their brouaid, they eri[?d, * Woi? 1 w*# unto usl' 

ii-on. I 

The cnndnct cf S^da<lin t^dd Jtlso JigaJn^it the Chri<iTiEkE] cAum, 
The fupfilives from Jerusalem liinnd no uhtlter vith their brf-throo, 
whilst Saladin cmpluvf^d all the money ha could qiaro in delivoring 
thfm when thay had £illtn iato tlic handa of hiB fiuldiera. But for 
the dillereDCB cf religion pnhUo wyjuparJiy ndgiit now Liive heeu en- 
liale] on the aide of the Sflmoens, so higli wjia tlie repulatioo of 
I their leader's honour, comp»Asion, and gcaeroBily. 

I The French bad Eod the hrat cru^de, the GermanE tho Kcondf 

I the third wiia eapecinlly Eii;:]iah. But liicbard Cteur de Lion look 

I witJi him only knights and soldier^^; no nflolepfl followers were allowed. 

I The kin^ of France fallowed Ihia exumple, and both having aaaaiB.* 

^^ bled their troope at Voxifki, nuu-ched in compuiy to Lyoua, v'hmt^ 

let BARllaR035A — RICHAHI^'S UARBJAGM: — ftlEGE Of ACKE, 97 

lln-y wpirated, Kinharil embarking at Mancalle*, Philip Auguetue 

In the meanlirae Frederick SurboroaHi, the (wed emperor of 
Gfrrnany^ had tArnviy tvt iiiTih for the eiiMt hj Junil with a fonriiil- 
mblo army. Tht^ diffii-'uhiefl which lijwi OTCTwhelmed Cnnritd and 
Louia VIJ- upon liT§t tnt<:nD^ Aiin Minor had l>«en imTmoiifited W 
bins, he secTfled to be ck'Hrioj^ the vay lor the French atid EapliJi 
kingn* *Iitii a laUi acxiiJrui arrested the pmgreaa of the «niij. The 
enij*ripr waa erossiag un iuHipnilkaut rixer — iLt CulycadNua — wLeJi 
hifl hoiBfi waa, ba it ia sMppos&ri. rarrfpii Bway by the currctit, iind he 
wa« dfowaod' Their l*«iler beincc dead, the troopa diapi-reod, aud 
thnn ih*; burden of the third crueade waa left lob« horoo by FrsoDo 

Tho two kings met at Sicily, and thnri? a f^iiarral broke out. 
Tsncted, Icing ci' Sir^ily, bad Tisttqiod the crowr, and eauaed Jcttnna, 
tha widow of hifl prcdMcawrT to bu impriBrtucd. Jrwnra waa 
Rjobard'B Butert and Kicharil de^JinJ to reven^a thtA otitraee^ 
Tbucrtiii paiiR-d Fhitip to Lis aide, A coajproiui?it waa Buggy^itrd, 
Tancred rel'Tiat-d Jtumna, iind offerwl ic restort her dowry. The 
kings '>r Skily and taglund thvij hecaima friends. But Philip would 
not allow Kich^rd to retain the whole of tho nun he bad thva 
obtftined. He UaA a ctaini cf his own to bring forward. Kichard 
had been betrothed to [lie princew* Alice. Oiapinea miffioienl lo 
make Toid the tnfigflmt'm had ariaen, hut Philip FtJIl iiuiflted li|X)n 
considering It as binding. Hit:hard, on the other haad^ had arraoged 
a tflarriigc with ihe htaulifiil B(-r<?ngarin» danj^hter of tlio kinp o^ 
Kavarre^ The pricit^i^H uriA vmu (hen HXfft^uted Ic arrive in Sicily. 
accKBnpaDi«<l by ijum^ Kl^nor, utid dhe rrjanijLge wan to lake plncv 
apaediiy- Tbe quarrol was at IPKt iidjiutod by Uichnrd's payment 
cd'a la^ge fJTtirin of tho Rtim hj^hud reoaivod ffom Tancrod, and th«n» 
wkilvt the BagtiEh king awaited bin bride la l^ioil)', Philip pet sail 
tor HiK Holy Land. He Utnded ai Acre, and ibimd him^f ia the 
CBidffi offl numeroita ChriBtian boat, the very flower of CbTiKtendom ; 
m formidable, iMd^d, wjia th« atmy, even before ibv arrival at 
Bichsrd and Philip^ that one nf iho crnauliiig hnij^hl!) had bccti 
htard to exclaim : ^ I( God will but rrmain oputral, the vinlury is 
aurn ! ' Sakduif on hie Hide, had fuught the aid of all the MuasuU 
DLUi prinCM, for iho atrnpgle was felt to be not for the eity of Act«, 
but bclWf.^Q Europe sad Aain for nupreiDacy. Ail that wa« then 
known of militikry ficienoe was pnl in ptactire hy the bomegora. 
Uovable bowers wtre bruuf.'hl ji^Iant the wbIEh, and a combuilible 
raitATiAl, calted Greek fire, wikAthruwri into the town. 'Ttie Clirutunii.' 
My th4 Arab hialoriaaA, ' brought with them the lava of Etna, arid 
cast it upon thetr enemies, ovon aa the ligbiningv of Heavea wera 
laiMwd a^ci*t tho rob^IIiouE angela/ Yet Utc crusiding army realEj 


Philip II. 

ctid but \\ti\e. It viiis wt^akt^ied by nationtil jmloiislvs. The 
Genoese, PiasoH, and VenedaQs vj^te nvu-la In t^itinierf^e ; the ItoighU 
of tho two raililaiy ordere— the TewpJflra and JJo^^icalJora — ctmld 
acarcely TCBtrain ifiemaelvea from open codAicI ; iJiera were two 
claimuDta lur tJje tJ^rooe of Jeraanlein^^Guj de Lii«[giiaa and 
Connide da Montferrar — and, mora fHUd than all, Phi lip of Fra.rn*e 
and iCichurd of England regarded iiach other with a distrUGt rendered 
aJl the more bitter from the oircumBiantfe of iheir e^rty frieDdtihip. 
U|'OL Jlicbfltd'a arrtv&] the two eoTertigns were fidl of ejiprvS' 
aions of niDtiud t^Giirtj'sy ; yet they were op«uly oppope<l u^ma a 
most ifnpt>Ttant point— that of the rival chiima to the fcingd^m of 
JeTiiflalem, Philip espOQaed the oause oE Conmde d& AJontferrst ; 
Kichurd supported Guy de Lufliftaan, hut the seltliment of the 
qUuitioD waa dcftrriid till na HBsuijIt ImJ bfKU mudt; upon the city. 
Untuippily, Kiehnril v^ i^iiddeidy seized with illnei^R, and Philip 
attempted to aiorm the pliiee wilhout him. Th^ attaek wa* lujsiic- 
ccoflfuip nnd Philip woa deeply inortilio<l. Ridiard rccor^Tcd, nod 
vu no sooner M& to appear in the camp thao hia determiaed taJodt 
excited the Mdmiratioa of the army and increuaed the JL'alciisy of 
Philip. A »iceond. though again nn uiiGUtce»ulUl, Atr^mpt wm 
made to carry the city by assault. At k»t it yielded, but chieQy 
from bunf^T, and ca tho I2th of JxUfj 1191] the tvo hings reccLvea 
ila Btibmisaj OD. 

Then curut^ the Imporfaut c^hoice of a kin;^ of jHrti^tlem, Ench 
claimjiTit boEied bis title upon the right of hiti wife. Guj de Lnitimsn 
bad married SyLilInf the oldest daughter of the JiUt king, Baldwin; 
Conrade cje MenLlbrraC va.'i the hiuvb^nd of laabelt the neoond 
daughter- Sybilla was de^> bnt luibfl woa Itviug. liichud rfw>- 
lutcly upheld ihe daim of Guy, an the repref^ntatlve cf Syhilla, 
ntid Philip wii» obliged to fi^ree that Guy should liold tha crown for 
bia hfetinio; iLjtorwEirda it wjia to dofoWc upya Iflabel nud her heirs. 
Uftioiateiy Iticbard coasented to the election of Conrade, and Guy de 
Lur'ignai) recf^ived the mhvd of Cyprus as a compi^QBiilion fur the 
loss of the ItingdoT!] of Jeruwlem. 

Aud now it begBU to be wliit^pered abroad that Philip Au^^tua 
liad tlioughte of withdrawing from the expedition. Itichord, in 
idurni. proposed that thev fJicuJd both take im oath tc pro^ocule tha 
WOT for tliree yearn, Phibp refused, and at once denianded permis- 
aion of bin ally to return home. 

Kicliard Temonatrated indignantly, but he could do no moie; 
For his own flafety he bound Philip by an oath to rtfraJa fivm at- 
tacking the Kngltah poABcEviii>nH in Fiance, nud to protect tbem 
ag&iikAt all enemies; and Pbilip tlien niiled for Europe, nmidsi the 
con lemptuouH muiinura and curaaB of th* cmsading hoala. 

Honour for Kichjxrdp profit for himself — tliia waa apparently 

A J). 




Philip*! V]«w of the right diviaioD of their joint expedition. The 
kiog of England remained in the Holy Land ait the champton of 
Chrifiteadom, making himnvlf very Jamoui and very poor ; Philip, 
who bad Bolemnly inorD not to injure him, returned to France, pre^ 
pared to take the earliest opportunity of indulging his malignant 

That opportunity was not long in presenting itself. During 
Richftrd^a aheence prince John had eeiz^ the crown of England, 
and now received open support from Philip, who accepted hia 
homage for NonnandjT ^iid eveo for England ; and then, with John'i 
concorrence, overran all Richard's French dominionB. They ihought 
themwlvea safe. Richard's return waa more than improbable^ He 
had indeed left Palestine, after ^ling to enter Jerusalem ; buton hia 
way back to England he had been seized by the duke of Auatm, 
irith whom he had had a personal quarrel at Acre- The duke had 
delivered him to his feudal lord, the emperor Henry VI., the aon 
of Frederick Barbarona, a man utterly without principle; and 
Kcbard was closely imprisoned, whilst Philip and John offered 
the avariciouB emperor as large a sum to keep him as Kichard him- 
self would have given for hiH own ransom. Owing to the exertions 
of Eleanor of Afiuilame^ and the remonstrancee of the Pope and 
H>me of the German princes, Richard was, however, at length Ret 
*-Ti- at liber^ in February 1194; and the emperor gave notice of the 
fact to Philip and John, ' bidding ihem look to themselves, for the 
devil was unchained-^ It was sufficient for Richard to appear to 
reduce John to aubmiasion, and to oblige Philip to withdraw irom 
hia invasion of the English territories in Franc*; but a series of 
petty wars and truces still continued. 
UL Id 1196, two yearB after Richard^a release^ Philip, who had 
tost hie first wife, Isabella of Hainault, proposed to marry Ingo- 
burga, the daughter of the king of Denmark. By thia union he hop«d 
to unite the Daneu with himself in opposition to Richard ; but Inge^ 
bOTga, though described as virtuous and religious, was repulsive to 
Philip's taste. On the first day of their naeedag he conceived a violent 
dialike lo her, and asaembling.a council at Compidgne, he profeseed 
to hare discovered that he was too nearly related to ^e Danish prin- 
cess, and compelled the French bishops to pronounce the marriage 
null. When iJie humiliating tidings were brought to Ingeburga, who 
QDdemtood the language of her new country in^perfectly, she could 
only e^tdaim, * Wicked, wicked France ! Rome 1 Rome ! ' She re- 
fused to return to Denmark, but waa shut up in a convert, where 
her deep piety excited general sympathy. Philip, in the meantime, 
had claimed the hand of the lovely Agnos de Meranie, the daughter 
of a Tyroleae Dobleman^ calling himself man^uis of LtCria. 

The ftct WW politically unwise as well » morally wrong 

■ 3 



PhUip 11. 

Shortly before* Hichai'd af England hnd Titcn kiJltd before tbc cfi!<tTe 
of Cliiiliu, and Jubit unil lihi vuuii^ uephcw Attltur, diike uf ilrit- 
tnny, were coutenrJing for ihp English croimT which Arthur ckimed 
afl tho pon o1' Geolirej, Johii'fi e Idur brotbor, Arthur placed him^eli 
under Philip*^ protootion, and Philip proiTjiBed U> support him, but 
Lb 'ff&h in DO couditJOD to carry out his word. Ili^ F^harueleaa repu- 
diation of the yirincF^a of Derjmnrk had broir^bt upoa Ijim ttie cen- 
flore of the uncompromiiiing Popo^ Innocpnt ITT,, and Philip wm 
thrcatGDPd with ^xcGDimuaicatioDT and Franct- with on intfin^iot, 
unlms Agnes de Mcrame were discarded. This was oo timo for 
Philip to engage ia a >var; his aiibjecie migh^ and. prohablv would^ 
turn against him. For thrpts jenra be conrinued obfltinni*-. The 
papal legnre th«n sumnion^d a couuuii nC Dijon, and iiltt^rdiseu^uoa 
and protf^att which cccupjcd a wei'k, □□ tha htveuth uif^ht) at mid- 
uight, (he interdict wd/i pri^nounccd. En<:h pricbt preAeni held u 
torch whilst thu Misererf) and the prH^iTH for the dead were chnnted. 
The criiciHi whh veiJed ^vith hhick cmpe, tJie rebcs were r#plaoed 
within the tomhe, jtnd dien th& torchen wero daahed \\> ihe ground, 
nnd ihe cnrdiniLL legale pTcnuuni^c-d Xhe tcmtoric^ of the king ot 
Fmuce undtT a ZMife. iW\ religluiie oJUcui weie Jrum iJiat mocnt^l 
to eeaae- An ftwful mlence frllmvi^ the anTiotinceir*?rit, broken 
onlj^ hj the aoba of ihe ngefl, The w*^imen, and Ihediikben, Tha bid 
of tho eoverei^fn wne visited upon hia ptopio, ' Ub- how horrible,' 
writes one vrho h&d witnessed the workijig of an interdict, ' to nee 
tliQ doors of the churcbcA waCched. and Chri5T,ianj4 driveu away Tram 
them like do^ . . . Tltere war^ a deep ^dne>«ji over the whek 
reilm, while the orgaoH and tb« voieea ot those who chanteJ Ijoda 
pmiHce were everywhere &il«ni/ 

Tha peraonil sentence t>r eiconimuDicalion wan deferred, but 
for ei^ht nioDths thtj interdict coDtiiitied more or \v^s in Ibrce 
throughout France, Then The people bftcame muiinous, nnd PbiUp 
seat eortatn ecclemaHtii^a and knights to Home to declnre that he 
would abide by the wntfl&cc of the Popt. ' Wlijit wotenco ? ' alcnilj 
exdaiiaod. lunocrnt — ^ that whick has been alre^uly dehvcred, or tiiat 
vrhidi IB to he deliveri^l 1 I-jet him receive \i\A lawful wif!?; th@n 
will wft rajif the intprdict.' The reply drove the king to lury. ' 1 
wili turn UahomolAti I' h« excli^im^d. *■ Uappj t^aladin I h« \iva no 
Pope above him.' Agiicfl de Mcianie oddreaied a toncLing eplallo u> 
Iiinoot'nt. ' She, astraa^^er, the lihUghUir of h Chridtmn pnnoc, had 
beun manwdf youn)^ uiid i^iturani uf diu wt}rld. to the king, in the 
f*oe of God and of the church ; she oared not for thp ci'Owd ; it was 
on her hunband that ehc had act her lova. She antr«it«] that &bc 
might not be iwvercd fr^m htm/ The kin^f, on liii^ pnrt, aware that 
he WQuld ratber low half hi-^ doD]inion& than part from A^i?k. 
And f et he was at leagtJi obliged to yield. To the king'a castk 



of St. L«gar came (ho hsgaXe aud bUbopa, and ia their tra!p 
Ingebut^ The m«etmg between Philip and logeburga was ex- 
troDelj paiaiUl. The Mmggle in Philip's mind woa evideut. * The 
Pope doea me violenoei' he said. ^ Hia hoUaefls requires but jufr- 
tice,* viBwer«d logeburga. She was led forth dreeaed id royal robfli, 
and presented to the couuciL A knight stepped forward aad swore 
thAt the king would receive and honour htr an the queen of Franc^i 
ttnd tX that iaatant the clanging of bella proclaimed the rai^g of 
the intcrdicL 

But the difficulty was not at an end, A council woh to enquire 
into the plea wbich Philip had brought forward of too near relation- 
flhip to Ingeburga. The kiiig of Deomark waa to appear hioiHelf 
in sopport of hie daughter. The meeting waa held at Soiaaons. 
Ten btahope and several abbots pleaded for IngebuTga. One imknown 
champion appeared in defence of the c!aimb of Agaes de Meranie* 
Fourteen days the weary council bad aat, when the king rode up to 
the place of assemblyT and, after making an open declaration that he 
folly acknowledged Ingeburga as hia lawful wife, mounted her 
behind him on Ida horae, and rode off through the wondering crowds 
without waiting to bid farewell to the perplexed legate and bis 

The cause of this atnmge act was nnknowo tben^ but it waa 
aft«rward< eurmieed. Philip knew that Agnes de Meranie wai 
djing- tihe hod pureed from him with the passionate sobs of a 
tvx^ken heart, and retired to a castle in Nonuaudy. In her lonely 
refiige she gave birth to a son, whom the rightly named Tristan, the 
Sorrowful, and then her little remaining strength yielded bentiath the 
load of her affliction, and abe sank gradually to her grave. The 
newH of her death, it would beem^ awoke the euperstitioue dread of 
Philip, and the bitterness of affiiction touched his seltish heart with 
remoise. He would 6iLn propitiatj^ the church, and procure the 
prayen which he believed would avail for theoalvation of the objvct 
of hia afiecCion. Above alt, he dvoired to obtain &om the Pope the 
li^tuniaation of the cbxldrtn whom Agnes hod borne him. There- 
fcfie be profened again to rective the Danish princess as hia wife. 
He had been selBsh to Agnes m bia love, but he waa cruel to 
IngehuTga in hia aversion. The queen of France waa earned from 
caatle to castle, from cloisltr to cloister, a sovereign in name, a 
prisoiter in reality, even deprived of the offices of religion, till, in 
her Borrowfhl longing for repoHe, she muet have beeu tempted to 
breathe on envious High over the eurly dtialh of bcr beautiful aod 
nnfbniinate rival. 

Whilst the interdict lasted Philip had avoided a quarrel with 
John, and hnd not only promised to loreake the cause of Arthur of 
BhOany, but bad agreed to a marriage between his son Loujh und 


Ph'hj' If. 

Jolin'n niece Blanche, th? infanta of Castil*, which was aolemniaed at 
Vernon, in Nnrmandj, on the 2Snl ufMay, 1 200. Yet his secret desire 
V414 to ilitipoflVRH hTqIih ofhiq rontinontd] dnminicinR, mid ch? rK^en.sicn 
ftoon offarod iteeif. John I0(.iu<liutod his wilo, Hnwito of GlonecEter, 
find curried off laahella of An^ciiUijine, th*^ aflfianrcd bride of Ihiph de 
Lii^gnaiiT comtti de Iil Harchc. The coiiiil ajipeuled for redtcaa to 
Philip ns liifl aiizeniin. John vrnH ciled lo appear Ht Puri« iIImI 
rniG^ver to tho Ai^Fusation; a,a^ vhen he diaregiLrded the mmiiiionSr 
Philip invndtd Nominudy, mid opeiilj oapouaed tho pretenHJona 
young Arthur to the throne of Kiigland- 

Juhii'8 fir»t aih^mpc to r^pi^J tlilu aiiack whs Hucce^aful. Artli 
with his BiFti^r EI«tnor» commonly catled the DfimnGl of BritranjF; 
wttre nittde priHooorB^ Th^ young prince wns k^pt in the castle of 
Itciucn, and eoon the rutnour pprcnd that he hud been murdered by 
bia uncl<?^fl own hands. To PhiUp ihin tragedy -wns of the groAlest 
importnnce. He ngixin called wpnn John tfi ap[irttr biifore bim. nnd 
on hia disregard of tl>e suTDinotia hud claim to Nomiinidvt on the 
ploa that John having perpc Iratod the murdor within the Bciguory oi 
France, had thus forfcilod the lands which he held by boimii-e. 
iD. ^y the apriiig of 1205 not only Nnrmandy, but Poilou and nearly 
^^ the whole of AogoulL'nie, had submitr.ed to him. Tlicne lowes 
weiglu'd so hi?nTi]y on the mind of El^Bcor of AquitJuae that Kh^ 
died early in the aame jt^ar at the nbhcy cf Bcaulien^ near Lochcs ; 
hut it vfOA lon^ before the reeklesn EnfliAh king could he mUj«cd lo 
jL Genae of Mh doiiger. When Philip's conticued suiieeeaps did at 
leogth open hi« eypa, h* pigmlied hia wi[lingtifs* to uppt-nr innuHwer 
to the summooB of the suzerain, if only he could have n mife-eonduoT^ 
Phihp replied tlmt he might contt aafcly, but bis relv-ji iniiHt depend 
upon tb^ seuU'nee jsiHsed upon hlia. John Jeeliued tlit? risk, and in 
hianhsenee whs tried, foTiml guihy of nmrder, nnd condemned to 
drmth, and hie Jitfa were prouoTiticed forfeited to the crtiwa of 

John appeared at £rat uamindlii] of hi*! position. EnToya from 
Rouen cuiie to inform him of the coodilio^i of bis ttrritorie*, nnd 
found him playing nt chea. and hf^fore liEtening ta thpm be Jnvi}<T«d 
upon linithing hia game. Ho slept i?very diiy till hi^ dinuer hour, 
and then dined BumptuoUEly with hin heautifril c^ucen. At Instk 
boring resolved to fitrike a blow lor his lost heri luge, he entered Brit- 
inny and louk some fortresses, Lut on the approucii of Philip with > 
superior farce he propoi^d a ne^otiAtion ■ andontheSfilh of Ootoher, 
by tlio tnedittlion of the l^ope^ a Iruco fi^r two jcara vaa ei^ued. 
Juhn now gave up ail claim to Nominudy, Brittany, and M«iue, and 
to that portion t^f Aujua and Toiiiaiue which lay ooith of the Loire. 
Poitien alxOf with the surrounding district, irafl left in Philip^s hRnds, 

fill I m 


and tbua in thrA years the temtories of the Frooeh crown liad betm 
ftlmoat doubled la exieut. The iHUudft of Jenej, Guerowy, and 
others knovn ab the Channel lalands^ were retained by EagJand. 

The attention of Pbilip AognHtua during thia period had been 
maiDly, if not entirely, directed to tbeincreaae of bis own dombionB, 
bat eventa were happening around him to which it waa inipoeaibla 
for bim to be indiSerent, as they were iotiiaately connected with 
Hm Utfory of France and the fortuncA of some of ber braveat 

The first waa the temporary overthrow of the Greek empire of 
ConAantinople, and the estHbliahment of a Latin empire in its atead. 
^ It waA in the same year, 1203, in which John of England took his 
fiephew Arthur priaonert that Pope Innocent IIL ordered Fulk 
of Neuilly, a paiuh priest of distingniahed seal and eloquence, to 
preach a new crusade od the occasion of a ppleudid tournament beid 
ID Champagne. Fulk presented himself, and making a powerful 
Address, pemuaded a large number of noblaa and knighta lo asaumift 
the cross. Thibalt of Champagne, Baldwio, couot of Flandert, 
Simon de Mootfort (famous allerwards io a more cruel war)^ were 
amoug tbe chief leaders, and with them went Geoffrey de Ville- 
ItardoujD, marshal of Cbampagne, who became the historian of the 
ei^pedition. The crusader?4, numbering thirty thousand kcLghta and 
foot fioldierSf proceeded to Venice. The doge agreed to give them 
hU support on condition of their assisting him in recovering the 
revolted town of Zara, in Dalmatia. This delayed their departure 
for the east, and in the meantime Alexius Aogelna, the son and heir 
of the Greek emperor, arrived at Venice, with the tidings that hia 
&ther had been deposed by his own brother and cast into piiaon. 
He entreated the crusaders to aid him in restoring the emperor to ha 
throne, and a large body of knights undertook the task^ The Vene- 
Ltans, wiih the blind old doge Dandolo at their head, joined theuiT 
being delighted to gain a bold upon Cooatandnople, their rival on the 
Ka. Alexius and hia allies were succesd'uJ ; the emperor Isaac was 
leplaced on his throne, and in the great church of St. Sophia hia 
am was crowned as joint sovereign with bim. The crusaders were 
rexarded by the aubmisaion of the Greek church Co the authority of 
the Pope, and the gifl of 300,000 marks of silver, beaidea the pro- 
aaee of other supports 

But the vices of Isaac Angelus^ and the weakness of his eon, 
Alexius, soon cauaed general distrust. An Insurrection broke out, 
headed by a courtier, commonly known by the epithet of Mourzoufle, 
from bis black, shaggy, and closely joined eyebrowjt, Isaac and bis 
son were thrown into prison and murdered; but the Franks, or 
Xatinfl, as they are often called, who still lingered before Cod* 


fiUuitinnpli^, rus] na oae iaan n^in&L Moiirzuunfl. Tha city \iaa 
■gHin bflHiagi^d and fJiktn, and the vncAiit ihrone WAa odKred to ihe 
valiutitold dogo Dandolo- He refufcod it, and Huldwm, counted' 
FliUid^rai n dcMKtiidaDt of ChnrJtmLLgnOi wvi tjltimiiCcly ecloctod ts 
vmpcroT, tlia Vetiedaas rccaJviac^ na ihelr aliarv of tin.' curi4ueat 
KbrvA cif till? f^igLt qiiJLrieta into ubii^L tin? chy uC CouHtJLi]LJ;jo]>ie wia 
divided, bwideB ^everd ialaQd^ in th^? Lt-vaat. Tbe eataliliahmviii 
of thU Ln-tin otiipirc at CwiaEnntinuplu wua the tcrmiojiliaa of 
crcpcditJf'Ti whicli bad ^C forth its a crivudt'. 

But tljtre wujj another cruaidtj, in irljich Pbillp Aw^stus 
far niore Tiearly mtfrtistf^—ti nrusuide not ogaiiist foreigncra and 
filitnG, but i^gHiiiftt rellow-coiibtrj'Tii^n und frieiida, n Uiitle bi?tween 
tbo <!hurr-"b nnd the bereticf* — and in tbe eyan of InnocfOBt IlL and 
tia auccestMn it waa doubdi^aa a vwu- lui huJj aa any uiidcrtukea bj 
the crusHdert for the rcicovery of the Holy ^iwldnv. 

The fipirit of relig^icuH controversiy and rash xpcf^iilaLiniu whicli 
had b«en upht-ld by AbeUrd and detiounci^l by Su Bi^mard, bmd 
nlwavB bvfn ei^pcoiaily proToltnl amon^^t tho cuitivatGd aud oritioi] 
people of Ijtingutdoc aud the aomhcrn proviflces of France- Seuis 
bad spning up an all hJdtfl. They XTtrtj kiiuwu by voriiJUd nainiia — 
CathnrJiil, Psterini, Poor Men of Lyon?*, Vaudoi*, and AJbigen«e--«, 
Tbe viidWfl oftbe greater DUmbar of these aecta aaem la have dili«Ted 
Uttk from tho^« o\' tho Svri^ eiid Germnn rcformem in tlio olxttenth 
Wntiirv; but Llit duuLrmiifa of The Albi^CQ^s were unduuhtedly wild 
uiid dLingi^rouM. They am uiiJ to havp mlopt^d the imcii'iit Perjdain 
doctrine of two deiliea — one, tlia good Creator of things inviiflbie ; 
the other, the evil oreator of thiu^ riuibk- They rtjc-oEcd tiie oa- 
orauicnU of the churoh, dtfnounced niorriiige, and taught ettaiLge 
li^tiiidnry (Mes ad to the ori^tD ufmaii. Thoi^e mobt etrict it] their 
prciftsfdou were called the Perfect. They drea?ed alwaya in blxcfc, 
iie\'er niurriad, never toot an oatii, and practise great abtitinunca, 
retiisio,^ to cat mciitf Ppgo, or chcnK. In the niidat of the hcenau and 
luxury of the aoutli aucb profeeAioua of a^ctiiiism were rn^ded with 
prcttt admiratii.<ii. The Albigt^aes iucivaaei] in uumtnir iind \j\- 
fluence, whilflt iba clergy^ who were unhappily at tJiat period a« 
open ki oocEure for their immord lives tifl they wore bigottid intlieii 
Hup^rstitioni wero daily losing their Ikold upon the people- 

From the □loinHut tlmt Innoce:ii IIL wan elti^i^d Pope in 1198^ 
the peThecueiim of the Albigenjwa, and indeed of h<?n)iic& of evtry 
kind, might have been foTeMen. RemarkaWe ^ he was ibr blum^ 
tv^aoeaa cf life, fervent piety, and keen intel^jgencc, and unaweTTJD§ in 
hiB devotion lo the chunjh of which he wjid the viaible head, be 
coiUd Dot b« exjiecctid to perjiiit any oppoaJiioQ to autliuriiy Ktd 
long-Mtahlished belief, ^paciidly when joined with the auapicioti J>i 


Thd Terj sflae jear in which lonoceat becune Pope he wrote a 
letter of mingled i^proof and threats to th« princeft who were koowu 
to mppcfft the new opinioiiL But his warouiga were diuegarded. 
Bajmondf count of TonlouBe, more eapecially defied hU power. 
Strange talea were told of thia prmce— his bUapheuii*^ imd im- 
moralitiefL Some, doubtleea, were exaggerated, but for others thtre 
was eridently a fbundation ; and the Pope seat into Languedoc iwo 
Cutennn monks oa his legates, with a commiaxioD to root out the 
beraRj which, mider the aonction of count RaymoDd^ had taken such 
deep root in the country. Their efioHA wtre supported hj the 
celebrated Spanish prieat Dominic de Guzman, generalJj known a« 
St. Dominic, the founder of the Roman Catholic order of Dominicans.* 
Count Eajmond made promises of amendment, but be afterwards 
Eti:OT« to elude theoi ; and Pierre de Cadteluau, one of the l^jates, 
dared to repro*^ bim to his &cs with what he called his perfidy, 
Tbe anf^ count, little accustomed to such words, gave rent to ex-* 
preHOOnfl snch as Henry II. might hare naed in his wrath against 
Hiomas k Becket, Tbe result was very simUar, One of his noblee 
followed Pierre de Gastelnauto the river Kbone, and there murdered 

ThiB deed was the beginoing of a frightful tragedy. Innocent 
proclaimed a cmsade against the count of Toulouse, and eternal 
rewards were oiffered to those who would join it. The temptation 
w»a to many persons great. There was oo sea to be crossed, no 
daDgeroos jonroeys were to be undertaken { all that was needed wae 
^^ courage to plunder Languedoc. About Midsummer 1209 a large 
army was maishalled at Lyons, Philip of France was not there 
himself; the certainty that^ ifhe involved himself in anew war, John 
of England aod his oephew Otbo, emperor of Germany, would 
attempt to take &om him all that he had recently gained^ probably 
kept him aloof; but French and Norman knights and barons assem- 
bled in numbers. The mofit illustrious amongst these oobles was 
Simon, comte de Montfort and earl of Leicester, an experienced 
eoldi«r of the cruaaden. In his devotion to the Pope^ Simon de 
Uontfbrt was lanaticalT m his determined opposition to the herelica 
mercileasly cruel, yet at times he exhibited a generosity and self- 
derotioik towarda the weak and helpless of bis own party which 
proved that bis chaiacter might have been worthy of the highest 
admiration, if ^le bigotry of the age had oot warped hia intellect 
and hardened hia heart 

Accompanied by Aniaury, abbot of Giteaux, the papal logitte, 

' The nocerity, pietj, and val of DomiDi^ are UDqneationed, but hia Dsme 
haa aJvaji been HBBqciate<l with ncU of groAt novcrity. The foimdattOD of th« 
TnribLe Coart oT the iDquisition {it the trini of benticsl ofl^acH has beea Bt- 
tQbat«d to him, but vitbout lafflciBat oridnice. 

FMHp I/. 

De Mortfnr! mnrclip<l with hiii fQi-t'fl& iuro L^nffiietJno- The xssrvai 
cot osi[?[iaibJy irndtrtnlEen ut^inat cDunt RujnionJ ; Lq had modfj 
a show of juiWiaairiri^ he had even unJerf^oiic u Jegrftding penmceT 
haTiu^ be^D H»ur^'til by thei [irieBta m iLt ciiuruL ivliore Peter de 
CftRT^iInan wftalnirifti, bni it vmn the hiird command of the Pope (hat 
he should DOW taVa up the ctoqs u^am^t his own ]oy'A eubjects^ nnd 
joia in Invading the tcmtorlca of his ni-pliow, tlio vicouito do Kiziere, 
Oa the £2rni of July the town of Bcziera was akiriiiisd. The 
vho[e population wus inrJiacnmiimielj majiaacreJ, ^ Kill all/ was the 
command of the ahbot of CitcHux; * the Lord will know Hia own." 
CiLTcasauDDe, the aapitll of the vi<^omte dc ti^zierd, wae not oasalilccd. 
Tho ricomtc woa tokun priaoQcr, Einrl hia dommionsi were given by 
the legate to Sinion de Montlbi't. After a ehort ioiprWiamcat the 
vlcomte diiid suddenly (it wan ihnughL th^t be vsas poiaoni^), and 
the remHining towns of Lnngijedoc, wiili ths exception of, 
floan fbli into the handa of the Pope, 

Count Kaymond had found it e Imrd ^k to wttiafy hia haughty 
perse^uLors; in fact, hs had net Hutiafitid lhein». Elia z^al against his 
HtibjectB bad been lukewarm, mid cbicr more he was citcomnninicJitedT 
Bud on inierdiet was laid upon Timlouse- The tt-tma demanded for 
hie forgiTeceffl were mj monalrous that tbcj were rejected with dlit- 
daiii. OpcD WAT HjUowed, King Pi^dro of Aragoo Jissiatcd Ruymond- 
^n, fiimon dp Mnntfori l«ot part with tlif Pojjc. On ihc |2ih of Sep- 
wi> iBmhcT, 121,% A despfif^ie battle wn>* fonght nt Muret. Thp count 
of ToulouGe waa defeated; Fedro of Anig;on, ^'ho shared ia the 
engagement, fell pierctd by a nhower of arrows, and bimcin de 
MoDtfort took iHjHfiefl^an for himaelf of the provLiit^e against which 
the cnisHde bai been direfted. 

In tho y^'nr in which the battle of Muret waa fought Philip 
AngiiatUB wofl invited by Innocent to invade tha Kag^eh dominions 
of kinj; John, against >vhom th^T* vete ?iiccial caTnea of complaint. 
The Pope hud nozimiuted Stephen Laagion w the archbishopric of 
Canterbury, and Johti had refused to recHVC him. Not only so, 
bat Joho'a vicMsa and crueUiea inade him univeraally detestfld. The 
Pope isauod a acntcnce of dcpoaitioe ; the king of France vrn£ to 
tKecUte it- Philip had waembltd an immease nrmy. wheu he beard 
that Job[i Lad Hubmittt^d. The ^•upa] ]<^i^itiv forbaiie PhiEip to oiny 
out the plan orinv-oflion ; and Philip, highly incenapd, yet not thinking 
it WJJ^ to diflohey, Fnmod hia arma againsit Forrnnd, (70Uat of Fian- 
derBf who had rcfiii^i tc join in the contemplated Eiinglirih txpcdirion. 
Flaiidera voa ravaged cntolLy, and tlie count waa iu great dangtr (if 
loaiiig hia territories. In hisntsMl he BougJit and nhtaiiifd help from 
Olho, emperor of Germanyj and John of Kngland. PhiUp, lo avenge 
hinidolf on Otho, at once tJiok part with tho rival cluintimt lo tlie 
empire, Frederick 11., but Frederick vaa unfortunately ft cljild, vti 

ttAB AQjLrafT JOHV j^Kll DTHO — BVTTLE OF B0UVIV£3^ 107 

DO stif^rt could be exjhenie^! from him except diroiigh tlm prlncflfl i 
uid nobles who migbc be lndined to eepouBe hia caiwt*. The pljm 
cf tha carap^gn on (ho part oY the iil[i[?s wan that Joho thould atfAck 
Philip in the wt*l. aud tbn» endeavour to recover hin lost pruvincra 
ia France, whilst the Germaun and Flemings bhould full upon Jiim 
in the rrorth. The inlinhitama mf P(iir*>ti, alread)' wenrj ol' tht 
joko of Fmncie, vrere quite prepared Co raago themBeltee ou Johii'« 
mde, hut the ill fortune of the English ting pursued him. After a 
IW rapid^ UDimportdUl pucceiBBes hia In-opa ja«i thone of prince 
Luiilfl, Philip*A rldf-HL riitl, in the open field, A [lanii^ mtzed tlte 
EngJifih nod thpy Ited, Jnhn, li^fonttyl, rnhifd, snfl without re»«ourc^ 
returned to England, there to moot his indi^fnoot bfiTOUBf and aE theJT 
dcnund he compelled to fiictj this firent ehflrter which waa to guard 
his «ahject» then aud for ever from tymnny and ivruiig' 

The conflict in the north with Othn andhiaannj of I'jC^OOfl men 
vaa ikr more iniporcant for Philip Auguxtn^i than ihut with John in 
the vcAt, PbiJLp him&alf met hU Gnnmy at iho hridgc ctf ttouTioefl, 
^j l>etwoon Lillo and Toumay. Hera, oa the 27th of Augdal, 1214, 
waa fought one of dje niOAt famous tmtcltfl of the mediicval titnea. 
The deiail4 have been handwl down m tib hy William le BrexnOjthe 
Fri^ncl] ting'B L^hnplaiH' He evidently Hattera and cxagi^eratoa, 
vuthing to muhe Philip a hero ; but it is certain that the kiiij3 wa* 
at cne time in great Jonger of beiug overthrown by some foot 
KiJdierv, who caught hold of hia nnnoiir with iron Itooka aiitl pulled 
him off hii hora^. He una aavprl hy William d&n BjirreH, the 
brother of Simon do MonlJbrt. After a dpHperate eonHiet <-f threa 
boani Ticlory remained with Philip, The emperor, who liad }ii« 
han^ wounded under hiuj. with diflitulty escaped from the fitld, 
leaving behind him hip imperial engie iird the car up<in which the 
AOfubird vii h^m^- Fite counts, with many knight^T ^ere made 
pHaontTs by Philip; for, aCthouph they all- foopht with tho utmost 
TslouTt it waa neatly Jmpoeflihle, nhcn ooce OT4?rthrowiit to ri^e ngaiut 
on actouut of the weight of the armour- Tlie counts of FlanJer^ 
and Brtulo^pi? forfeited thi'ir fiefs nnd the former endured impriHin- 
ment for life. Siirwn of the free cities op borough* of Frante eent 
btMlicf of mcQ-at-amm lo ihe bottle, nnd ihcse troops gristly 
oontributed to Phillp'a jnntera. Tlie victory of Bouvine:* waa meat 
important tjj Philip is \\h results. It proved lu the gient barons 
ihat the king did not rest cnly upon Ihem for Hiipport. but upon the 
peopi* generally, eBpeeially the wealthy eitijeni. AH claflsea in rho 
kingdom, indeed, had lent their aid, and all shared tlieglnry- Philip, 
in Lis joy aud gratitude for th* Tictory» foimded in commemoration 
of it die Abliaytf de la Yictoire, near Stulia, the remaius of which 
ar# Htill to b« teen. 

By tiUA tixne the prospect of another war hnd arisen. John 


oi' Eaglrmd had signed LLe Magna CbnrUi at Jlutmymedei the 
Popu had deckred the chnrtcr illegal, nnd forbiddt'n ciie buronti to 
obHerv^ i^ A civil yruT liud broken out in c-Dasci^iiBncQ, and Dovr 
John^a barona gtferod the crown of Knglivad to pnuoe Loiiis of 
FraL:ice. Louis Lud luHrriciI Dtanchc of CAsdlo, a granddaughter of 
lltiiiiy II- ; be \twl therf^forc tlit ahiiduw oi' a cUim Co iJie tlirooe. 
The caiiciouH PhilJp vould only any ihut he a^uld not reaUflin 
ton from ckuming h]» right, but he gave hiin no acttve «ipport. 
LoiUA uiideitook the bXpcdition on bisown reBpoDtabilitj, and JLEmost 
iteoeaied to hare fin<;cci'i3ed, when the budden deadi of Jolm, on the 
*y-, 19ih uJ'Oclobcr, l^l(i, changed iht- whole asjject ctl' a ffiiint Tlit' b.irons 
forsook ihe French priiioe and proflbrad ihair flllegijuicp to Htniy 
111., a young child ten yeara old, the lawful heir tu the crown. 

That yL'ar, 1S16, wu^h iudced a most imporCADb one, not for En^- 
lon'^ only, but for ull Euitjpc. Two uiojj^I^a odIj bt^f^re Jnl^n's 
dftjitb Itinoceiu HL alfti" ^^J^i^ed, iM grejit iti iht eyi^ oJ' ]ii!» iimiirni- 
porunee, nud as famous for uU fiLUire age«. hs John wai d^rad^d 
Jind deapiaod. And yet thirilriumphaTit end o£ lite wub sad, Tniv, 
Odio hud he<:n cm^cd, and ibc youug ^mjHiTor Frederick IJ. iiJc^ted 
in bifl Bi«nd ; irue^ the kingd dI^ EngbuJ Imd been huu;bled to the 
duBtj and Philip Aiignetua oomjK^Kefi to F^ribmil to the aiiLhr>rity of 
the churth ; true, also, thu huresieB of tie AlbigfliiBeH tad l>een 
punJi^cd and almuat uprooted : whut, then, (;ould be wanting; to the 
eatifilftction of him who coalil lock upon hiiiLfclf lut being tltua 
ruler of Cliri^jteudum, both iu iU aotioua and it4 ibou^fhia t 

Only one thing — necret^ invisibie, yvX. inliaitt in it-* value, *ud 
iho lo«j of whitjh uothitig could make amenda— tte convictioij ihai 
he hud done righcly. Innoeenl mny not, jH?rh]ip9t hnvo been shaken 
iri hia principles, bi' amy noi have arrived at tlio uoncluaiou (bat 
peraei'.ution vios wr<iiig ; buiTningling wlih ihp Rhnuts nf victory tlfcere 
aroBB a cry, fj(ini,ga(ipiugr yet terrible — the ory of the murdered utid 
the heArl-hrakcD. Twenty thou:uuid dcaCroyed at Beziera by the 
command of the le^te l Ten ihoupand executed at TouIouh t 
VUlngea in bflheti I orphan oliildreu auSenng lor vho doom pronounced 
on ih&r parentji I Tbey who had done tbeve thinga had bevn wtd] 
rtTWiirded ; one waa murc^ulB of FroTeai^e, arjutliGr arulibixhop ot 
Norbonue, many wero in the po^iioesioD of biahoprioL Jlut the 
diurcb, wbiit ha»d ahe gained ? Uiiir«raal execration. And the Pope F 
A uiiti^iviu^ fi>T his dvijjg boui. 

li wa* u mis^-iving in .-^>mt> imn.'^i.iri^ lLV^-akenl'd at \(!b< a j-air 
h€fL*rB tliut hour arrived — wh<.'a young Kaymond ol' Tuulooa*, ibe 
count of Foix, and other borons tif tlie eoi.ith cumo to him, Lhr«w 
them^lvea m bia fue% and poured out their eompJainta belL>re hiin< 
Innocent wan then strnng^ly nioipd. He would tain, it is waid, hnire 
repaired i,hc<ix wronga; but the mca who hod executed hia ordart^and 


tor " 


goti? Ikr b^^'oiid them, wnuld [int permit fi ret^titution which would 
be iLeir own niJn. Tet (lie parrijil aiTicT.ion of the Pope pava cou 
h> the deapoilod nobles. The old count Cjiynjond rfiiaud hia elandni 
jjk Proreace^ and in 12]7i the year iklter Innoc&Dt'a dearh. Jie le- 
eotcrvd hl'^ audeot capiial of Ti>uEuijr<e arjuil^t the tuiclAmaiiuua of 
liii peuplp- Thp following year Simon dp Montfort, having agaio 
betivgnJ the EowD, vru kJl]i>d by u htige ktone burl^ from th« 
rvmpirta- From that time the caufle uf th« Albiii^CD^aii crusadeis 
decliiied. Pope UunQtiua IIL, the eucces^or of Inuocenl, t-xljortcd 
Philip AngiiMun 10 Uke up amifi for ihe eitiquition of ih^ fulw 
doctrine, md prince Lonn, who had nhonly hftfor(? retnmed defcntod 
from the En^li^h expedition, whi neot to tiie (uitth to prosecute n^hat 
«B^ elill looked upon A9 a sAcred war. Y<!t tho end of alL tlicae 
cflbrtA -w^£ defeat, C'nunt Itnyinond, iodeed. died ttili excommuai- 
cxted, and therpfn-e denied the riteaon^urinl; hut bis Hin i^ix^cc^ri 
'->'- to bie dominiouB in 12^:^. 

AlWr tho bnttlc of Bou^'inos tho life of Philrji Au^Aivi w» 
nniDEirkeil bj ercDta of foreiffn importAucc, aod tho R]n|( vju abl^ to 
dfiTotflul] the powers of hi# teiJlj i^iiperior miad to the belter gi-'veru- 
nifut And the intenuil amnf emoTitii of his dominicnfl. Pjirin wai 
gr»tljr unproved ur>der hiB dinwriona Tho neeoBaity was forced 
upon him, po eaya &□ old chronicler, by £tuJia^ one dnr ilu intoler- 
able Blench proce^dhig fiximi the mud thrown up by liie borwtt wliich 
were pu4#iii|; through (he city. T\\\v Ljidij(;ed hJm lo fjQveth« ntrpftii^ 
% lAAk which none of hi^ prt'deeisflom hftd vcntutfd upon Thii 
original paToment u Btili to beibund in Paris, seven or eight feetU'low 
tl)« pf««ent eurfaco, Philip likewise encloa^d with a strong wnll 
iIlc buildinge and ^rdeaa that bordered the Setne, And begiLn To 
bnild the jmlrice of the t^iuvre eul^ide the waIIs lu a oruniry tp^\- 
deoce. Il wa.^ a gloomy hjiildin^, and^ arcarding r/> rh^ fanhirtn of 
die drafiAt it V1I3 jnt?ndi>d alno lor a pHnon. Ho eneloBed^ hv- 
ndcA, the park at Vineertne«, and stocked il with deer cent him 
&nitj Eoglanii by Ifeury Ih 

Mtich of Philip'^ Htttniiuu ^^'afl1le^{towed u^ion the idminrHtraiion 
of juitiee nod the enf^aumgement of leAitiing. He ^nfl hinisell a 
gTt*t reader of knightly romnnci*, full of the i<^ndfl of king Arlhur 
and Chademapine. Alfl-iander tJie Great was also a faTOUrite hero 
(ff tii<«e daya ; and tlie long metre whiuh thv French u^ gent-rnily Jn 
their gra¥er popiTB, and whirh ja t:i\\\*^ the Al*?,xandrine, lakes iia 
lUTTLe from aroraanceof (he hi story of Alexander, written in thiarptgn. 

la the midiit of theH occufrationa and interc?ta Philip wa« Beizo4 
with a qu&ttan ferer, which hdd ite ground and gradually under- 
uined hia conJttiCution. Yet he lingered, and wan even well enough 
to more from one place U\ another ; hnt an he wan iravplling froiJ> 
Nonnandy to pEuna the disease incrflused eo suddenly that Le was 


110 rmi-ird chaiuctei; — accession of louie ytn. 

obligee) IG flop ar tba lovti cf M^inTefl. wherv he brrathe(3 hia last on 
^ the Uth of July, Wi'A, in tie lifty-ninlh yenr of liia ape. 

Fttilip Au^Btu^i in hi« privatu ctoractert ib cntitl^ tq Tcry litt[o 
r^apc^cU Ht: ^oa aelfiab, uii^crupulom, ftmbitioua, and Cr^Liberous; 
bat im H Tular tbi^re csa b(i no doubt, thai hb wns ^orlby cf bigh 
admiratioD- He wait pmd^tit^ j^rm, enej^getip^ and wine beyaad an)- 
of ilia predoctsflorH, and it may indeed be doubted wbetber any 
ttrvereign of Franco eiace bia dnj hus, in tlicae roanecto, suqiUAoed 



LocJis YJIlr, on Ascending the tbron? of Ftance^ brought with him 
□D« great persoDal reconimendation. Hf^ wan the represenUtive of 
two lincJi — tbe Qipetian and tho Qirlovingian ; for bia mulLcTt 
JsubelLi of llumaidtf wfis a dirtcL dtn^eiidatit of Cbhrleniii^t« anJ 
ibe hiimp of ihe gi'eai f^mpi-ror wna ntill huld in veneration in Pfan«. 
Great rt'joiiMngs miulred bin cnntmilion, whirh took place at EheiiUB; 
shd ia PoriB Ubloa covored with proviebna avotq laid in the ijtreett 
for thi^ poor, privato Louacb and pubbc buildinga were goilv de<x}- 
iBted, Had miuairds ptkrudfrd the city e^uginj:^ tbe pruLsea of Louin 
The Lion^ ibe now king. Tlie Fpiiht-t miglii almoin i^ppAai Ui have 
been uhoRen ircinicnlly^ ^^^ I<»'na wna wpsk botb in inind and body. 
Yet bia iirat act wna a boJd one. He eitramoncd Henry Ul, of Eng- 
luud ti> iittend hih coronation as a ras-"^ ol' France. Tbt? powvrEul 
ELj^llbb Lnrons answered fur rb<:ir child- aiynreigu by dBiiianding tJif 
rcstinition of Nonnandy- Wjir waa the nntiirskl conseqiience!, and 
Louis GJLn'itid on tvro oAmpuigns againtC ib« Eag;]ialk. T^en b Inice 
for ibrea yearB was concluded, ia order tbwC the French njonorcb 
niJ^hb Qid in cutnplcdnf; tlic e?;tirpauoD oL tlie Albi^eu^es and Ulij 

Eimisli merit of count Huyttiond ViL, who wuh Bupponed t^^ idiare 
in ilirbCT"H pr!ncipli>a. liefore engaging in thin undertaking, how- 
ov^r^ X^uU had anolher buivnesa to i^eitle nf a mom privute kvud- 
Tlie [iouot of FUuderis who vos takt-n priBonprat the tfittle of Dou- 
viaw^ btid murried Jeanne de Courtcuai, the ilauyliler of fliilJwin, th"? 
tirnt LaT.ln emperor of CcjuHUinttiiople^ Baldwin bud mg7ieJ bin 
Llirou jeara, u-ben, in a war wifh IIr- Bulgurian!^ he was taken 
prift«in?r; and Jeflnne, hein^an i^xlrenicly b*Td-Leortod,8e|fiflh ^Toina]\ 
would nrjTET csert heraelf futfiviicntly to procnra the ranaom di*- 
inandfid fur btr futUtr, He thtrefbre reiiitiued in caplivily, and, 
OS it was generally eU|>poi«d, wacs ulcinuttely mordBred. 


Ahottl a yrair txUst Louib VJII, came lo Uie throne a raoD prfl-^ 
eenied biciaelf heforti Jcnnna de Courtuiiai, JecIurinphirfiseJf t^tnj tihft' 
emperor BaldwiUf wbo bad e4capi;d from liis BulgarioD prUon. Ho 
vae etrihiugt/ tike ibe luLe t-iDpt*nir. niakin-r ulIawHnte for ihe cbnnges 
vhtch time und auflcriTi^ would hrjng. und ^he pc^ople Rhuw^d ibfm- 
BClv^B ready tc fltippcn higduirik to JTIanders. Jeanne applied forod- 
TJce and protection to Louia VIIL, who prevailed i>n ihe BUpjxwed 
emperor to uieeb him at Ptroi^it^ vt Lere ho ahd tUc Topi-'i* Iftgate 
were piepared to enquire ifiT-u ilie iruifk of hia sEAlemant. Scver^ 
qiT«*t}onii w«r« put lo him tendicf to elicit the S&ct» of bid former liftt., 
AJJ were aoflwereJ clcarlyj with the tictoplion of tbrcn : — 

In what plane he bad doao ftalij to Philip Auguiitua? 

Where and by vhoai be bad bten kul^LtcJ? 

And the plnce and day on which he Lad married hk couai 
llaria af Cbatopagne ? 

Lcuu decided thut be naa an impoalor, but tdlowed him to depart 
oDruolested. J«utne, hunever, sooa contrived to ^et him iitt':i her 
Laijda.aiidaJWiDflictii]g crud u inures upon liimbudhhii put Ui death. 

The Flemings w^iG not fati^iEled wUh the e^is-rniniition, unj looked 
npOQ Jvanjic ^^-itb abhorreni^^ as her father'tj murderer, until at length 
abe >eat petwua To Bulg^riji lo brine hatk proofs of the emptr^r^a 
dt:4tb. They returned decUiring tJnkt thay hod louiid the grave, and 
(fiAt a iDirafiilcuii light iwucd irom it; and from that time the 
Flejuinga wen? BaTi^fied. 

FlanticrfliUndsrthe riileoftbe countosa JeaDno, waa entirely sub- 
ject to French influence. So alao was Lani^edoc, wbtri: ihe direct 
interffeution of tlie kiog of Fraace waa iirdeutlj dtiaired to put ou 
end lo the -AlhigenBiiui war. 

la accordancu witli il^^ wuh of the priudpaj Dobles and bisbopi 
JjOJUS mifled a contudfrnblo army and enter^id Lun^UL-doc. He 
wia tfopped at Avignoa, a town vrhlch, in the dWJBioii cf Char- 
iHiij^b'H empire, bad fiillfai to tlit- lot of the einptinir of Gf-rmany, 
bat which wan under the more immediare rule of the coiiniB of Toiu 
locue. The French king^ tnti^ed upon pasAing through Avignon, 
4ad OD Tcceiving a refuaol he beace^d and look it. luid tTEUt^d th^ 
iubabitantB with Diudi M:\eriiy. Fear Bpre^d Lbrough the pruvince- 
KUnwH. Albi, and Ciir<aa?urm« yiHldf^ wiibout rtai^tauL^e, and it 
accmid as though in ihia Hingle campaign thh- eubjugntitm of ihe 
■ODtli would be act^empli^ed. But the weather hud beoome ex- 
tnaneJy hot, and a fever had brokeu out in the camp, which cuu^ed 
ibv lo« of 20,000 iHt'Q, The ting himself fall ill, and it wom thought 
p«eeMuy that hi? should ri^turn lo PariA. He Idl his aniiy undi^ 
the ooramacd of the lord of Beiaiijen, and set otit on hia journey ; hut 
on Lib arrival at the Cjiatlo of .Moatptnfiior, in Auvergne, be found 
Itimaclf unable to proceed furlher- It was eooa evident that ha wai 


ijijing. Aiuembliiig hia nobles round bia btd, be mado them 1ak« th( 
Oatb of (illcigiaQUD to liis youdj; son Loiuii, n child of (wcfve vcare 
uge, and uppointed hf* queeti, Jilunche nl' Otatile» rey;'jnti iil' ihe king* 
j doiu. Verj sljorUy iilifcrwjLfdfi, on tbt J^th nf Noveniher, l!2iti, Loiii* 
VIII. expired, in the ihtrty-DijiLh j('*r or" hU ngc, Tha mraoup afterJ 
WBrdi Bpread tliat ha hnd bL'un jiolaoaed by Thibalt, eoant ol' Cham-^ 
pogoe, wbom be bad viFoDdcd ^tt i]ji^ eti\-^fi.ii i>£ AvignOD, and irbo wn* 
refxjited to bare faDeu ifi love with Blauche; but for ibie aocuBation. 
tbtirc in no euHbit^ut EouiidrtiiotL. 



AJJ. U2G-U7Q. 

' ^ORE hhh] had Loiufl IX, cif GlkI'b h«]p in bia youth/ bsljs tee ivrtt 
de Joinville, ihe fnmoii* chronider, ^Ec^r hk mother, who ™mfl out of] 
Spfliiif bad iitirher rdiitiaa? nar frLondd m nil the realm of From^e. 
And because the buronn of Fiodcc mkW thitt tho king wda an infATit, 
liud tltt quetTQ) hia luuther, a. ibrclgnar^ they iiiado tbti count of 
E&nlngne, tL© king'B wide, their t^hie^ and looked up lr»him an th«r 
lord." Tho powiliou waa CCTlainly diHrcuk, but Blanche of CoatiJft 
wafi JulLy e^uaL to i(. She poBnea^ed a clear intollect, dauntlofiS 
courazei rnd tcmarkablc streii^cli of cKamcter, whit<tl at tb« sam^ 
time aiie waa JjiM:iuutii]g in ti^aimt^r and thoroughly vtrrwU m all the 
artR or tOTtcilifltioD. 

And she had brought up her child woll, Louis, nntunUly dtf- 
votional, hud been imbued also v^ilh iht fltricfi;i4t principlea of 
iQoralilT, bein^ told from hifi iniiuicy that hia motlier would rfttb«T 
bf were di^aJ tbaii thnt he should c^ommit a dradly un. He viuby 
CO Nieana defictflut in dTgnity imd atrengrh of nbjUTiel*r. T-hou^ hil 
UGoeeeary aubjection to hid motht^r during the early part of h]4 
T&gn, and iLt influeucc die extrtcd even aa he i^w up» lulghft 
ajjpeor at times lo savour of veukiit'^. He uan t^ijarcely indeed b# 
blamed for mLbmitting tn iin hiterfcreni^e whjcli, though ut timeH ift 
may hsive btaen gaUing to him in hia private affiiirs, worked well fot 
the public good. 

The firat act of Blaiicbo on ibc acocHioa of ihc young ^iog wu 
to aet^UTfc hia ccirnnaiioa lit Rhelmis. Wiiua th[a was accoinpIish«4 
fdiG vnn ablH Co conlrout with anihonty the drsa^ect^d ooblefL Thi 
peraonal dan^ere which iho had to enoounter may bo gathered fr?ni 
tho factf whiqh Loiua bimsGlf told the aire dv JoinyiUot that ncithol 
he uor hb [uothei, who ivere at Montl'h^ry, dared to ruiuru to Parij 


nniit the cjtizetiti uf Puri^ cniiiF-t with unii.'* m diGir hnojtit. to felch 
IbeuL- NeorlT live yeart p^iEs^A before tbe contlicL va» at un «nd 
■fid lh« youug king eeaLeJ firmJj on hiA UiroaA. llie tiiial treaty 
V- va» Bigiicd in 1^31, but bcfort- thnt tkine tUe dontioioiiH vf Louis 
bad h««n enlarged by tbe iiiu] MibiuiaaJoD uf Ihe beretiud jimvinot? of 
l^Dguvdoc to ihe crown of P'raDce. In a ir^ity tiiotnriyJ by tli« 
psfisJ l#gBie. Hignvd at f'^ria in 1'^:^^!, cotact Rnymond VIL 
nmotmon] bia t!Jaim to mvi^k provinces, 4woro fealty 1o hifl liege 
lordi the king cf Fmuo:> and i4< tb^ cliurcb, und subuilittd Iv a 
public peiuuwe. Widi njikt>d sl^ooldi^ni acid bare fe«i be kv<ia ]ed up 
tfacfliim^orNoUvDAiiLe, and wourgcd -xs b« weot by tbt J^gnte, who 
finaiij pronooQced tbase wotda : ' Cvnini of P^'arloime, by oirluo ol 
tlie poverA catrtuted bo tns by the Pope, 1 abtiolve Lbec frotn tliy «x- 
cotniuapicftiioD,' ' Aineit,' auawered tb« count, knedtug before ibe 
IfCiip, and he rose from his \nwn no longer wit ere^gn of the south 
of Pnmce:, bm a vutati lord of a Amall Iprntciy. 

The icrrihle court of the loqurattion eradicated lUl tbut m- 
wmiaed of open bcro^ in ibe land, uid pfrb&pa tlie moet grieiouA 
poaUbiueiit Hluch Uie urdbrtmnue couDt of Toulouse fmd lo eiLdure 
mm ihat of being obliged loaMJai ia tho cruel persacutionof bi^ own 

Tbc authority of the Pope BnnctiODcd the deepoilmfi; of the 
heretic princ"?, and the new acquisitiona were regarded by Jie 
French people u not only jiwiifinble, but hnnournble. Yet his 
incKKMddotnMiiorm CDuld hjiT? givi>n IiaiiiftUttk CHtiabction, lor the 
ooe PATneet dt^ire of bin heart won not persoDoJ Bfzgrandiaciucut, 
boi 1^ funijGniiice af God a hooour- He vkoa now advancing 
lUtnnlB iDBEihood, and ^|uccii Blnuche demanded for him in QmrriHge 
dM hand of Marguerilo, daiighTer orRaymond Berenger TY., [<o(iut 
ol Pioven<». The litilt? priiieafjs wiu nt ibe time only thirteen 
jtatt of ago. Tho kin^ won ntnttotin. The nmrri^t^ took place 
■1 6cs* <M r^e 24ch of May, l:f'34. It Appears to have bi^ro a rery 
bappj ODe, although Blanche kept a jenloiM wutcli over the young 
fao^iacd and witV, inieHoHng uitb tlipm in 4 way which would 
bvre been intensely irritating to anyone Eosb dulifii] and revereatial 
ihui Louia,aod cenoialy muet havi-^TcaCly marred bit< domc^ic peace. 
The years tbal jinmcdiately followed were marked by no out- 
bII wan] erenta of irnporuiin*, but in tlie suinniej of \24'i Loiii?i waa 
broi^^ht into oolliwon with Englarid, by th^ font cf bwiowing upon 
hii fcrctbcr AIphonHi tlie ^ot'emaieat of Poitou and Auvergne — 
pormco'i OTer which the Engliah king Btill profewed to hnTo a 
daim. In douig iJiia the kia^ wila carrying uut (be proviiiloDs of 
Ini Ctcher'^ wilt, luid fultiilini; a contract which biid been mode at 
til* ooncluaion oT the Albit:ensian vnr, wti«n Jo.'khoe, ibe yoting 
of DOUDt Kayniund, had bien affiuD<:cd to priuoe ALphoDuj 


Louii /.T^ 

Tlie raarrioge bad be**!! deUyed till the present time. It 
place ilip snine yea.r thnt Alphcntio r^caived tlify oath nf homage 
from liii* niBhols. and as it must have seemed BoniBW>iHt of a com- 
pcDmtion fur the ills t^liich tlic eouat oj' Tl>u1ou!4*3 tmd Buffered* 
Louis no doubt, in bifi gerjeroaity^, wqh wel] content Ibnt event* 
rdiould be ho ord^ed ikH u epecial murk oDionour to bis breCbi^r, Ou 
thia occflaitir be flummooeil tbs count to Saumur, or the crnfine? of 
I'oiEtorar and tborGgaVQ aHUmptuousenterfninru^nt, thutt <]\ijiiiitly nnd 
gnipbicall J" described by Joinvillc, *1 wsalbcre inyaetf, nnd I lefllily to 
you ihai tbe {inal na^ithc besL nmniLgi^d odc Ibuve evtrseen. In frool 
of tlie tinges uibb mil Mm seigneur, tbfi king orNuFnrre, in tout anJ 
mantle of Raniit/^ haTi^^jJomfily 'imimient^^d, with s. girdle^ a. olnap, 
ELnd a cup of gold, nod 1 carved before bim, Jn front of tbe king, 
hit brtitU&r, the count of Artoii, waited upon bim, nnd thv good 
count Jolin of &ui»3oi]!i i^irTfKl the nituLl. ^ . . Tlie king was dressed 
in a nrait tif bhin Hiniit, auf] a sarc<iat nrd mantle of utarlel j^aniii^ 
Imtd with erminej and npon tbe head a cottou csp, vhicb becamG 
bim badly, because bi! vrna iben a yr>unp man. Tbc bauijuct weu 
held in tb« market^bnlU of Sautnur, and tbe people said that tbe great 
kiujT Henry II. of England hud bnllt tbem expreaaly fur giving such 
great bimqneli, Hi» TnaTket'hal]H:ire bnift in the Btyle of the cJoi«er« 
of ibo CiMteroJan monks. At ibp etlier end of tbe cloiBter, wber^ 
ibo king wflfl (sented, w-re the kitchens, butierieA, pjmtriea, and 
ofUcefti iLod from [Jtl?i cloister were brought tbe iiieiLt) vine, and hreid 
urbieb vvvr*^ aerveil up beRire the king and qupen. And in nil l^e 
Olber aiJe«, aad in (be open spacs in the niiddl^^ tbero dineiJ bucIi 
A number ofkaigbta that 1 could notcoiiot them; and manyporaons 
said tbey hod never seen so many aiireoatn and other Teatmenti of 
dodi of gold at any biuiquei. as tlisru wvre tlinre. It vas re- 
pori^d that tliere wpre qaite 3^000 knights pwnenL' 

But there wm bualnefia in store for tbe king, vpry differ^rt 
from that of fentivity. Immediattly aiiar the count bud left tiaumur 
a private letl^r was received by queen BUncho giving notice of % 
couHpimcy amougi^t (M^me of tbe most puwerfnl lorda of Poitou, 
wbieh had for its object to throw off" the Fill^auce to France. 
The pride of a woman woa 11h eouree. leabelln of An^ulem^i 
widow of John, and mother of Henry IIL of England, had mar- 
ried Hugh dc Luaignan, conito di^ la Marcb^. h'he bad visiteil 
Poitiern when Louih and Blanche were tlicre, snd thflir reception 
hail been, na abe coasiderod, wanimg in reifpect to b^r former 
dignity. So at leaet wrote ^uctn Klancbc^Q private corraspondeat. 
Iflobclla had, it aecma, bitterly Tijproached her buJibond when he re- 
turned (0 Anguultuie. ' Did you not perceive,^ <dje fidid. ' that ^ben 
I viaited the king and qiieen in their chamber, after ^^ailing chree 
daya at Poitiers, the king waa aeated on one side of tbe bed, and 
* Clothof nlvBT orgdd maDufibzlured at Yoain. 


tho cpjeeu wtlli the countefls of Churttcs and bee Bialer the abbcs! 
at tM orher^ nod ihey ueyer ALuiniorjed lue lo ait bcsiilc them? 
And neitiier on m^ entfencc aor ntv departure did the)' m much 
ail ri*e irom iheir seam, I f^nn H^iircHv ^[^^W <if H, to overcome aui 
1 wiih gn«f And ^jim«- 1 abuLl die of ir. It is cvtn wqtbo than 
the Job* of our Jaodfi, of wliich thoy have fio diflgT&cefuily robbed iw.' 
' Th« couni,* added the e^tiret cot-n^apondpnt, ' ib a good inftQ* 
and H^idiig the cuudIisa jn U'arn^ bdiJ to li^r^ tlteply moved, 
" MAdnm, give 3:^01]; commnndA, and I will do aW thnt I can ; be 
iur« oflhot/' " Ifyou do Dot," rejihed ihe coimreBfl, *'jou shall never 
enter mj presence any more-" Whereupon the ount, with nuiiij 
oftthit, flWi^rv that he would do JiLjytlijiDg hia flift? du^ired/ And so 
ihe coQSEiiracy Vi-ns forioed. and rJie next ytar ihe tvu' broke nut, 

Thtf romrc de Ja Murcbe ihuuight be had pow^Hul flUies, but 
Ifaey failod him ; and vbi^o tu wife fcund tbut the kinps Ibroefl 
Tere gainiag groiiad^ ?hc ^vc iwo ot' htr aerfa a packet of pciai>7i. 
wbidi tliey uiidf^nuuk to uji^ either with the food ur wiue ot' tlie 
kiag and hia broths. The wrfa re.'iched the royJiJ wmp, but their 
eriBiad waa diaeov«red ; thi'y were SHicd and h^tn^ed. It vat 
now that Iho kiu^ of Kn^land. the youn^ Heory lU., thou^t lit 
hJBwelf to iat^ure on heJiolf of hifl Bbep-lktherp He landed In 
Pnui«, hiui wad to[»lLy ( dir the recepiioiL chjit awaited kim. 
lAuifl had by ihia time proved himaflf a ga^laiil knight as weH »s a 
derotcd Qirietiaii, Hin IblJowerd w^re numvroii8, hiB poldjers en- 
ibtuiastioai ly duvoted lo him ; and when Herny lil. rcftched TbiIIb- 
buurg, OD the river Chacentc* and nivr before lijm the bunjiem of the 
braTe baronfi of France, with che (iridiLEiiuje lloutiog in front <^ the 
town^and the tt^rtisao cloaely pitcbfd that they looked liken groat f^ily, 
hU heart fkUed him. ' U thift,' he Miid to the iximte do Iri Alurcbc, who 
Mood beside Jjim^ ' what you proaiitied me, my father? I thought 
my vole care was to provide muney.* 'I never Kud llujt,' rqriied 
lie rontit. * Yea^ truly/ inierpoiwd Kirhard, *"»rl of Cornwall, the 
brother of the English king; 'I liave in my poi'^ftiunnH lelterm your 
own iiaod Upcn this point/ Ht^nrv also rtuunded him of hie laea' 
ttgci and entreaticA for help, ^ 1 nwcar there ni^er vrtre any with 
my knoniedgr/ ^d the count. BUme your mutlier, who in my 
vife.' Henry did indeed blanii' hia uiutker, and to did mjiny tiettides. 
A triic« wu obtAiued for twenty- (bur hours, and ths Kngtish 
remored from thoJr perilouc poaition. Two days uricrwardfl they 
I'eatar&d to engage thcr French, and were dcftatfid, and Uunry llL 
took refuge to Bordtaus, A Iruce for five y«arH waa now concluded 
-rL ind fiipfi<?d at Mnrei, I24.S. The French nft]iiired pOBseaiioii of all 
** Che north of A^citaiiie, nnd thi? cuuut and his wife made a pnblii- 
sibmiBaoii, the couat being obliged to a^k for a groat of hit et^ie^ 

Croni tlie mere will of hh tmvereigD. 



loui^ fX. 

^ Afler IheM ihinga," ^^'ntcs th<? Kjre dit JoinviUe, * Jt ploa»d 
that prejit illnt-iw Ml upon the kJaR at Parifs l>\- wliich he 
brought t(j Hucli tJiirrniJty iliat une of ihe ladiea rtlio wniclitd 

his side wmitiyl to ilmw sbufE. uvyr hin fkce» niiyiiiK That 
b« ^Afl d&sd ; hut another lady who wij^ on the othL-r tude of 
tho bed ^Tould not Bulf<!r it, iW tlic einil, shfl ftxjd, Und not jot Mt 
the bodj- Whi^n ha was Jislcniitg; to tha dinpmc tKitwccn these 
ivp'o ladles our Lurd wroug]>t upoo bini and quickly wat hira heuldi, 
for befbrG he viof dumb aod roiild not Rpwitc- He drmanded 
ihflt the CroBft fihoiild b* given bjiu, nnrl it wflu riocp. When ifae 
quecB, bia mother, heard tlutt ho hixd roaavcrod hin speei^hf she ex- 
htbitii^ jifl mach joy na could be; but wbeo dho woa told by himself 
tlmt hu liad liiktTi the Cross, *ho diapla^td as much grief as if eha 
hnd ^ee.n him dpiid.' 

Such IE the uaually Tewived origin of the dttertni nation of Loujii 
IX- to undGrtnkp a craaade ia thd Koly Lund, but there can be litUe 
doiiht thjLt tht idejL hnd b^^en in hirt oilinl Jotig befote. A crunde 
wu>i JTi thn&e days che urtiurul oui.lvt of inuu'-t (1gvoi[uii. und nevet 
Itud it been more neceHBir}- than at thj& time for the securiiy fif the 
Clirifltmna in the enat. 

The Hnngols, « T«rlnr race, were oyeminnioR Araa, and driving 
before litem ihe Nrahoni«t<L[i population, who iu their turu were 
taking poiu^sHidU nf all Lhnt ciima In cheir path, tn thin way the 
KbariEmion:^, ou iho shoroB of the CAepiun ^cn, urged on by the 
Moo^oIb, iovudod the Holy Land, nnd took imd pluadcred Jero- 
wlcm, nolvrlthtrtjuidiiig the joint eflbrtft of ChH&ttuuo pud MlistuI- 
lonnA. But again the Khoribmlan^ vere exj)elltil by the SHrseoie 
of F.fypt, nnd now onte mriri> ihu Holy Lund h&d fitZlen under the 
tyranoy cif the Egyptian Bultuu. 

Tbenc vere grievona tidingn f^r Louifl. Tn vain bia mofbec and 
eTCQ the clergy ulrove to diaduadp hitix frum his renoUitinn, remiuilinfj 
him of hU weak health and the lU puf^c-psa which liJii Attended all 
pToviouB undCTiaking* of the kind. He was inH^K^hle, Summoning 
t{> biH preaerice hi4 mothei and tho bishop of Fane^ he to them, 
^ tiioce ye Uiink that T whs not of perfectly mae mind when I took 
the vow, here hf my Cnira ; f give it back to you. But now,' be con- 
timipd after h pjiuse, ' ynu cannot deny ihRt 1 am tn iitW poaaeAOO 
of mj fieuftien ; rsBtora it fignin, for He who knowolh all Ihingt 
kDo^v£ also that not ouo moraol of food Hhnll enter luy aiouth untii I 
have again been oiarked by thifl flign-' 

' It ia the Will of God/ exclaimed all prcBenl ; * let ui snbTnit 
ouraelves to His Will,' jind no further objection was raise*!. 

Yel three yesra elafised before the project could be put ia esa- 
cution. During that time Cbiirt«fl| count of Anjou, the ytjungeol 


brother of king Louis, TnanJLi] Beatricp^ tli« yaxmgnt danghWr of 

The E-jMitit hftd no male li^ir^, hut he had mnrrifil his clniiglii«rv 
well in the oytju of tho wtjrid. The oidflat 'Arft'4 xho wife of LqIUBi 
tad quocQ rE' Fnmce ; the a^Qond ths ^^ife of Henry III. and 
qneec of EofflaDii- The tbird had marrieiA brother of Henry HL— 
Richard, earl tjf GotilwuII, whn hud ohtjihieil the title of king of th« 
Aomut-J ' — and now the foiiM-h wfu^ to b&come comitefla of Anjou. 
Bflatiico felt hor position to ho inferior fo that of hor eiateTB, and ths 
uordlied pndo w^jch tuaktt^d ]□ her hcott wad dcfftinad to work evil 
for gcnenitLUDs lo couii^, 
it On the 3l«i of Jimunrji 12'I6, the mnrrimgR of Charles of Arjou 
and Beatrice of Proitnce wu* solemHised. The hridegrootn and 
his brotbcTB, iCoheri, coiict of ArtoiA^ ond AlphfitiBo, L^ount ot' 
Potrien, were, like (he Hop; bimwir, Bwom followera of the Crom; 
and imnmliikitely afti:r tlie mutriage fcBtivitiBi preprir^tiooFi vrc-re to 
be mftde for ih« dir^tAnt and dAtigerous <?Kp4?(litioii. Y^t not ull the 
*. Bnmm«r of I^JM wbi ev&tythiug in rendinesa. Then Loaia r<?o<'J\-ed 
the crtHjimTiK' nt St. DoniJ^ nnd bidding udiGu to LiH lunthcr, (o 
whoui he catjfiiied thegovemmeutofhinlimgdijmdariDg his ab^oyi', 
be EiUTelli^ to AigucH Mort<«, a mwrt which he had fouDderl an the 
J[edit«TRinfnn. Wiih himvfint rjiit^ciri Mrt^ ii«rjt# nnd thp coiiTJleqA^? 
'ti Artoia uod Foiticra, aiid in thoir wakii tULino tho airn do Joicviilc 
wilh many galLjiat kni^ht^ and fricndn. 

It hitd ijt^Li ieJ) t<.' iht icm-ler iiinrioerB Lo decide when the wind 
WMi]d be favoumht* for emTwirkatinn ; nnd on Friday, th^ ^Rth of 
Aognftt, they were nil Ei;^reed. ' Sire/ they flAid, addrvsaiDg thelciag, 
*eall up your pii-rionr^ find prieAta, for the weather in fair and Hne.* 
Tlw oliaplunji, monks, and biahopa a«cmh]ed on the decks of the 
nwela. ' Sici|^, ^orjd iaiht^rB, sio^ lii tlie oame of God,' cri1]ed out 
the Dttflter marineTR, and chon hur^t forth the Voni Creator, which 
vat Ukeb dp by resseJ aft^r ve>ut;l : and when the canticle wiu ended 
the ails were hoii^tcd, iht; anchors were wotghedf actd the fleet f^teored 
Cor CypmB, at thattimi^ rul^ by Henri dc Luai^iAn, the graiiJ^n of 
Guy do Lii^i^an* In whoin thi< Uland had bi^en adjudge 1 hy Rirhiird 
L Tke king if Cyprn* was himn<lf a cniBader. Tho iHJand v/h.^ 
thtt gnkcral readeZTous for nIL Vho crusading prtnces. Louid remntned 
6ertr «ghl oioxiihts and having roatiirely considered hifl pUna, 
decided upon attackiiti; EgypL LeforE- proci*eding lo P^leatino; lor 
iftlw tflliai] could }>e caatiMer&i m hia own Tand, PjdmtVQe would be 
ttcnred to the Chrit^tians. 

The French det't appear<*d before the port of Damieita on the 
i4fih of Junct 11249. It numbered 1,600 vesAela of all flizes^ und on 

■ Tbv litlB «H onnllj g^rca to the prinH biwted (o itceeffd to Che empn 
ef GRiuuiyr 




Louu IX. 

bfurd were Sp&OO kjiigikca witli font Boldiens Tflrioualj GBtimateil at 
from i<iTty to one hTtJidrnd ^houaaud, Tho landing waa plTeci;«d ni 
spita of a brave oppoftitmii from fh© SHmcftn-i, Tlio king in hi* 
eogerauEu actually ji^Diped ii^to the sen bolbro the bont liad n^ohod 
ihe flhciTtf, und mflde Ida 17*7 tliroupli ihc vrattr, tbough it irn* up to 
hia ahoulderB. Tbe n^iilt of th'i^ Jirnt uLlack tomllt^ tlii^ Skiraceaa; 
lJti?y almndonDd Ddiniettfi. nnd tbe kin^ of Fmticp und Cyjitnjf look 
pOB^^Bsicn of it' UolortUTiarely they EirgiiFod at Damietta natil aft^r 
the iDundudL>aB nf the Nile. It wns imposFLLblc \hffn to Fidvnncci 
•nJ fiye mnnlhawero aptiiit in inactivity imd ^id^iiEiitna. At Icnglhi 
oa tbe 2O1I1 of Novemb«ri the uimy 7«et out Jur Cairo, wliicli, in ih«jr 
ignomnte of gengmphy, they Delievtd to he liahylon, and where 
they hoped to find vust irtiiaure». The MuB>iiilmiLD4 hiiraB^d tbem 
gri(5V0TisJy on their march, more eiipeuiiJly by thfovring tlp«fc lire 
amongst thfm. The Blfect^ erf thta were so terrible that evtry time 
(he king hiy^rJ ibnt die camp wht*, i\\ui uABuiled he <.'a.Htbim»'lr upon 
hia cnilf^b in atigiiiBh of minr], nnd strcIchiBd out hiH hands t^owiinlft 
the (-riLcifix, aiyicg, ^ Dear Lor<3 God, rake care of my people; kwp 
tbtm lor m*:'/ 

No tq^uljir ballk', howi?ver. Took plineuniil tbe Stli of Februaiy, 

^- 125U, when cha criifliderA had rvAidLi^^d n place f'Hllt-d Muiisouruh, or 
the Ciiy oT Vidlory. It vma abont twt-nly leniTiiiw from Dnni^etta, 
tmd ^tood on the right bank of tho Nile. The C'hrisEijm army wns 
on ibc oppoflilo bunk. Hohi^rt of Arlois and the grmid maater 
of die Ttmplara first reacljed <ho rivHr. The grand miinter dcoired 
10 wmt for (1*0 king, or nt jmy mto to have thu htinour of preced- 
iog the iM>unt, for to tbe Temp}^ir!4, he said, bad been asHigaed the 
front rank on tho march- Count Kobart cbjoctcf). end %-hiIst 
the di^pu^ vaA ifoina; on an old tutor of tbo prince, ^ho waa disif 
and underalood nothing that was being Haid. urged hiiu onward^ 
fthoiiTing ' Forwara T fnrwiird V Robert tiim**d to tho gmnd masrer. 
' If you are airuld/ be ejiduimeil. * you can atny behind,' He 
^lUopttd forward and the Teoiplai-s followed- The J?arac4;;nB in 
M&nscurahf though rvt Jiret terrihcd by the luisaull, won rjillred ; the 
Christiana vere repulai:d itnd count iiubert was killed. The king 
hjiftt^ned to the i^rj^^port of ]i[» Itiiighl^, hut he conid not by his per- 
sonal valour retrieve the miafortnnea of tlie day. The cnipadeftr 
indecdf hdd poi^esuioQ of tite field of buttle, but the enemy hoivere>1 
abuuD tliemi and throe daya after the batUe agtda attuuki^ the 
Chrijiiian camp. The Saracens were defeated^ but the cruaadtrs liad 
now Co contend vrUh anmre d^^ariTy !be, Diseoae of a most fatal kind 
broke out amoo giit them ; thedyingi the doad.ond the etarfing encum- 
bered iho camp. When ihcy Ti'tr*; reduced to the predte.^t extremity 
the Hultau opened Qogotlutiunfl lor pcjice. bui^ tie demanded the king 
himself aa a hosUige, and the negoliationi were broken oS'. * We 



YCDuld mLbe^r' said on« of \he kniglita, ' bftvc t>eeii dt slain -ir takvQ 
priionerr* than havi? enJiired the reproach ol' haviog left our king in 
pawn/ T\w cntflflder* now flc'ci'led on s re[reflt. h vhe a i;idnnjt- 
tOQD imdcrbildag. TboSaracFnaLuDpr on tbcir rtar £.ad oviwed thtm 
down bj hirndredB; and on tlie siy:oDd day tbti kttij^, unking under 
illncefi B^d cjduiufiCkiiL, wiu obJig^ U> ^ttltl uncuiididoDaUy aud wha 
otrne'i tnck lo M:itisuuni]i a priftoaer. The greater pari cf liit 
troOpB w«re DutsacTed in cold blood, otil^ the rlt^h being^ admLlT^ lo 
mcAMa &t ail enormous prion. For Ujg king a miUion beiatita 
(•bout 3811,000^.) TfcK demafldcdf with tlie roatitulion of Dionietta. 
The taooey vaa it^ai frcijii Fraud?, aud ia ord^r lo make up iLt Aum 
(he silTer baluHtradPS whirh aurrounded tlie tiimh of Ricliard Cdbiit 
d« Lkm at Roa^n wt^re uk^n and n^elltd, A portion of thv ^um vaa 
i^timbtelr remitted by tbe aultan ia coooidenittoa of the aoble cht- 
racter of LoDi& 

A truc« for ten jeuB was novr cciEchided bt^Lwceo the Diristi^n 

povere and the Muafiulmao princes of Egypt mid Syria, and th« 

king VAA at liberlv to return to Fraoce. But bis heart v/an fitilL 

bcAl OD tbc HoJy Lund t Ibou^b homi^btnotconqueritbamightTifit 

It, and thoa accomjilish Lia vov». Prtvioualj, however, be rejoined 

kiBwife^f^i^i^^n Marguerite, who had Ix.'t^ii [el^alDaQiietl:! to aeciiri:! iba 

Bjrreuderofthe city, and wbilnL thvr^ hndgJTeutirtb to a ion, lowhom 

fh« pave tho naon? of Tristan^ m memory of the great trials lo which 

die vtas Hi the time expand, Tha cruoadiog army now separated : 

many of tho kuight^ rotum^d at oner to EnropDiOiherasccoiiipEuiLEd 

the k'mg to St. Jean d'Acre, from wliicb place tlie count* of ,Anjou 

tnd l'oitiera«t nil fbrFmnct, currying with ihem a long letter from 

die king to ihe Frencb people^ giving a full account of aJl that had 

U:£iLlen him iind bin »nny in ^^ypt^ and adding a prensiri^ entr«atj 

for refill Jorcementd which mi^lit tteouru tliti Biilety of the CWriAian 

poMCiraonfl in Palestine- LetY to hlniadf at Acrc^ Loijih devoted 

hia atUmlJaa to the improvement of the condition of the CtirJBtiati 

popoLitJCiii- 1,^00 pureona wura redeemcid trom fiiivcry ; iIhj lortifi- 

Olicia* of Acre, CftA^rea, JitSii^ aad Sidon were repaired j and 

treaties for ibe advantage of the CbrlsUajia were eutered iutu with the 

larioua Muautman chiefs and ruter^ The piety and generosity of 

the king extorted the adnkiratinn evon of his enemies. The aulian 

<f OujioBcud oflcrad (o permit him to rir^t Jerua&lviiXt but Louid 

dediu&L ' h w&fl pointed out lo him/ tayn JoinviUe, ^ that if he^ who 

VkB TJm ^rcaieiit of ChriBtian kiugB, viaited Jeruslent an & aiinple 

pilgrim, without delivering the city from thu hands of the enemies 

of (ri>d, all other kiagci and pilgrims woidd be CJtrit^nt to do the 

■me, and would trouble themcelTea no further about ita deliverance.' 

This 1^-jnadcrAtiun wiis sufficient lo deter the king from the reali»- 

tion of his iqobI esmeat wiah. lla end^roured, bowerer, by nego- 


liuiinn to rpgam ihe kingrlum of Jeruffllem. Tin- Simoens f>f 
Dam!LKCii!i nnd Egjpl appeared each in (urti wJUmglo y\e]c\ Puleatin* 
4»ti coTjdidijQ of siHfliftifluco hciiig randvrtrtl by Louib aeftinst their 
reapecme enomica; but at the rerj time wben a treaty with tbo 
sulUiJi af Egjpl alitmld liaTe tiecn carrieO out, all Mussniniaii JiHb- 
rencefl were pni a^dde^ and both Egyptians &m] Syriun^ RCUick«d the 

So wo^t hf four jr^rfl of uua-viuliAg^ effort It may Aeem atrrtii^ 
ibot Louia abould tlms bave thougbt himHtlfcAlled upon to remajn 
abnci from blfl country, hut the claiirin of tlit HoEy Liuid wtre tlien 
deemed iraptirBiivf, and he mutst bave b*on Hfttistied wiib tht knnv- 
ledpe thnt liifl kibgdom was g;ikVpriipd ivim^ly in his absenct, for 
nolhiug had occiirrud la diflurb th« public peace except an itjsnr- 
reLlioa of peasanrA) known aa the PHStnureaus, who overran rJie 
proYintea, making uii out4:j j rigHiiiHCi tJii* bisliops and (be oliurch, but 
ivere BjieeJifj Hubdued. 

Cbangep, however, were lit band. In the beginning of Ihe year 
*^Jj 12j3 — Louifibfliup then aX Sidrn^ — ntwa arrived frhioh brou^jht bim 
the grentewt sorrow of hia life. Ilia mother bad died nt Riris, on 
the 27ib of Novi:mber in ihe prtcedinp yoir, at the Hgc ol' dxty-five. 
The tidingfl were hr»iken to bim gently liy biB(V>nfeaarhr and the nrcb- 
bishop of Tyro- They look him into ft srnall private elxapel,flnd nil tat 
down Dttir the altar. At tbcirfirat words Louia uttered a Rreat- cry, 
burst into t*flrB, and fell on hin kaecB. For two dayfl lifl tiivr un nne. 
TbfD JoLDyille wa4 admitted to hi4 presence. ^ Ali. ^^neschid/ 
flu^lnimcd the king, na ho airPTrbed crnt bin nrma to bis fjiibful 
friend, ' 1 have lost my mntb^r 1' 

It was indeed a heavy bli>w. Blnnoho wiia a woman nf WDnder- 
ful Ability, and ber love for her fou waa uudoubl«L Yet Louis bdd 
Jeunit 1^1 \)t'. at) iTserved Avith her iLpoii the wi>)jei?t of his nflW^rion 
for bin vnie and fkmilv thai; for the five years daring whirb Join- 
ville was intinmtoly aasocinted with him be novor but onoe beard 
the kin;^ aptJik cf queen Marguerite or of hia children' Return w^e now imperative* and on the 7Lh of Se|]tetnberf ]254| 
"** LoQia IX. made bis public entry into Paris, after sn abnenfe of rax 
yeara. He bnd Ifell the Holy L:Lnd in tJie BjirJDg. and alter narrowly 
epcaping ehipwrecfc near tlie island ol'Cypru* bo bad tnodtii at JIy6re*, 
journeyed alowlj ihrcu^h Friince,and offered blathaukagivinp* to Cod 
at St, DetiiH, and now be reteived tlie congratulatjons of \tiH people 
in bia rnpitJil. But his euuntenunre borp the tracer of nettled grief 
He had failed iu hiu great undertaking ; he had loat Ilj« moth^T '^^** 
was \^in chief stay in life. The m^rth of hia people wiin oppreeaive 
to hiai, and be soon withdrew to Vincciinea, 

The conduei of Louia oa tcur^Mwhiq (lie goveminpnl of hU 
eonntty may beet be described in the words of hia confessor, Geo9rer 


.TilieQ ; * When, happily, tho king hn*^ rohirrcxl to Ffnnc*:, with 
piet)' he ctirJiicttJ himself to mfcrdu Go<l, liovr ttnTjjxisiioimtdj 
lowarU^ lfi« Li3lictr-(l, with whnt bumilir^r in oil duii ctiurirn^ him- 
neli^ and how zeaJnimly h* endeavrjurerl, iiccor^linff to hw nfrength, 
U> grov in gTAC&^-lheEQ thinga cbd be uLtei'tad bj thwte who 
watchtd hiB lift? cJoaely ard knew faow .*tn^tiYt wna liia conecitmM.' 
Tb» pTftiae is fnllj cDnRrmed L^ other leflliiuoTky. LolUft rv- 
imtsfld tlic ptourl tipirit ol' biB Tnj«al», but b<? rvupcH^tei their n^hlJt. 
H« watched oiTf^r th« inUrepht of nil Hfl^w-ir travi^Clinft from pitire to 
plsffi to mnki? bimatfif fiiJly ucquaint^d with the condiCioa of th« 
p&tpic -, ami Joinrille icUa ua diat many a time in Bumnicr. ftfier 
n»aft, tbe iting woiild go and ait Javrn uadi^r lui auk in the wixh) aL 
ViQceiuies wliilHti aW wliu bud any grieTiincti were pfTmitted to 
txime beifire him, ^ without hindrance from any usher or ktuuh folk, 
and maJte their oompljiiutB and ecttlc thtir dLppatee-' Uis pcreonal 
babJts were e>Llrumcly ample, hut he licpt up the di^iVy rf hii> 
coari« uid ctcq hb deep rdjgi^ua fet^lingA never mterferi.'d with liiA 
pabiic durjes ; whiUt biH aire tor his rhildr^n^ iheir ediic^ation nnd 
gttidance^ wh»i such aa might have b«£tted one who hnd no other 
iftdc in life to rutHL 

The ^uJtfi oFLouie were thoee of the a^e, lie wnctio^ied per»- 
cutiuu, t^eciolly ugainsi the Jcwft; tiut persecutiun was iheii 
fegaiiifd 1^14 a du^. He did imd said thinp* which tnen havp HirnTS 
j^wnt to c:aij bigoted and aqperBtilioiiB, bnl he }ind bnon educated 
ID the liiil bcbeflhat tbey were right. His rcvcrcncefor thij Prppe^fl 
MithorJtyf great tliough it waa, never warped his clew K^n^e of thi- 
ckioiA of hifl pcnpie, arid bin cltidntprftil^neM and nound judgment 
■ere «o thoroTighly r*«>g?ii*^d that \%cf wna ndmictt^l a* nn nrbiter in 
die diBpulf.-« uf foreign natione. When ilonry III. and his barone 
»ere at war, an appeal waa made to tl^e king of Frafico to decide 
Llicir UidcreniKiK and rJiia* do doubt, all die more readily becaiifiu 
Loui> had sotn^ Time h«toro oleuriy tatabEinhKl th^ r&<p?otive rightn 
of the king cl Eagland and himwif to the Franrh prorinoes whi^h 
jLjLbtti long been Ibo fiourco of contetLtion. In Vl^i ho volunurily 
ftMorcd the di«tnct« thai lltnry bad ceded to bim atler the battle of 
^liebourg. whilst Henry renounced all ri^hb toNornjaiidy,Ton[BiDe, 
AajoQ, M^ft, and Poitoii. 

The racrobcTB of the French coancil objected to the cpb^od- If 
Louia g»r« up any provincee ea a maltcr of right, ho ought^ Ihey 
*wd, t<? give up alE. If not, he shouJd rei^tore none. 

■ Sin*.* anfiwer*?d the king, * the anceniora of the Ling of England 
ivry juBtJy Jo«t the po^u^Hsioni which 1 keep; and the land which I 
pre up, r give not becnuBG he haA a hgh[ tc it, hut to create linvpi 
beiwe^n hia children and mine, who arc cquaidb ^nnBn» What I 
gtTe Uihini, iGappearti tu me, 1 iiae right well, H« w«not formerly 
D^ THH&L Now he eomes to do me honu^^B.' 


122 CLAm ttW COi-ltLES of ANJOH to KAPLGa Ayrrt ETCtLT. 

Only iQ one inHtaaw does the fbrcipn policy oF Lotiia IX. BCom 
opeu to CBiiBure. Ife did uot oppoae — though lie jwarci^ly snnciioned 
— the flcwptauce ol' ihe crown of Naples b/ hin broi.her ChftrleB of 
Anjou ; but this eveot, wLioh prov^rttatHl lo fh«|.cyce ofEuropeii 

Henry VI., emperor of Gcnnanj, vho waa crownwl in 11 
□larritd Coi^BUkJiceT tliu lielrc^b of Nnjjlta uijil Sicily. ConHbiDi^e 
had iak«i the thjI; the pimrriage w,w therefore denounced by the 
Pope, Bui there were pijliticpl reascms also tor opposing it. The 
eDif*ror of Germany wat nlrcftdy too powerful in Ixnly, and a* kiug 
of Naples the Pope Tfou'd be entirely at his mercj. The llolieu- 
Blauftrn family, to wbbh Henry belpDg*d, were thereftjre reg JirdtnJ by 
ihePopfs a*i enpmies. Frederii^k lL,thenon of Henry VL, kepi up a 
contest with the papal Authuricy dnriog th« whole of ins Jong r«ig&. 
Hifl flon ConTfid lii'ed bot a ^ort time, and at his di! lefi only 
one child, Ctnradino, a boy too young to asntrt bis own rights, Ilia 
hi;redltdry klugdorn, gentinilEy known uh the kingdiifn of ihe Two 
SicilieSf was seized hy hiHUncI*- Manfredj but the Popp. Urbin VI., 
offared to bc'itov it upon Edmund CroudibBck, the aon of Henry 111- of 
England. Edoiiiod hud neither ruoticr nor troops to support bis cla!n)« 

*. !>. and. ill VIVi'I thL- lirowii of the Two Sicilies was tendered to Loiuh XI. 
for hia son Koheri. LliEua, hjiviu;^ rf^'urJ to thn rij?hiaof CVinradine, 
refused it, but ivhen the Pope turned to Charlea of Anjou the king 
intorpofted no obftt4<?le. Perhap& bu aoircoly dared to do so. Charlea 
of Anjou, n proud, fierce:, determined mau, wLi>, n^ h& la described 
by the biaiorian Villrmi, ' snilled Aeldom, a|xike uud ulepi liltle, but 
did much,' would have carried his point n( all hazurd*. And he had 
AU urgent in^tig^tor to hia smbition ever nt his side. Bentrice, tis 
wife, difldnined to ail on a footaLool at the feet of ber royal aietcr* of 
Fraace, England^ and Germany. Slio would liave a llirone like 
them — it maitered not at what price — and the pained it. Charles 
ftccepl&l the kinj^dom of the Two Sicilim lu n lief *if tht* Holy Sve^ 
embarked wirh bia irmy at Morseillea, ood encountered and defeated 

^ Monfrod at BeuevenlOr in Italy^ on thu^7th of Fubruaryf 12(^G. Man- 
fred w[ji0 killed in the bntlle, Gbarle:3 took puaseraion of his throne, xnd 
Beatrice of Provenoe heeame the queen of Nupleji snd Sicily. The 
tJ^vetouriOnw and tyranny of tha new king rcTiRed the spirit of hit 
conquered aubjepta. The Pope himfldf ropeattfl ihot he bnd brought 
^ueh a vcourgo upon thcliiuJ. Tbo ^upporUirao£ the German emperor 
(Ghibelliueij, ua tbey wtro called, in op|rWtion to ll^ buelpbs, the 
party of the Pope) impl^ared the interfpramw of the ynunp Conrariini?, 
the lawful heir to the throne. \IU mother wouJd lam have kept 
him with her, and for a tLmo her influf.'nce provniled ; but at length 
Conradirte could no longer withKlnnd Uie appCAlj mado to hini, WttU 
liie young friend Frederick of Amttrin (like luni despoiled o£ 



]ieciiage) he crosatd thcAlpa with a numerous Lodj urknigLl* arid 

I IbJlovrtrrrs and uumlieJ doifthwanir<» piling hj Rome. The Pnpf, 

I who bad cxccmmQnicjLtH] Crnira^In^, »^i^^o<teii the widls and )»oktii| 

dcMD upon di« joung printMjH as th^y nnie by. * Behold Ibc v^t^ma 

Cor ilie tuctifice' weu nJL he eoid. 

It w»a <oc> true a pi&phtcy- Ac the batlle of Tngliarazzo, foui(lit 
Ln ia August 1268, ConntJiDmriiB defenied nnd tjilc&n prisons. Fur 
"^ nutr« ihnn a jMir he nnd his iVieod wtre kept ia priaoo. Thi^n ihey 
v«re brought lo trial on a ctifltgc of high Ireaaon. Charfco ^/f Aujou 
biATDed fur ibtir judgi'a persona *hom he supposei deviated to him- 
nelf. But ancb an &<xiiealJou agHicieit u prlrict Hghtiiig^ fur hl*> tlghtfi 
MTU uw montitroiifl even Tor the hirelings oC a IjnmL The voice of 
one JQfl^ nioiie — Robert of Lavena — ccindomned (he la&t heir of the 
houee of Hohonatauff^n to be executed elq a fuloa on a public aoaftbld. 
Cotiradint heard hU doom &» be vrpjt playing at cl^tan ^ith 
Frvd^rJck of Auftria, who was lo uliare hJM Jfite. ' Slave/ hn «aid 
lo ttie m^Hvangar who r^d iho RonE^ncv, * do«I thon darc' To cimdraun 
us ■ t^nmiciat ihe eon and heir of kingi4 ? Vet,' he add^J, * I bill 
a m^rtttlt and muEt die. But if there can bo no pardon lor moi 
0ifi«r« at least my faithful tompfimoiLB ; or, if they must die, sErike 
me firM, ibit I mny not behold ihelr d^ath I ' 

Thin WA4 the onJy pjirt nf tbe ptTijer whieh wa-saranTod, In the 
public pquarc of Kupi^e a scafTold wan ci'ccli^d, and there, on llic 2titb 
in, of OcUiber, I2l>9, young Conradine nod hia dtariy bved friend Ftoo J 
ECkdj for tbeij dooni. Conradine knelt. With uplifted Imnda be 
Mrmmended bia aotd lo God, nntJ Lhi>n, ^i£claJDiing, ^ O tny niothrr, 
homr d«p will be thy norrow at the news cf this day ] ' be threw hi* 
^oTe mta iha midEl of the crovrd below os on appi'iil ni^iinBt the 
bjualice of bU death, and yjdded to the stmki: of the e^eciitloDer. 
A biilvr cry «wuipf\l yi:>UTt}r FruI^riL'k tif AiiAtda u» Conrudine^s hi^aJ 
fdl. With four compjinionr* of noble birth he underwsnr, a similar 
Kntencf, ail alike fintiixig nn mercy even in the grnve^ iJnce the 
r«lclitl«Be Cborlea rofuscd to pL'rniit their bodies to be buried in 
DMiBccmtcd ground. Couiadiue'4 glore vroa pleked up by a Snnbian 
knlgbt^ who esTTied it to bis trjufliu by niernagef Pedro nf Ari^orr, 
the hiuband of Manfred's daughter, and thtta transferred fail diiim 
to Ljru, 

llow far Louis IX. in any wny sanciioiied the eonqutrt of Chnrien 
ofAujou iL i« difficult to determine. The Pdjh had xande it a reli- 
^ous war, a cni^ade agHinRt thi; Hobentftauleri family, who 
were de«ined cot only th& enemies of the ehuroh, hitt the Kcrei 
OfJioldof* of Mahometjmiam. Tho &or;xoonH had a fitni footing in 
Sicily; it was deejaei a d<ily to upr-ot thcm^ and L-Juis Uii^ht 
naiiu^ly Lave hesitated eudrely lo C(>iL(lentn an enterprise wliicb 
was likely to produoe a reaalt w> dpsired. For Hie autgugatioo of 




Lcuii I A'. 

tba Miii^ijlman, including aa it d!d the rf toration of Jenisalem to 
<Jhrist*'ijcloin| vafl still tlie one Joagla^ of his bwtrl- 

Thfl condition of the Chrijitian popnlmion in th<* eaut lind hj 
lliia time ahorod much for thu worriO, The Mnmt'lukcji of ERTpt, 4 
hKjdy of feKn:iouH and p-^wcrlHl Egjiilinn *>lditni, had entered I'lJes- 
tixie ftjiil Kij^t^d nil the t^r'frn^ wlijuli /ut n^iiiniiied jn xhti hundj^ of 
tiie ChrifltiHtis. Many of llio iriTiiibimnla vrcre fltranfclorl h&trnEjse 
they wotild not deny l^eir titith ; othfira were buml alive. In 
Antioch, whicli vne t&k^n on tho :?7f}j of M^y, I^G8, IZ^Ol-K) wert 
ian?n4CTCfl and 100,000 aold into cjiptiTttj, 

There wbs grief in Eurnpe jiL rliia jiiicKigenoe, Lui tio enthn- 
niDsm. Louis alnne ftit tlie wonni in hi^ heart. He wrote to th* 
Pope, ClemeTit IV., thnt it wai liifl zaT^ntion Co fldflun^e the CroM. 
Clement was a man of abilit^^ but a poJiticinn rather tLjin a pri«at. 
He foresaw tJmt tho ci-uaide would jjroduce no jtBults, and \iii 
would lain linvn iliwiindi'd thn king fnmi his pnrjiOHe. Bui Lonia. 
^ he *or»*liippeil In thft bsaittifiil Aiint* ChapoJlci, built to enehrine 
ike crown of thorns which he had brought bnok aa a hoi? rciiir trom 
his fir»t crusade, llinught of ihc groann^if the dyinff, the Jftmtnfalions 
flf the dtffi'Bled, tbe crl^ of the widow and iJie falherless; and the 
appe:il iva.^ (00 BtTOtip; to bj» rewstal. 

Oit tha 2tkth of May, 1267, havint^ nMombted hiii bsrona in the 
gient hitll of tho Louvre, he npppnrcd in thoir prci^encc holding in 
hifl li^Tida the mcrtd rolio, ABHUmin^ tlio C'tohb hinuivlf, he tnnde 
bra three sods tak^ it !ikewj6i>, Tbe exEkn^jiJt? wob widely folluwed. 
Tho liicpH of >'nvarrp, CnRdle, Aragon, and Porriiga.], the two eons 
of Henry HI. of Englnnd, C'hnrJi^B of Anji>u, the oouale of Artoie, 
PtftndcrB, and Britttmyi with 11 fjrowd of leaeer noblea, enrollfid theni' 
eelvee. Yet tbe undertaking wn.^ nut gifntrally popufar- ' I thought,' 
Bays Join ville, ' thnt; nit those whn ndvij^i-d the king lo undertake 
tbnt voyage commirrj-ri n ^roitt hid. Hp wna ablp neither to rid« in 
a QirriH^ nor on borEetiuck ; nay, biti debltity was ho ^rcat that h« 
all^'wed me Co cnrry him in my arm* Ironi rjio houae of ihe count of 
Au^errci where I took leave of liini, to the FrruiciHCujiB. And yet, 
feeble an he vn-f^ if he had remained in Fniuce he might bav« lir 
for tunny yeara and done muoh good- 
After a wpariflomp doluy of two months near Ai^icB Mortea 
army emliarked in soma Genoese vea^eU tmd sailed tow^rd^ Timia 
The nimnur bad reached Louih tbat ihe king of Tnnia desire^l 10 
become a Chrintinn, iTid so importjmt did this iwnvernion appear to 
birn that, io a Bpecch lo tho anihaflaadors from Africa, irmde bofor* 
be anilwl, lie bode theni tell their mnstrr that ho would willia^^ly be 
a primmer In the Snraceo dangei>ni nU hia life if bj thai i«crJ6ve he 
could make Chrii^ti-Lnq of him nnri hie sribjects. But a pPuceabU 
expedition Co convert the king of Tuni* did not ^nit either tbe army 



■JMTIiiHilgn or the Gfrboesv merchanls. The cTiumden fldlghwd in 
Ifw: ilie GtfUOts* ili^irt'il pillji^fH^ DiHn^arHinjf ih*i avowed wiaJies 
of LtiaU, Tho GemwR^' f^\7i-'] 9,<int<^ v<^^il^ lyi^^B hpfore Cftrihsfrp, and 
ifcus begiLQ hoETiJkliGa. The di^<?]]iburkatLon wiiB cfffcted vithoiU 
liifficTjIt)', ami ilie oncient fort of Curtha^e wasUken bjtheGenoeBe 
n Jew tlaj** afli-'f tbc laJiitli]^- Tlie ^-^irai^i^na tH>ifglit rtfu)zt? in ihe 
TBiilte of tha finrl. Many were eiilipr j<cnmplMd or ■jditToriLial liy the 
fire aXid Bmokf of iLo coiflliet, and il vai necosiarj to remove lh*ir 
hodiee from l\\t Yaults hafore the king itad hia fbrocs coiiLd JixJf^e in 
the fort; ihej were left, Kowptct. unburicd, Louis -wfta compelled 
lo wait ai Carilih^rt (br CliurL«a of Aiijou, who had not yec arrived 
Irom Sicily. The ^eater portion &f the army rpmaiaed e?ip(W«l to 
^ African sujn and in (lie mid^t of 1li@ putr«fyiQ|E corpbea, 'Hiere 
w<T& no Iras, no vn^iuri:-, no pTCPQ thinp fit for food^ nnd the wutcf 
tbrj" diuuL was dra^u from poisouuua puoEa uud LiatcriiH tilled witlj 
noxious inHfH^ts. 

In fiftpfn dajH the plflgue bad broken oat Tbn Couiit« of 
Vmdotnc, Ja Warche, and Vmne, the marahal of Franpe, tha ore 
de Mciitmortncy, and tour other great noblea vere dead. The Pope'a 
bg3kle won fullowtd them. Ttietr tompuniona Imd nwL utrenglb l«fL 
In huiy lh«n, and the bodies wr& thrown into tlie neighbouring 

On the ?4rd of Auguat the krng hiinaelf wtie attncksd b^ the fev«T, 
■nd it waa bchih evident tlial tlie illneaa was Ukolj to prove Jiilnh 
llere vas a lingeriu;^ aunpii'iiMi for twc'jily ctajn, during which )ijr< 
ihoughtfi ttimafJ anjrfonsly to hin children. Jean Tri-^tair, count of 
tievera. and leabelhi, wife of Thiball nf Navarre^ wholiad aci"<impBni*d 
iba expedition^ wijrc the nir>°i dearly loved. He ^nqiurod for Trintnn, 
aad was lold that be wan dejid, and folding his handa ihe dyinp king 
wu^h[ coiulbrl m priiye-r, Up then sent fur I'hilip, bis eldest 
son, renderly hIefiHed him, pave him hia dying cciunftel, and exhorted 
him to obwfA'tj f^^upiitouBly the inBtmetiona which with his own 
hand ho had written tor him in his tvovicry. All<;rwnrds turning to 
lubella, who waa in attendance at her father'a dying bed, he pave 
inuj bet hunda a pa\\er wbich he charged Iter to deliver to her UBtrr 
AgflCfc, duchew of Burgundy. ' Moat dcHr daiighier/ he said, 'lay 
thorn lo heart; many pereona go to bed fall o£ vain and sijiful 
ibongbtB, and in tlic morning aie found d^^ad. The true way vi 
hnrhtg Gud is lo love Him with tynt whole beaji;; and Ho well 
dcaervee our love, for He lirat lovod uh,' 

ThiB was his lujtt faTi'Well to hia own fnmily. On the following 
day he mstde an '-ffurt lo rocoive Iho ODVoya of Michael Palffiologna, 
the Greek empercr, who bad landed near CanfiagQ, Michael, who 
■M llie repreiieoUtiTc of the old Gtcek cnkperore, had laltly auc- 
Moded in uiweUiag tlia Latin empire eaiabliabcd by the Vencrtia£i» 


Loaii IX. 

and i^niB:idtiTB, and hud «9»I^ him^lf on the thri^ne of Coasl&nll- 
nople. The jiEibitiouB Cliarl*H of Anjou now rhreatenod him with 
fvax. aud Le sougbt for ihe icterrentiDn of Louja. The kiji|z: ^^ve 
lltf* jiroiiiifi£i rerjuired, and iifter tliECi touk no Oioiighl for wurUlv 
nffaiT-'i, c^foepf by prajers (or his foUowpra thnt (if>d woitld tare iht'in 
from their eoemii!* and from ibe ieaifll of His Holy Nflme, and l^ad 
them back (o their own land. On the ui^ht ni~ the ^4th of August 
he stirtttl up FKverai times and calltd out. ^ Ji:ruealt^tn ! JenisiLeiu ! 
We vrill go la JtriiFiiltm ! * but hn bcari:ely i^poke more, lliuugh in full 
po^flOB^ion of hia fHCultiL'S. By \\\-i own desire he wns lard tha noTE 
day upOQ u co&ree pack covered vith aahoa; tJ^e Croea waa hild 
before him and extreme uncriuti y/iim ndmtniatcrod ; &nd about ciirav 
o'clock ttj the fliWrnoon he expired ppjicefulJj, hia )ut words btijig, 
't will enU"r into Thy houae^ Lord; I will worship in Thy 
holy tftbemi*ole.' 

Louie had lived fifty-ais years nod reigned for^-feur, Thoro 
ne^dfi no ootnment on iiia character. Even Voltairet the sceptic 
and the acoffer, Uae said of hiukt ' It ia nut given to junit to uiirry 
virtue to a higher point.' He wua canonJAcd in \2^1 hy Pop« 
Bomface VIIL 

The crusado virttiaiiy ended with th& death of Louis. Charles 
of Anjou, who lauded et drtliago almosi at tlie very moment uf hia 
broiherV d«iih, nnd is Raid lo b«ve beftn pn'olly afflicted by iij did 
indeed defenf the king of Tuoih in two enf^igenienrs^ nnd tomjiei hiui 
to maka n peace adranlageoiif for the ChriatiauB; and prince Kdward 
of En^'lond aaihd in the spring fui 5>TiaT in pursaance of a vow that 
he would ultock the Mameluki^i in Fnleatino; butht t^flbcted no pt<r- 
manert cnnqurat. A trucR wns then made with the SarBCiens for fen 

CeftfH, neid nt the dpimtion of that tima the cmaading enthiiBinflm 
ad HO dic^d ont Chat ne lurihcr oxpeditiona were imdertnkcn. 

Tlje reign oi LoiiJfl IX, Wiw eajiecially important for Pr*Gce wirb 
regaril to ihL' rtvi^ion of thelawM. About thidperiuducodeof Rum&a 
lawfl, known r^ the Pande^tH ofJusIinrnti, had h^en discovered, and 
were genemlly aoknowlfldged to ba worthy of acceptaneo, but Uiey 
required to be trnni*l£Ltod aad cSEplaEoed. LouJa introduoed thcae 
luwfi into Fraucei and er^tabli^hed a conrt to adrainLstor them^ eouaiat' 
ing of tlu'cff! DobEeSt three pjvLAt^s, eighteen kuiglits, und eighteen 
Jflwyera The lawyers noim took all the power mto t!n?ir owr hands, 
hut ths court wm very uaeLul in reprtiuin^ the oictortions of (he nobIe> 
and Lhti cuAlom of deciding dieputet by combat- I.ouis aX^ im- 
proved ihf! t^oicage of the couulry anil gave it a fixed vulu^. He 
obliged rJie bflmns to pravicie for the RPnmty of iravellera on the 
high roada of their lerntorieti; he ettubliabed a puhUe librai^ in 
FiiTtB, fnuad^ u hoapitaJ for three hundred blind porflone, and 
built the goinlo ChapcUe^ clofle lo the Palus dc Juatioo, at that time 


the royal r^ridfltiee. Ho bI^o encniirftgei the leBrnw] Robert de 
SorboQ 14 eel on foot the fLinouA tbaologioitJ rcUege called afier die 
founder, fhc Sorhntme. The Ji-'ciHions of tJia member* of the bor- 
bouoe were aflerWivrda n r&<pect«(l thni Uie college hoa caUed the 
perpcnwl Galliam council- 

raiLi? tii., LE HAnm (tbe bold). 

Wpt Philip Itl. ahnnld have he^ named the Bold ft :« difficnlt to 
determine, Prohahly rhe trndhion h (rorrect wMch says that the 
epithet WBA applied tc htm vrht-n a child, becaiiw, in hia iterance of 
diu^tT, lie Uiighc-d at hja motljer and her ladles for being afraid of 
tbe Sar>ceiii<, and boulcd that he did but Itur ihem iit all. 

6^ tL« limi' hte came Co ihe tlirone, nt The age oflweaLj-live, he 
njiut have learnt in AfHrit The real grotinde of hJH mother^a alarm. 
Leftviag his imclc, Charleit of Anjou, to curry qd the cmsadef he 
prepared to remm to Frflncc, braring with nim the bodj of hia 
&Lh«r, to Lv iuierred at St. Denis, licfure he rear:hed FuriB no less 
thaalonr other mc^bersof then^tyfi] Ihmiljhad died,nnd thciri^oiAine 
T«r« borne in soleniQ prooeMiuo wilh those of iht^ Inte king. These 
were Isibclla^queenuf Ktivurpe, and htr hushatid, ThibaJt; Atphoasoj 
count ofPuitoij and Toulotiae, and h!n wile, Jeanne of Toulouse ^ 
and — a death more immedintely affei^iing tht: new king — Isutiella 
cf Ara^iir hii wife, who expired on tJie homeward jmirne)- after 
the birth of a atill-bom child. 

The family Jonaca broLrghl a large increase of territory to t}ie 
crown. Tlie piMBeBfliciiB which AlphonBo of Poilou liad dctjuijtd bj 
tiiB Tnarriage with Jeanne of Tonlonse were now uniri-d tn the royal 
donula. A portinn of thia tfirnu-ty, hovr&v^r, cnllH t\\^ Vpnnia- 
ao, cOIUUtin;^ of Avj^^od and the d^etncls round it, was, according 
to an agreement made nt the time of the niarriage. ceded to tlic Popa, 
and remwned aubjecl to the Sec of Home ttU the French rtv&lntion, 
VaiaiB and Alen^-on n\tc reverted To Philip on the denth of hitt 
Yooager hrotherd Tristan and Pierr.', 

The fift* Ibiir Toura of Philip lll.'e reign appear to have been 
pToapcronHt hut littlt in naid of them by ihe dkroniclen*, Philip wa* 
IfT^td-natured, b'lt wuiIL) BUjj^rBtitiiuu, Jiitd eaajly lulluenced; and 
froTn this latter eircnm'^taTife arm* the chief penional cririlH of hh life. 
Aft In 1271 ha tnnrried n second time. The new cjiieen wsr Mary, 
of tha doka of Btubant. iShc woByouQgi Ikoeiiuiting in mamiert 




P.\il,p III. 

anil Ttry cltver, oinl mr'jri c^umplctelj ruEed her huBbandi Up to 
tliia lime Lhe Ihvnuri^ Hinl ^ir-imi] mitiisCer i>f Philip had b««tn PietT? 
de Jji Bn;>BHi>, who ia flj.]d to liavo be^D ah igf-fiii Xa Loms [X. Th? 
queea bated Dts Jii UrDinHO, imd hi^, on his purt, did not ho^itHLc to 
ivliiajter bift tomplniiiifl ngniiist her itito the king's ear. Two ytHTs 
ntL^r ibt iMtoiiii umrriagc Piiilijj'^ cldeei tun by his Hrai wife died 
Hiiddenly — Pierre de l» BroHSP ftaid from puij^n : and hi> sprpad lb? 
roport ihat the queen hud iTiHligiited the crime in order 1o attiiirc t^ie 
*iui^k:<-artion to her owti iihildrco^ The Tutrioiir rcj^ched the king, yrho 
BdU^ht Fiuperatilioual^ lo loarn tba tmlb from a reputed prophetObO. 
The wnnuiu eiilJTHly uleiLred tiie cjuct']i» and Marj^s reUtinni^ pnwpd 
v^ng^itni^e oq De la Hrcts^e for the ucru^nrinn. A pArki^i of lotttfm 
wnfl MK-t«tly conToytid by tb*jm u> Ph»li|i, Tbi^ir conumtH vera 
never known, but De Iil llrosa^ mu&t Jmvo been iiecased of aotat 
greiit olTtnca, tor he was privately trJud, suid, tia tbe cuuri vtm im«o- 

j^j,^ ]iobed tjf bis dui^larcd eiieruieHi of uourge i^uodeuiu^d. Ha van Jiim^ 

t2'9iLC MonifiiiiCGn on tbe 50[h of June, li^78. 

Tho fteble-minded PhiUp, thoa a prey to BUflpiqion and projn- 
di'^c, could not be tbe rva] bend of tbc rojnl faniilT whii^b be rgpre- 
jected. Its actual chid' ^aa Cbmles of Anjou, the murderer of 
ConrBdiae, and now the Hckaowl-'dpfld king of Nnj^ks and Sicily, 
Thti aunbitiQn of ObnrleG Meiced likely to meet wicb no oh^ck, 
moni eayctdaWy tdU^r be bjtd contrived to secure Uie election 
to thn pnpul throne of u Frencbmun, Miirtin IV^i wbo becmijo bU 
toaipleie skve; but hh lymriny and ciuelly }wd rendered biui 

^^ IjELtefuE \(' his pHipIe, nnd in the year 1 2S'2 thfl utomi which bad lone 
been ^iberinq burst forth, snd Sicily wa« loet to bim fur erer. 

John of Prticidfl, a phyfiician, who iiad Ijstu ibe friend and 
cooGdaut of Coomdiue^fi ^:THndi»lber, tbe euipemr FreJcrldt II., wu 
the pRrmn iiiididy inHirumental lo thJa event. Hv wm slirewd and 
BelHnh, a man nf cool jtidgDifur but etu-n&^t purpose- After tbe 
death of Froderick II- he hud entered the ftcrvictr of Mnnfrcd of 
Naples, and ivbea Manfred wafl killed at Bcnevoitto, John of 
rivi:ida bought tbe cvurt of Pedro of Aramuri, dte busbanil of Mui- 
fri^'s dflughier Connwnce. Here he found Roger Ix>riii. a fnraoiw Sici- 
liaQ adnuL-nlfWith i^veralotberdi'itin^iiiibi'd c3rJleK, Pedro whs urged 
by tLcm to iifsert the claims of bie wife againat the aaurp^r Cbxrleft; 
but tlie suggcfttioii was bAtenedtacoldly.aad Julmof ProoidA tbE?n eold 
bLI bt? [lOSseB^ed in Spain uii^I diaiippearcd. It id tiaid that Id tbd 
dreasof a P^THnciBCAn friur be journeyed from place to place ^timog up 
enmity against Cljarlaa of Aajou. Tbe FranoscanH wore |>opular, 
Tbey UTi:d on tittle, bad u great reputation for piutyf nud aft 
preachern, meflaengeta, eiea poblJcal BnTojfl| roude themselves 
geuemlly useful. Procida iLppeaced cit length at CkiigiAniinopla 
and gave tbe Greek Bmpercr minute iatelligence o£ ihe plans which 

t J 


Chju'lea of AnjoJi was forming for hia ovtrthmw. ■Tr<K»p'>wflre 
nsscinbliii^ at Durazzo. Galleys and trdn.iport voi'^j vould foiioir. 
Tbe Vmetiiuin viere cerraixi to lead then/ Miuhael PiLlx^lot-^ab 
in despair wliat vaui to be done. ' Give me uionev/ WiiA die 
rer; * t will find joii s doft^der \rho has uomGoej, hnl v)io h«a 

and arms.' 
7hc Gr«ek omppror sgrcod, Aiid Proctda roLurned tc Arog^on, 
tncceeded in tindling the ■iiabition of king PeJw. The Pope, 
HartiD IYm enquired of I'edrt> th« obj^t of hia annameat^ 'If 
tded tn act sgBiiuit the inlidelH, thoj trotrld/ he auid, rvceive his 
\f.' Pedri>, in reply, impJorod thu pmy^ra of ths l^ope on 
d<!eifii, bul added that ^if hia right liond knew his secret h£ 
voiild put it otf^ Iwt it fthould betray it to hi« left. 

So tbe course of evorita llowtd ou widi ati undercurnmt nftcn- 
^nurj nntil March 1382. It wax ihe 30rh dciy of the month, nnd 
KutfT Mnoriay, In SidJy summi^r hud alrendy begun, Tbe air whb 
ttttrm, lit« trpaa vrpre covered with foliage, the gTfUod waa bright 
ttilb dowetEs* and tbe iuh^bilautQofPdlGnuo, in tJieit holiday contume, 
were pouriiig out of the town lu attead die veaptr ecrsict at ihe 
chvrcb nn Iht ^itinmit of MonrealEi. Worship etided, mDrrinifnt 
li«gui — Ainei and dant^ei ti:>t the yonng, rcfreflbnieDla lor thalr 
eldern, who sealed theiuBoIx-ea at tables und^r tha troes- Frcrjcli 
faTdierfi mingled with the people, preltrnding to keep the ^eace. Lilt 
in iTolity behaving ruduly. The yonog .'^ciliauh indiguauLly Uulo 
tbem 'gn their way.' * Thene rebellloui^ SioillanH ni\isi have armrii/ 
•xdaimed Ibc FrcDclimenf * or the^ would not reDtvirc to epcab to 1U 
■0 inaolcDtly/ and they begaa to search eome of tlie peiiaunt^ At 
tliat moment a beautiful girl, the dauf^hter of Gohert Ala^tiajigelij, 
dmr ncATthr i-hurt^h. She waH wolltiaj^ vrith the yrjimg man (owliom 
■be wufl b^trofhod. A Frenchman uamol Druoi, i*ent up lo them, 
tcarched th« young Sieiliaa, and rongbly laid his kanda on lht> girl. 
!■ ber terror ehe Glinted away. 'Death to the Frtiiiihl' waa die 
Uguauccry of tlit Sicilian. A youth Mapped forward, atabWd Druot 
liie bearti and wn.^ hiijt»elf cut down. Then roHe the t^hriek 
to the FrtDcli 1 ' noi Imm unv, hut from btmdre'lB of voicea, 
one Freachioan oa tbe eprit OAcaped altv^. The crowd ruahed 
tothi'tiity. Every housovrafiBkinncd ; whoever did not, likotho 
pronounce ce aa cfie vh^ marked an French and killed on tb« 
Keither age, nor avx, tjor iiifuncy waa ^ipAred. Trie in^un^c- 
^rreiid throughout tbe i^Eand, marker! hj similar cmeltien. and 
Ihft uusoicre of iho SiciLlan vespera has gon« down fi^m genera- 
tko to gcDeratian oa a bynord of horror for the moddonod wrath 
^ UL iojaicd people. 

When the newH of the insurrection reached Chaileii of Aujou at 

ISO aiEQE OF ire^ENA — CTIAIELEB'e fleet TJESTti(iVE,ri^ 

FhiUp UL _ 

Napli^the sat siltnt for n tiiDe^ gjlHriiig tiercplv arcimil hlin, ^awmg 
lilt top of his sceptre nrnl bTirstiiig fuith into ttmfic vowa of ven> 
ffULTiCi*' Ho then vi\\)t\. hif^ forceB fntsfieii over to Sicily. 

&fcH«ian pri?parcd Eur a dasp«rate Tcetatanca to tho eDra,c:od kijic;. 
A wall >vrtB built ia lliree day^. and the first allacka of Chiirlts were 
Iffjiveiy rtipulfied. The words i.J uii old *:iiLg rctord the efforts of" 
(he female populatfon. * hXtsx fnr the wom^n of Mo-«itin^ nmOTiting 
ladder^ cjirrjing BtanM I He who Bhall injure MePHinn, may God 
give him trcnble and toiJ." Kott wae tliemomwjt fortho intcrfcfcnco 
of Pedro of Aragon, A deputiiHon Jrnni the parliament ol' Palermo 
oflVipd him tlip throne cif SUdlv. and hp Jiiicpplpd iu The relief of 
Mo.^inn was hi*i first nhjpcl. ApPompaTiiflil by theSifiihnn Ht'et, utider 
IkUj^er dcLcria^ be re.uchedTrap.'uiif where hQiaDded,aDdnieii erowdfid 
to Eiii bunncr. AnqbaMndorfl were sent to Ckarlea. who postpooed 
an jiudient^e Jhr two duya und thcu rcuavcd iheuj. suited on \\\* bed 
CQVtfHd wirJi silk drapery. Thmwrng anide on his pillow the letter 
of the ting of Aragoo, he awaited the nddreea of the envoys, 1| 
woA rLJmpiy n aommaud that \nc should depart from his hin^dom, nnd 
Charle* again hit hiu rtccpfre in wrath. Yat one •entflnce in hi» 
jjiuud reply indicuied a aeii<^e of weakrjfsa. ' He might.^ be Skid, 
* fi^tire fur % short lime to Cfllal>riJi ro refreTih his WMrj ironp^^ but 
\\ would only bs to ^Dme back and wroak n fiercer vaugemiTe.' In 
itccurd.iace with thea-;^ words ha recm?>sed th^ straitds and relumed to 
XapieiA duniig t}ie a ighl, leaving bthiiid him \\if~ ti;nt«aad proviaoai. 
Only a vyry hliort tiim? Ii7i<] ehj}»<id uilir hiw [lefutrture when 
A ffcf^t of Hhipfl, Bcattored apparently by a tempest, ap|>efltvd st 
duybrcftk boforc tlie harbour of Meaaijifl. * Ic ie the Jlcet ot' 
king Chjirloa/ exclaimed the citizonp. 'They have conquered the 
goUeya uf ArHgoti> and now they will turn upon ub/ The nawM 
waa enrried tn Pedro of Arcif^Ti, who had taken tip his abode 
in the city. Early though it wa^, yet^ aeeording lo his ouMomT 
ia winter as in summor, he wua alreivdy drcaaed. He oillcd for 
Old horac and Irft the palace IbTlowed by about tfln pcraoQi'i. Tlie 
ahorea i>f the hnrbour were crowded with despfliriaj men, women, 
and children, * Fear nothing, good people/ ei:p|ninipd Pedro, ■ Ther 
are our I'toseta^ they imvo nei?ed the Ji^el of kiifg Charlea.' ^ Goo 
grant it Taiiy be no/ csclaimed the |X!op!e, and Pedro rode oti beyond 
the town repecitiag the same wrids. \^K a misgiving woa ia hii 
mind, and he wm heanl to aay, ' fiml, who hrs led me hither, will nM 
j>b;iiidrm mp, nor these nnhappy people. ThnnVs and pra-ise be rva- 
derf?d to Him.' An ormod vcwaJ bearing the enpign of Ara^D 
was now Ktn approathini? the ahore- Pedro's nobles and kui^t* 
l^atlttred round Itim, A measciiger landed from the vessel, and 
drawing near to Pedro Bnid. ' My lord l^inp, these are your a;Al1eyH, 
which bring you those of youi^ eDcmieB.' The kina diuiioimted 

niOI-OSAD fiOTAL DUZL — J^iAXa <it PatLlt III. 131 

from ill* li(j[3C Olid kueh ou ihe groLirjr], \}iti [leopft? following hJB 
e^csinpl^ and n tJianki^viiig waa poure*! fftrth to God, who ha/j given 
them iliU TictOfy and saved tliem in the hour ot' Ihtir peri]. 'Such 
criea of joy wurc uttered/ iffritpa an old chronicler, ' t]i4t jou nmj 
belioT* my "<Td when I say thej were htaid at Calatria.' 

^baries ufAnjauhjid wuichifd from theoppckiite coast itie di'stntii > 
tionof bis fleer, jini) as 1ii? reali^d in this defeut tbe overthrow nf his 
bopof for the cr>n<]iLeflt of ConfitAntinopli;, Jii^ ie aaid to have topouted 
the pmyer which ho uttered at the tidinga of the SicUlnn veapfra. 
*0 Lonl God, if il be Thj will ki give me tvii ftTtiiue, giiuit tluLt I 
ma^ doKwnd gently and jJowly from my (rreatne«L' He now toot 
the rrtoK'p of olTi*riny single c^omhat hioi'flir to the king of Aragon — 
a hiizidr«l kuLghtE ironi unch kingdom hh^iriitio; the eirugglc- it wa» 
iinuJB**^ '^t tti* ^^° king^ should me^t snd £ght at Bordeaux, 
under the proi«utiou of Edward L of Eu^kuid. Ad iLie iipjjuiuted 
dm* drpwiiear, Pedro of Aragon^well mounted, travelling hy night, 
and guided b^ a Imdcr in hones who knew all th« paeeefl of the 
Pfrca&e«, oifide htBJ^^umey ^rJtheomc armed companiona to Bordeuux, 
Oq the TBTj day Eixed fur the cijuibdt lie Appeared before the g&tea of 
the city flnd aUDiinnn^ the EtiifIlhLl jvin&schiL]. neuuiiidhig to aee 
fli« |i>tfl, he rode dowa them in dow ninte. thL-n h:iving obtain^ an 
attGitation that ho bad uppoarcd at the appointed time, he made a 
proiCBt lo thi; efiect that the troops uf France btein^asnear BordouuTt, 
it ma out afe f^r him to remidn there longer, aud Luruinghi'ibonie'a 
had rod« off on his way to Anignn. 

Charl^ wm lunona. He was aclually in Bordt^ux ut th(^ timCi 
uid yd ibe challenge hnd beeii in vain. He dinomn^ed Pedro aa a 
rocTi'Utt and a da^(a^i]J craven, and prepared fur vengeauce; but 
on hit return to ItJily hp. vas Tnt>t^>y thp diaat^truuf tiding^ lliat on 
Ihe preoading day Roger de Loria had sgnin defeated hii^ H&el, and 
ihat hia aoD, Charioa the Lajne, pHnca of Sakmo, wa^ a j^ridoner^ 
* Why did he not mthcr die ? ^ -wan the reply of the proud kJn^^ and 
he consoled himnell' by h^ii^in^; a hundred amd fifty Nea|joiJ[anA. 
Bai ht^ liad in reali:y been cruslied by thin new ca]^mily. lie 
I ^irould lain liave made :Lnotber attack upou ^icity, but lie wa»urmbli> 
'* ta e&rry our. hia pionB, and vflrly in the month of Jar^uory 1285 he 
died. PopQ ftfartin IV, livfd only three montha longer, 

Philipof Fraue^ luld daiui to Pedro's donuuioii« Ibr hib second Mn, 
Charles of Valoi*i, towhorn ilicy had been given hy Po|>e Martin, He 
mler^ Aragon and besieged GerQna,but hie eoldi*ffS suffered severely 
from the hfoJt of the climate, and he woa obliged to retTOMt with hie 
vhol* anny^ Thciy managed to poBa the Pyre uvea, btitthe kingwoa 
tCtaeked on the road bj malignaLt fever, and mod atWr iizachiug 
Perpignan be ftin died, October .^tb, I2di]. at the age of k^- 

JE 2 


Phiiip ir. 

Pedro MuTictim to the finmc di^*c*ftcon the Hth of Noveinli^r fol- 
lovfing. TliuB one jear hjiw tlie deatb of the four principal penoi 
coEMmed in the iniasion of Sicilj^. 


PaiLlP IV- LE BEL (the FAIR), 

A.D. isefi-isu. 

Philip IV., the eldest oon of Philip tho Bold, totiod himseJr, on h\e 
atceftsioH to ihe tliroiie, eHiberriLSsed by Uie war with Aragoo, 
AJfiiTiso^ the tfiirrfiBsot of Pedru, hud murried tln^ duii^hter of 
EdwArd I. of £n^]und. Edward «nflc?ivotiT(?d to make peaci> between 
h 14 eon -in-law and tha king of Traooa, but he only Rucueoded in 
cbrainine the releoae of Charlta tho Lame, the eoi of ChmleB of 
Anjou, vrho bud hei-n taken ])]isontT in the laet nuvol eugngemeat. 
and who was rMognised na Charlps TI. of Naples. Th^ atrti^lp 
4-n. between FraTiof* and Aragon v^nt on for several yeata. but in 1:^^] 
Charles of Valois resignod all clairu to AragoOf and fLgreed to nmrry 
Marguerite, the daughter of Charles IL of Naplest roceiTing rs her 
riawrj the c:ountieH of Anjoii und Maine. AlfoDSO of ArugoT], on 
his ffirCf promised that Sii^ily ahtmld bs given up to Fiftplesi 
but Ihcj Aojnu femily had made themselvea bo halod in the iflftnd 
that till? inhabitunte vrould QOt a^^crpt ChDrloe, and in the end SJcily 
hecame £n indejiendenl «tate under the govemmect of a younger 
branch of the royal hoiiw of Aragon, 

Peace for Franco miglit nrw have been oipMted, but Phliip IV., 
eminently handwrne, ae may be known by hie namo Philippe le Bel 
(thp Fair), wat ambitious, stlfiak, and cruel, and the Inat monarch to 
becure peaccn ilia eviJ ttutlenciia were aggrttvated by tlitwe of hts 
wifi*, Jennne nf Navarre, who whs an vindintive and cruel aahimaelf- 
The king'a groat object during the whoU of his rei^ was to become 
thp abiwlute rtiaater of hia peopb for the fiirthcrance of hiB own 
object^ and though be encouraged the middle claAseei, it was that they 
mighc assist him in oppoainy the nobility. Probably with tbiflview 
his goldsmith, Ralph^ was raised to the rank of « noblo, and persons 
of low birth wcro allowed to purchnne iJefa by which they uttained 
the rank of boron. Philip'fl intcTtercnce wiui jiU claasea muBt io- 
dfteJ have been u fiourtre of constant aEinoyance, He made Blimp- 
tTury lawn regnlatTDg tlie number of dreama his Eiibject4 were to 
huve, and the expense of each dreaH. Ha settled how many diaheft 
miaht he had for dinner a&d nuppor — one lilab of soup and two 
diffheH of meat beiug allinred for dinner at balf-paal eleven, and for 
supper between four and five in the aHiemooDi vad when the ttjieu 



QCBS of the bw w eyadtii bj pmtjpg Bever^l kluiifl of mtai; iolLi 

I one diab, be msd^ 3 ap^lal Uw IbrbiddiDg \l. 1'be cuaiomB of ihe 

' (irae u r^nrded mealn w^^e r.eruimly lingulAr^ il bemg deemed 4 

' nuirfc of KrGat rudenen if a gcnlianian did aot oat olf the pLbl« of 

die \adj who sat uext hba bt table. 

Tlie fureiun ambllLUD of the new kia^ Hhtjwed ilaelf in his 
conduct towur'tfi Kn^Urid Htid Fhuidtru, Eilwitrd I. hnd been 
h» friend id the wur with AragoD, but no soccer vua be engnged 
Lb. in ft var *vith SootUmd in Vl^i'^ thitQ hhilip, ufizioun lo pu&Mets 
bimself of the duchj of Aqiiilainc, toot ftdvantage of a i^iiurrtl 
between Bome Eagli^b and NorDiaci saiiora in iJ^t- port of Bay- 
onrw 10 bring complatniA against lildwarJH which Jiaidly r^ulted 
in a v&r. A Not-miia uiilor bat] b^n killed !□ a dcuffl^ with 
English suIcfb; m rcvcn^? thi? Nottuiliis wized ifko caplnia of 
the ED^Jiab vtaael, and hun^ him at the mast-bt^d with s, dog 
tied to hifi feet. Upon tbis the Eagliah sailui'^ took the camu in(c 
their oira bfln<f«^ dpstroyed th? Fi^nch Heet, and a^b^d Uochelle- 
Beidg ■ummoned by the JTreixtb to ansm*f fur aacb outrageH, tbey 
plomjod thut th«y wore onJy anewcrablo to their awn ecivtirci^. 
Philip tben inlerpoard, and CJted Edwjird, as duke of Aqultalne, lo 
appear heftire him. Edwfird sent hid hroiher as hia tf^preaeatativei 
and Philip iTiai<ited thnt GiiienrL^ BboukI he given up 10 binif ns n 
lo&tter ot^ fanrjf till tho difR'rcnuce should be more dctSaiUly Bottlt-dn 
Once in pooscaeion, he dGclarud £ilwurd contumauoua Wcauno he bad 
not ftppe^rcd in France hiuj^lf, find picnounced dial all bin Ctf^ in 
Fnnce w^re forfeited. 

H^ntundJy indignant at this grota deception, Edward piepnred for 
▼V, and BooD found alhea willing to Etipport hiin— Adolf cJ Nnsaau, 
kiag of the Bomane, the dukee of BritEAiiy an<t BrabanCf aud — -the 
[OOBt dnudly dj' Philip's tnemie:* — Guv dt DnrnpieiTe, ci-mut of 
FbmderH. Guy wuh nut popular aEnnngsi hia owit Hubjer,t^ whom be 
greatly oppressed. Tliey wera inclined to aide with FranoiJ, Guy 
iorjigbt on tillianoc with Eogiandf mid bod aoma Cimv prdrioiuJy pm- 
poBcd lo gi^c bis daughter Philippa in Juorruigc to Bdwurd^^ eldc^ 
ma,- Pbiiip, determined to prever^t this nmmaget iuTited the wbola 
faniilj to PEiri« under the prelenre that h^ wished to eee nnri toiL- 
PTWutate PhilippM, who wiw hiw ptiddaiighttT, and on their atrivfll 
imphonn^d tho count Euid bin daughter in Iho Louvro. (iuy was 
TOT b time set frec» but the youtu? Philippa wna dttained, and at 
Icttgdi Jii^d ill Franiv. This treacbt^ry bikd tuken pLioo about two 
yean, ^l^■f1l^e Phdip and Edward optnly qiwrrelied. 
^ TTie war began in 1:!94 in Gascony, wJlhout any very dec iaive 
sdranlgo on either fiidu. Lt waa rather a war ofmuney thnu oiikjmH, 
EdwarS porchdMd bi» iAYvv&y and bd did Philip, The French king 
eqieilecl the Jawa iium Ilia domioiona uadeeifcd their goods, altered 


Philip IF. 

tha current coin nf th^ km^oTD, »d as lo mnlcd hiniEelf nominalTy 
richer, und at last inMitutcd Ji laxcullod ihe ' m^iliritc/ ivhiuh wjisiuTievl 
Qriguially on tlie uicrchEUit.", but nfierwarda i-xtemled to all cljisse?, 
iiidiulirig ihe c^prgy. Tl nntumilcHl in a ticiiifth pjirt of the'tr whole 
income, Thfr Ui-x^tif>n itf the cl'^rgy wna »t thet Liin^ tlie hoiitc^q af 
coQsiant diApuic in ChriHf^Diinm hatwe?n the civil am) ucci^MiaAlical 
povf^rs. Pojtc Bonifflci! VIII., a nmn orviolenl piisbiona nnd delor- 
mineJ wilJ^ now inoai^d an tdk*^ by whitH tliei-kray were fwrbjdden 
lo make any pccUQLary L-ontrJbTJlIoiiA to rhe French t;in^ nitJiouL ihe 
papal perraiHHion. PhiHp r^tiilinl^ by proldbiting liia qubjpcts iVom 
aonding oiit of itie kingdom po!d^ silrfcr, or trfaiiuru of any kind ; and 
thus flic Pope iVTifl dt:p rived of tho Jjirgc anmial inc'imQ which he 
Jeriied Irom the French tlergjn Buniftice explaiittd and aoficned 
hifl edict, nnd long disnii»dons followed- Ono unfortonuTe conw- 
qiience of iliis quarr*^! wm thst JT r^ndertid thflPttpe uu nrfcflocwpijible 
mcdiiitor between Fmnce nod Englund, He made ciTbrtu for ficuc?, 
but ihey were nt firat rtjcc^cd- When iit Uupth be was »sked (o 
arbitmte h wna esjifesflly in his privale capacity, Dot as the head nf 
tha church- Bonifruie dccid«l tliut eucb mnmirch should retain bis 
poRseHaioiift and re*tora the aliipa and niL-rchjindiae which lutd b«D 
Bcized during tlie war. At Ihc aarne tinio he proposed a double mur- 
Hoge. Edward of Eng[and woa to inkc the prinueaa Margui^rlte, 
Philip's ek!«*t HJHler; and the joiing princ*! of Widea was to be 
atEanc^d to Philip'e little dnii^hT4?r rsahblle, tbtm tdic yearn of Ago, 
The count of Ftanders was lett to Uia faie, not being incbided in the 
A.ih treaty. Thin pracc was Higncd in June 12'JU. Edward viao cnntvnr 
""* with it, but Philip waa extremely indrgn^'it at the wordt* in which 
it MOH couched^ and which u^iuiijcd, mintmry tu ihe cundiiinnri manW 
b&forf!hfind, ihut the decision of Boiiilhtie was givea becauofi he ynii 
Pope, nnd hdd a ri^lit to commnnd. 

Bonifncc w^s now jdmost nt the height of his Amhitiaii- He 

A.D. njijj;lit be raid lo l>e so cniircty wlien, in the yew 1300, be pro- 

cliiiTiifd a jubiltp for rhn.stendom, with rcmiHEion of Kins far nil 

ihoflc whfi flhfndd repnir to Home wnd in the oonrM of thirty <iajB 

vieil. the chitrchcs of tho holy npoEtlefl. 

At this annoimccmcnt all Kurope nns in a fren*y of rcligicme 
aeiJ. Thronghout the year the crowds ^hich thnmged Rome were 
prodigiouH^ neither hniifWH nor chiin:hen verp ^uUieipnt to receive 
them. They encamped in the itre&Cs anrj Hquaree 4 they aoupht fiheltcr 
under open roofa and tt'oFs, and at J^^n^h under the open oky. The 
pnpal authoHlii^a htvi tAken wine precautious againat CuiuinGt and 
br«ad, m«iC, and wine were Ki(d at moderate prices. The ofTering^ 
made hy iJie pi[grimflTo the Pope were ennrmouft. li te reported 
by an eje-witne?* thnt his prie^-rt tilood with rakea in llielr hunde 
sweeping from the niters the uncounted gold and nil^'orH Id reciura 

erAJTTA nr FLA^rDEBs-^DGnBi^a or papal aull. 1S£ 

&T Ukw gifU the Pope oQbr^ pu-doji And cteiaal happmeu to tb« 

whole uf Glirisieadorn, wiLh cJie txc^tipiiOD iiif hu persoEJil i^QGOiira, 
the ColonnAA, a liftman &mily who had &lwajft oppowd him; 
Frederick, king of Aragoa; Euid the p<K>pIe of S^ily. LMe 
could BoairocQ have thoaghl, as he xXiCa saw the CLrialiaii world at 
hiM feet, th*t but a lew y<aui would pqae before he ^oajd be crushed 
hy the irtm hand of Philip of Ffunw, di-gradeii in ibti ejea of his 
own p«o|]le, Hod die h miflerable denih of rago and hopelcds ktnging 
for rwenge. 

In the: yoar of the Jubilee PZtiltp's attention vrop fulJj cngrofAcd 
elatTwhere, lie wiis pnrauiog Lin prcjecba igulout thtj tiiiforLunatt! Guj 
of Fkndera, who, by the late treniy, had l»een lull entirely tti hi* 
mercy. A French army poured inUi Flnndflrs, atid the count fihut 
himoelf up m Gheot. Hie poaitioa was hopaioa^ and, aotiug aecord- 
ing to the ndTice of Ch&rJe» f^ Valoi^i who giive him the fuJcat 
■HUiwicrai of FhiiJp^H decnencj^, 1>q yit^Idtsd Liin^eJf pri^ioiicr. Two 
of hu eonn &nd hih prindpnl horons followed hifl example, mil PhilJp, 
with his chuaeterictic ineaDneflc, imprisoned them all iu Btrong fur- 
tioaMB, and doclared FUndon foHeitvd 1o tho urciwu ui FmncG. Later 
in tbo JCA^T attended by a bntliant court, be made a pn'^rregB through 
the chief IDWDA of che provinef. Hk wjfi; JeADae jiccompjmied him, 
tad ihe Fl^niingA, rejoiced in bemg rid of iheir unpopular lord^ we\- 
QoneiS iljtna with foalivitiea in which the wealth of Flandera vtus 
iBTiJihly di^'IiLjed. 

' I thought I nu the only queen here, but I find mywif aur- 
raimded by queena," raid the envimiH Jeanne of >a¥arre, as, on the 
tieouioo of an entertaintn^ut ut Bruges, fihe vtood in the niidnt of n 
radknt circle of lemala nobility. U waa not, perhaps, a wiee display, 
O^iuideriu^ with whom the FiemingB had to deal. 

Philip hitd o<JW freah subje<^ta tu plundtrr^ and tire Fiemiaga eoon 
found ihat they had voluntarily placed themielve* tender an inaiip- 
pDrOible lyratiDy- They bore ihv burden without any open dt^tnoii- 
^^^mtiota of ili-will till iht month of March 130'i- Then, suddtoly 
in the d«ad of nLjcht, the tocniu sounded forth in all quarters of ihe 
dljorBrugea^oudf undi-T the g^Eudaju:^ uf ihe Ayndiii of lIih wtiuverr^, 
the «xatpenLl£il peopla rofle .igaiiiBt thti Fn^nch who were living 
MiumgiiE them, and Di^tftacred tio Eeaa than throe thouaat^d. 

The iil-iceling bctweca Philip and Pope BonifjLCc had by Lhi& 
trme brekcn out in an oj^vii rupture. About tlie time that the FCe- 
miugB Ht Brugte ro&e in insiirrcciiou Philip was itailfyiDg his iiLdig- 
nMi«n againal Boniface by tlirowiog the Pope's legate, Rcmanl de 
Suapct, biahop of Pumiers, into priF4ont and oauBing to he publicly 
biont at Paris a bull by which tho Pope had eaiDmoned the biahops 
iod snperiur elergy of Frtmce \ii meet hijii at Roait and deliberjte on 
DmmTeg fbr the reform oi' the Rate. The aBsenibly of the States- 







Phliif iV. 

Gencml waatheri conreacd \o deliberate on tlie oourin Ui bo pursued 
!□ rerereuce to Ihin bulE. 

Tbe Sra[*fi-Genprfil was compo*«d of ibri^H liodittfi — ihe clergj» 
vho look tlie precedency; the DOblts; and the dopiitiM of the 
commoTis, or ' tiera dtat/ It waa entirt'ly distinct from the ^ pari*- 
meuta ' which hitd alvaya cxisltd in Fraace- The Stntee-Generftl 
\DM,y be a>riijuLred lo cIil' Enifliali parlioiut^nl. The IVencli pu- 
Immentfl were renlly <!OiirtH whicb dei^Jdwl qucBtionH of law^ Thwi? 
vera purJiameiiU fur Iho proTiDceBJia wtU as in Purii^, Tlu^ parlinm^nt 
ofParia waa, howevcii Iha mom important body ; the nobJeBbelgnged 
to it by right, but the buHiaene wns chiefly tranflactcd by lawyCTH 
(ir preaidenU, and wua tarried on in difltrisut cbambera or court*. 
From che ypry earliest days it hajl beeo rhe pustom for the kiogft 
decreep, whiob were jicciipted by ihe ptopJe aa laws, to be rcgiirtMcd 
by tho parliameDt of Paris; and in courao of tioic it wus asaarled 
that no decree poHKaaed the fori;© of law wbile it remained ucrcgiB- 
lered. This asacrtioUt vrhen onoe admitted, gave the iiarlitkineut ut' 
Parii! the jiowar of Htopping any obTioiioiw decree', a power which, 
in aft«r years, it did not fad to eicerdfle. Tb« ooly mxule by whidi 
the hmg could coinpoL ibe parliameDl to obedicnoa wau by prncetd- 
ing in peraoo to the pbice where the loeeLiag W£a held, and iauittui^ 
ou the rt^ibtraiii>u of hia decree* it being held that bi^ iniierfereitce 
Bjifipifuded the functicms of the inferinr maglitmt^^ Oa tbefia ocra- 
H^oDtL thti kiug^B seal wus on a couch under a canopy, and tbus arora 
the name given to ibia roynl visit, aa the aoveroign Wfta said to hold 
a ' Lit de juF^tlce ' (bed of juDtice). 

The States- General HuuiiuuiieJ by Philjp met in April ]30£: 
tha l^^ry Rob^n of Artoia tbpn declared that tbe tiobka oE 
fmnce would never endurfl the UBurpatioa of tbo Pupe, The 
deiiant^e waa r<^peated by tho whole aaecmbly, and c moDifeato 
coatAJDing a Bttm remonatrance waa drawn up ^ind tient to Itomc- 
But Philippe le Bel, vrhiliiL dinputing w!tb tK{i Pope* was by no 
mentis forgetful of hia inaurg^nt Hiibjpcc.R in Flanders, War whb re- 
solved upon, and Robert oi Artoia lei llifl unny into Flanders, The 
Flemings bravely awaited (he approach of tho cuomj. On the 1 1th of 
July, 1B0£, 20,000 men placed themselv as under ibe walla of Comimi, 
protected in front by a canal wbicli waa concealed fioni ihe view uf 
the admmcing enemy. The French niahed on. The horaemen, 
charging at full gallop, plutigi?d into tiki? canal ; the iolantry bclJnd 
fell into diacrderiooc the FUmin,brA» croaaJDg the canal, aesulcd them 
on both aides and gLtintd a cuiupletc victory with a. lor^ lo the Fiea<J] 
^^K of about T|lXX) men, RulierL uf ArtuU wa? nmongt^c; tlie Ffhdn, with 
^^f nuLny otber noblea and knigfita- — ^ uianv, indeed. [J>3t n buahel of 
W their gilt ppure woa picked up on tbo field of butilo. 

I The defeatof Courtrai had but little effect on the pride of Pbilip- 

I HecaUed for fresh levits Gruni bin BubjecU, couiptlled tJie ooblei to 

•end their pluteta be melted down fiiT ihe public? lue^ and paid tln^m 
for It in debftsed coin, nad then, Jiuving f^s^ureJ a truca far jl >fnr« 
tnnifid hid attt^ntion lo lioinE and Pope RoaiisKO. 

Tbc Pope luul excoinmunicalott liiin. iL was rhe mii^unU piiisi^- 
Ihe itelianc^e of tlit Sin l^a- Gene ml. Phijip, in itveng*, 
'Ui act of indictment to U> drawn up a^KLnat bcnilac?, occurs- 
io^ him of At^aDdaloiiB crimes^ and demaniliiig ihat ho ohould be 
juiced by a coauoiJ of the cburch« ajid ih« Fii|>e dtlit-d the iofiult by 
B public notice LhaL on Ihe 8lL of S«pLeiuber fultuuirig u bull ^iiutd 
be publiflhed dffiOr^TJg Philip IV., king ar France, frorn hia throne. 
It would appear that Philip ^ve qd ucLUal order lor the outrage 
-which folloved thin ta^Ttonncement, but hia vrJE^lica wcri? well known, 
aod WilUani de Nogaiet, a proleaaor of civil Uw. but a. uwn of fierce, 
djmng charatier. and ScJarra Coloona, the jonnger Ron of the Roman 
iimily whom tlie Pope hud (cruelly periec^iited, for cheir oppoailioD 
to his Echeme^ made a stxrot and rkpid joumey into Italy, 

The Pope had retired, oa usual, during the heat oC BUiDtner to 
AQP^i. hia native Lown. There suoimoijiiij^ n zKmnlsloiy^ he purged 
himself by iiatb of iJie chnt-^t of hereby, vvbidi wa4 cue uf (he ai^u- 
QtionB bruught o^inttt hint by llie kJog^ of FraifOe, and then ordered 
ihat the bull of PhiUp'd excomniuiLioatLon should, on the Hchcf Sep- 
lanber, be publifhed in the catbedrai of Anapii, 

On ibe iLh of Sf^pteiuhbr the i^uiet fttreeta of the liLile town were 

ilntQFhed by ihe rmmpbng of hi>rt>ts, and loud cries of * Deaih to 

Pope Boniface ! Long live the king of France ] ' Sci&rrs ColonnO* 

■t ihe head of 301) horecmoTir was riding through ihe town, the banner 

oTFtiUJce diiplajtd before bini. The hui^htrti aAsembled, but their 

lapiaui wda ibe ileudly enemy of Bonlfjuje, and a mob under bh 

IQidiDce joined the body of FrDntlimeu. The houapA of the cardinals 

tlua la AtLD^-nJT and of \lw I 'op^'fl nephew, the marquLS Gaetani, were 

V«ivd and mnaockcdi The rsaidonce of tiiu Poj^a vaa idso attacked, 

but BoniCnce whb able to make soine reu^uince, aJtd implored of the 

itidef^a a^iHK for eight hours. At the expirutiou of the dme the 

ccDSjiirators sent 10 demand hi^ ahdicndon iind the restoration of 

^ ColoEirm fdiniiy, adding that he muHt leave hid body nt the 

iupoanl of Sciarm. 

The Pojie j-reaned, but refused the terms, and again the anaailantB 
toiaiderrd at the gati'A uf his palace^ end r*t fire to thf* uhurdi in 
brat af it. The nmrqnip GaeLani, who whb Av;th liim at the lime., 
uott abandoned him, and entered into a nii^otiiition tor Ilia ovn 
Mf«ty, and Bouilace waa left alonci. Thia chmojz of mialbrtLine 
C4tfBp]et«]j uvercame hJm. lie woa uighLy-iux years of age, too old 
to contend vrith KUth uicuiien^ uiid he burst inLo teure. But recover- 
ing hinuelf, be put on th^ iirole of ^t. Peter, U«ik the teyn of St. 
^Mcr in ona hand and the CrosA in the other, and av^una bimBelf on 
the papal ihroDe, awaited the approach of hit foe& Nognret and 

Sciarro, nith their Bfi\':igi? BoliUry. forced nn eniTsnce. IWogari'l 
threatened Co dni^ him boiore l^o council of Lyona. Both r&juired 
hiUL W Q.bdJcute, Thej set him on a >ll'Ioui- home with hit face lo 
the tail, anil hi ted hi'm through diu Town lo ihr jifnce of hiH imyiriuiD- 
ment. Hie pslu^e was lelt to be ^dundered. The treuaur^B accu- 
tanlated ia it were UikcQ by i'oJtrutiae Etildk-ryf itai nothing vu 
J«ft but the bare walta^ 

For two djiya ihtt unhappy Boniface was & prisoner, TJjcti the 
penplu of Anflgni mse a^inst thi? ftoldl^rs nnci drove them from U)(^ 
town. Tho Pope whh rtBaued nnd led onl into the fltreel. His 
Spirit waButteriy aubducd, nnd He wept !ihe a cidld. ' Good people/ 
be ^idi * not a Tuorael of brend have I ^len Einre my cApcure, I 
oiu aim (ifet dead wkh bmiger Ifauy kjnd wuniou will give me a 
pi^oe of trend andn aVip of winp — if pbe hnano wirip, n liillt' wnter — I 
will ubBolre her, nod anyoDd who will ^ve tnfl tbeir aimSj from ilII 
tbeir sins.' The rabble buret intj a cry — * Long life to thi? Popt I " 
bud ^arryirjg him back to biA dtranlute pdacf, o'owdt;d itJuud him 
with proTisions. 

The people of Eoine, indignaot at the nttaok on the Siiprpmo POQ- 
tdfi Boat a body df 400 hor^niou to conduct him back to tbe dty. 
but the overw«eDiiigprideof Bouifacehadmjideth^chiefcHrdJmilH hid 
foes ; they treiited hira will] indolence, and lielbnndhimBeli'ii priMiner 
Gv^n in hiq own palace- F*nr nncT morrififiation crushed hra bi^ili])' 
as wdJ AH hiemi^nU] atrengthT and about a month after his rstitrn to 

^^ Home he died, on the lllhof October, 1303. 

Philip of Fnuice was reluued from hit deadlii^st eneuiy, but his 
rCTen^i* wait Dot aatii^ed. Ha di^maadeJ of tht- new Pope, Benedict 
Xr, tbnttl^e trial fif Bnnifane befr^ra Ji gpneml poiincU for heretiy nnd 
other orimoti Eihould ^ill proceed- HGiLnilict'e reply wnu the cxoom- 
tnunication of tha pcrsoua who bad bten iusTriTmcnlal in the outrage 
upon the Ihle Pope. The bull nfcmed rti indiide the king of France. 

*■'" It WB8 iflflucd on the 7th of June. 1304, nnd rni the 27ih of Jtily 
B*"iipdict was dcfid- He waa at Perujia, nnd whilst at dinner a 
young girl, veiUrd nnd in the droaw of a novice of the convent of Si 
Fetronil];!^ offered bim in a eilvtr busin a present of fresh figa, Mn'» 
an bbe said, txvm t]ie ithbee^ The Pope ale tlieni LN^erly* and death 
followed. At the time it wn*i firmly believed he waa poiBoned, 
but bifl illneea v.'aa mors probably itltributHble to nutural caua«i. 

PhiJip'a one object now wafi 'o eecure the ckfltion of a Popo 
who dhould be entirely uubject to bim. The peraon aelecl^ in his 
own mind was Bertriijd de Gotb, bishop of RordeHnx, .Summoning 
him to a secret intervi.iw in a forrat n^-ar PnriR, tbo king uudfrtoot 
to raiBB him to the pipnl dipuity upon eix eonditlons: ), that be 
»hauld revoke all eccledaaticiJ cent^ures pa-eed upon the king and 
bis lauuEdiate friends ; S, tbat he ahould grant Philip for tive jear* 

FEACE iriTB rLir7I>BRa— CLCMENI V. KKlOfirS r£UFLAlU. 139 

» twith <if tho wbcle revenue of t>je churcL : 3, that haBhoulJ publicly 
Bondanui ihe m^ittorv cf Pope Boniface; -1, thai be oliotil'l restors 
Ibc CoToDrm &milj to all thtir hnnotira; 5, that he shoulil mine to 
the dignity of cardinal several frieuda of Philip, who wi>re nameiJ. 
The axth condition vas ]efi imtold, bnc PhiJip exncied an cadi cf 
fh« arcbbifthop That it should bu ri]ltill<.-d wh^n demaodad- 

Pbilip'a dcAff'Iio de^igiia r^eocned flow likctjtobo BUcceaeful' Tha 
troce iritJi Fluiderr^ had ei.ptTtd abont nine irLttQtlie after tJis deaLh 
of Boni&ce, and Philip had iJien reuewi^d the war vritb su(M;efi^. 
The ionnr^i-nB were dofiiafai near Lille. But the FIcmifih citizens 
broocht a It&^ army tntr? lb? field ool)' three weeka afltrvrard^ 
Ikad Philip, fleeing that the coQleat waa likdy 13 be Ic-ng, fiLowed 
biniHilf willing to conclude pi-ace. The Flemings a^e«d to pay the 
mpenae} of ibe war, and, oa a fj^iuptfary guaranu-i!^ to jieJiI »>[iie of 
AeiT towns nnd a portion of llipir iGiritoiy; whib^t Philip engaged 
to r«8p«ct rho ancient priniegca oE FlnadorA, and to rcroogni^ us 
toiAOt the eld^t H>n of Guy de Dampltrrr;, the counL bimHcdf haTiiiL: 
died the pn^TioqA year. 

ThUtr«)iiy wa» »igued cm the 5Lh ofdrme, 1305, luid on that vimv 
d»y Bertmnd de Goth, arcbbiiihop ni" Bordeaux, wm rfti^d m the 
papal dignity and lock the naniG of Ckmcut V. Tbo coronation ol 
rb^ new P<'pe nurkcd an cpocb Jn the fapal hiatory. It took pEucc 
atLjuQ^, ill tE^edoiuiuion^orCihe Fre[ich kirif^- CitTuium r^ide In siatf 
from the church tu the [inliop jirrparvd fr^r him, and ihe king of 
Fntnc? and his brothers hold hi^ bridle; but this dfiforeui?G aa ihi^ 
]wil of Philip -waa a mere outwnrri ahow, Arignon, not ilomt, 
vu from theticeforth lo be the papal reBid«(ice> It belonged to the 
?ojiea, but tia close vicinity to Pnince vroLild enable Philip lo 
cTiuipp] mbTnin'^ion to his vilh 

The timt! bad now Arrived wh^n itwaeaecesEtary toinast upon the 

Eimmi^t of the flislh condition made at tho eli?ction of Clement. 

■k« in Flundcni had exf lau^ttd tlif; trrunury. but by the ll^pp^es^ion 

pWm order i>fihF» Knights Ttniplare and diL'iicizure (if their properly 

ii cauld ba replpninhed ; and thia, it is supposed, was rks e^crei 


The order of the Templars derived its origin from a tand of nine 
freacb koigbta who, in the yeftt UIQ, Hi*d devoted themseivee, 
*iJi di* special Banpiion nf St Bernard, to the protection (if the pil- 
griini ID the Holy Land ; but it bud by this timv hecome a^ powerful 
*^Ut fi^nn in almost every kingdom of the weat a kind of separate 
'Gpnhlic. ifldcp<!nJenl niike of Ptp[»e or king. It w.iaa half-mnnaatic, 
D^r-iuililuy comniuniiv- Its niembara were Towed to uljedience, 
chirtity. and perroml poverty; bm thp fl.OiK) knlghta who in th*' 
'siju nf Philippe le Bel belonged tu it wt^rc roady to embiirk on any 
fi>r the agpraadJBemenT; and enrichmciLl; ci their oriier. For 


PHllj} IV. 

the tioinmuDitj- might b<^^'unltlij .Chough not its individual memberi; 
and CL'^ lliG cru-nidiiig epirit diminiabed tho ai'tviccd Qf tlic Kdi^U 
TeiiipWa went buijght by ihorsu who were unwiiling re aerre in the 
lioly Wfin* fnjr**jiat[y. PriiKP* nnd nohleii offered Umlf* nnJ treii- 
sure* in retiim for fheir flupjwrt ; find a king of Ar*gon even lefl his 
kiugJom to ^hcm aa >l Ipgacy, but htH poople refund to cmtj out bJi 
wiahcH. To reniftin humble under audi circiimfltancofl wna difficiili, flcd 
tlie haughty Ep!nt of iht; TL-uipliiia hiid luug bctn ou fullv kuown 
th'it Ric-hurd C(tur dt Linn la ri^porled u> havu pjiid cm hih JtriLh- 
bed, ' 1 1pav4» my avarice to tbe nionkK of Cii^uuE, mj luiury lo Lh« 
Grey monks, and my pride lo tho TompJ&rs.* 

And ivtrJk pride nod richea cauic luiiiry and immoraJity, Pulilic 
auflpicluu nns exdU^- lU^H>rt ^d dmt tht; Ti.iJiplurB alhcd thi^u- 
ftelve* WTth Thhe iQlideJs aad practised the mo^^t d^hjining vicex, Thr 
ac^ti«atiou9, no dciabt grontly ^Xflg-g^n^roTT wert ea^^rly «i.'izeJ upon 
by Philippo iv tleU He waa tlie dtadly tneuiy of the Tempkre, for 
pereoncl ruiBoiiB. Thf y had ri^rused to admit him to their <irdai| and 
tlioy hfld lent him luuney whi(:h he: luid uciLbcr bhe i^ii] nor the 
powtr to repay, for on the ocf^sion of the marringp of hia daughrer 
Laabelle with prin^i^ Edward oi England they find ndviuced ih^ 
priiiceaa'a dowry, iita pecunhiry diatrcBe waa cstriHuc- Tbe Jew> 
liad becu already dt^jioiled, doIv ihe Templard reiunioed to hs ptub- 
dered. WirJi th(^ dsi^tatiuicp of ih& Popu t[ie obj»^t might W ac* 

it ^48 Boon alter hia a^ceiuioa that CUmeat V. mimmoned Uie 
gro-nd msdten! of bi^th cho miiilary orders to Europe, i>u preien«« 
of coUHultiug with them v\i tu^tera aflriira; but «bo[]ii^r this 
luTiLiLiDn w:ta the r^uit of a litcTuL imderaritiidiag with Pliilip is liul 

The bead of tbo JJo^piULllors oxcused hhuscif. IJi^ Koinmmutf 
hod hecb csLablidhcd in Ifhodca oAcr the mid of the cruaadi?!}, «id Ine 
ialanJ vritii aoiv b«gie!^ed by the iuHdd, Jni^quea du Molayt ihr 
gnind mafltcr of the T'TnpUrB, obeyed the snturanrLB. He aune ifl 
fltjkt« with n lAr^ r£tiau&. Aa be pxai^d through tlie tnaio aTrw^tefif 
PoriH tbc popuJHH! marvelled nL the long tmiji of sumptcr mult* 
making their way to tlie fortn^u uf the Templet 

Unauapioioua of evil, Du Molay. afwr liduj^ tourteoualy wwlt'Odwl 
hy Philip, went to Pcititrs to mett the Pope; but on ht« reiurr. tn 
Puriri the Btorm burst, Pbilip, on the attestatioji of na npofltaU 
Teifip^ur, produced Ein uiraj ofrovolting- nccusattona again Ql the oril^ip 
whicti viaa publiabed ihroughiFUt Cljriftendom, Btilbfe any eX' 
amijiJiiiiji) uould 1»e iiuide, evirry Teiriplur in Fdn%indudin^thogriUiil 
nub^ttr, who only the day bi'fore hnd held the pall at th» fDueni] of 
the kiiig^a nUttr, was arreetiid jtud thrown inlo a duu^oc- The 
iulluwiiig di^y im enquiry w^ instituted Wbro th(> caaotj* of Notn 



Dune and the miBteri of tJie UnivorPttr of Piiri". During it*j C'n- 
bnunncc HO |iTi5on(;j-a werr: m fuimtijly cxiunined, S- me vi-ere 
tcQiptcd to itcknoviplsdj^ the criiuiTS alleged liy the lj^:iti of renurj ; 
[itl»er* wfire driven to rniifewifin hy iln- tJiliipiioTi nf hrTrrilile tnr- 
tOTG^ SloT^T, tod QOC witiiont iruHiy rE>traet'ition*, n ftuffipient numtur 
pf ooofeiflion* were pr^ue^'i U* ffTia u pita for the dcMrnciirm of 
Ihc ordor. D" Molaj was moonpflt those wko lionfca^-d lo i*ome of 
lh« chsr^ea^ Huw he wnA tltLJa ^tuughl upon — by whit tlireaU i^r 
bodilj a^ny — wjia imvor known. buL ev^D hie example [lid not in- 
flufmi^ many nf ihi? nnbl^ mi-'mbert r>f ihe orrlor^ mid nne bnve old 
kaiiflit in iho R^uFij deelortx] tbat ^ if Ihe grand muflWr hod ulkred 
fDch tbio^ tc liQii Jicd iQ his threat.' 

A amilar i^-BleTii of injustice vraa carried ru in oiLfcr poitu of 
Pr&D»^ and at PhiUji's iLetigatiou vna ezumded throughout Chri^- 

The part tnken by the Pope ra iheBO ini-|niioiiB procMdicpa we* 
lliAt of a weak &nd i^elJiali mbn, not utterly devoid of conEcieocEr, jmd 
fclJj aliTB lo the dignity of his position. He remoTiHtmled at first 
■gainpt Philips insnietii inrfl-ninn of his nwn nglitfl, iiiid infliftpd thai 
ttie Templar!! could be judged by no cme birt bimaelr He even ^nt 
Vfates to denuLnd ihe Harrcndcr of the treasure of the order, whicb 
tht kiug of France had J^eiztd ; but a con ft;r(-tice ^ith Philip broiL^it 
him to a more i^ubmiii^rG ptjtte uf mind, und he announced to Clbrli^' 
iladdm thaC n general cnancil vati ^nmmoni^d for Of^tcbpr IvtLO, 
bofare vhich tbe accused should He brought to trial, la Ihc mean- 
time a commiaaioD Yiaa to c?iamino and report itpau tbc (^vidt^nce and 
Iftj it before die council. Ft^r arv^ial muntha the t^jnuiLipeiuu mi^ 
Ki> Ibh than 516 TeiiipliiTH ap^ired before ir, uiid hU d4!4;laivd die 
AcenraiioD^ to be h]9e. tin Mohiy T^tmeted bin previoiiB confeMi&n, 
, K did Q1A1I7 mcro; oikd the kingf in aia^m, caused the orchbisbop of 

IBfoa lo call a provincial council and condemn no ktm t)'na fiftyfcnr 
ttldicae ffhobiid thus ream imI to be burnt at the ttake. Dn Molaj 
inoMcd that Mn ronfewicin had bepn altered, and he voe kept for 
■ ftiTthiT esiunination. And now, bplhre th^ fjuestinn of tlia Templarn 
WH d&:iiicd, tbe Pope was cnllcil up<^n tj cnrry out another of rhe 
eooditiona to which he hnd bo aolemnJy pledged himaelt Philip Ln- 
W«d that at the i:aiuine council be dbould publicly contleom the 
menmry of Bomiat'e VIIJ. Clement piujioseil a private en<niirj 
pfivionftly at Avignon. Tbis wa* agreed tn, and nionstroua cbarge* 
■ere made ogaiiiflt ihe dead Pope, nnd evidence broJight forward lo 
'^rppuil llieni. Phiiip, however, fit last consented lo give up this 
proKcQlion of the memory of lis enemy, aaJ Clement in gratitude 
pDdoned all who bad ber?n coroerned in tlieoutraeesat Aiu^iL 

Tbti Templara were lesg fortunate ibao iha more open oflVnderq. 
fWhtn tbe council of Vienaa m^b im October 1311, It dvdar«il 



ikitr if- 

ibe order- diE«ii1vralil]i-cugLouL Europe. The tui^ciite litiid^ efltatc^ 
Iwlongiog to it were beatowtd iifoii tliP HoBpitaUers, whilat two-lhirde 
of tlio inovobJe properly were gUimed bj Philip for Iho oxpeneea 
atteJiJant upon tto pcrwcution. 

Bui the tragedy was ni;;t yet over. The prand master Du 
Molay ind thrtp other great dignitaries wtire Giill pining in iheir 
dungeons. So lotkg as th&y i'nvd tht^ order (rould not b« siid to be 
extinct. A commipaon wna nnnicd for thtir trial. They were foimd 
g^iltv and oondsmned to pi-rpetiiul JrapriflODmeDt. The four 
priaoiitra were brought out in chaiiis and j'l^iced oil a plaLJurm 
crecii'd hefori* the porch of Notre Djime. The f^ardiiml archbiEliop 
of Aibi yrn^ about to read ilie A«t)t«ncoT ^vfle]l tbr; grand ins^tor 
fldvBOCcd» and in a cnlrn, clpHr voice iJma apolfe ; * Before h«ivi:tt Ofld 
eartb, uu the vtige of diTAtli, where [he Ittu^t Ikla^buud bt-ara like an 
intcilci'uI>Te wtigbt upou tlm BlUiI, T protect thaL 'wa huve richlj 
deaiiTved death, not, becauflc^ of any Iteresy or sin of which onreelv^a 
or our order bavo boon guilty^ but beojiuao vy tare our lives ve 
yielded to the ficductive worilfl of the T'ope and the king, and bo by 
our coufwHions bruu^^ht min ou oitr bUuii^leHB brotbr^rbcxM]/ 

The judges wore confouoded, iW petiple full of nympaibv. The 
prisoueiB veie carried back to tbeir dungeon till further couqnI 
could b^ hold. 

But the king needed no coiiiiseK Witliout a dny^H d^lay die 
four kuighiH wi^rii coudeinued iui rfi1a|jsed hereti(» to bv bumi. alive. 
TwG ^nuik from the sentence^ ngaiu recanted, and pin^ away 
thoir iive:^ in prison; the third, with Du Molny, BMiod tinn. On tiiB 

* i>. SOtb of March, 1314, two pyrcM were raised on a htilv intaod hi litt 
Seine. Tlie wood wiwgteen or wet, it wunid burn slowly ; aud whilff 
the fire wan kindJing roTind the limba of the Bufft^rerft they would thui 
have time, like their friende, to recnnt. The itged, noble kniphta wvre 
led forth at the hour of vfigpem and tied each to the stake- The smokt 
rofte thickly, the firo crept alowly upwiirda, but in their morlaj Hf^aj 
tbo Templara continued to uvlt iIh? iurio;:ent'o of tliL-ir order. Philip 
aat by, a spectator and lintwiRrf apparently widiout reni*3rse; nnd fhffi 
from amidst llie fljimea the voico of Du Motay ia «iid to have Iwfi 
heard : ^ 1 coil on thee, Clement^ Popo of liuiue, and on lime, Philip, 
king of France ajid Navarre, Co iLp]j<inr» ihe ono within forty Jny* 
the other in Ivsa than a ymtr, before Uie Jud|^Leiit-Heat of God, V 
answer for the crimeA done upon me ond my brathr^ti/ 

The prophecy in roeationed by only one hifltoriaa, and for iW* 
reawQ it& credibility ha^ been doul:>led \ but oertam it ia that bolli 
the Pop*: and the king died within the limeH named. The litalth f^ 
Clement bad long been failing, aud he vmH about to viait BonleaaXr 
hoping to gain strength from lii>* nmive air, when on his joumuy he 
wau eaizod nith a ^lel illne^ and on the night oE the 2Ui[i of ApiU 



he rKpired, His ntlendjinta liiid out bin bodj, covGrcd oaly with & 
idng!^ ^ivec, unci thi'Q Isl^it. Tlis u-irehta tjiiming jirnnnd caii^hc the 
ditoudj And when h'\s r^unve, nf^r talcing poaaeSBion nf'hiAlre.a>nim. 
returned to bury ii, ihcy found only the nshes of thij Italf-conBun^ed 
rvnuiiaii, which yri-rti home I'^ack to CarpcDtTaa, v-]iGre ClciU43at tud 
IttteSy heli hit court, nuJ there eolejuiily iiiterred. 

Philip hvpi] hill a l^w moDths Ir^tiger, Ajs he waBhuntiiig in \he 
forcM orFania.inebleaiTj hit honw t^ll with him, and he ^vas sn much 
iTijiired thai, on the 4th of November, 1314^ he alwj died, A lata 
repcbtnnco s&caa to have touched liU h&art« for with his Ust breath 
be bcaoughl hia wn Louia to hav^ phj od thu peuple» moderate the 
taiPK. mainiaiji jnniicffi and min no Imse money. 

The rj-ipi of Philip IV". i*i mnrked by great oppre^ion and 
injtLiAioe, but Bcpmc of hia biws, csppcinJIv thooa ivbic^h forbiide privotit 
wnn aJtd trial by duel, wcrt; very benofiti-U to France, whiUt lUv 
ifisembly of ths Suttes-General Aod the uiaie cltiiir Jutinitiaa inodn 
by Philip of th« riinetionH cf the parliaments Tended ilIm to th& 
mflinlenaJice of gfwd goTommenl. Thibp waa the first French 
monarch who o^tubliehtd custom hniisoB tmd taxod iraportoii goode. 
In hb family rtUtiona Philip was very unfortuoate ; nereral of hi^ 
dinghterS'ia-lav wi Bcandaliai^d ihc pt^ple by thu'ir ill-uoaduct tbat 
the kiTtff was obliged to imprison thent closely ; und one of them, 
SLUrgucritQ of Germutiy, thu wift- of hia eJdcat fioii. Louid, wa^ 
■ttiugled ia ordfr (hat her huaband might marry ngaja. 



Loots X.J LE KUTIW (THE Dl30nDEM.T}. ]3M-Ut«. 

Ib« despotism of Philippe Ic Bel the church and the nobles were 
honbk'd and the king enriuhed. But Philip wha uu sooner laid !n 
III grare than the feudnl lord* rwlaimed thwr prmltge§. The 
ttticfl of Burgundy underfook to putkith their own nif>?rdaT«, and 
otJi*T borona detuandoi thu ro-ffliflbJi»thmeiit of the chidlonge and 
iHiJ by oocnbat, ;Liid exncted ta?(ci on their own accouot. The younff 
feig, Louia !e Huiia (iht Disorderly), th^m about tweniy-Rix yeari 
of iige, wa0 poverleiw; he could not even di?fflnii his minJHter 
Eii^eiTHnd de Marij^y, in uhotn his JuTh^r had confided, and who 
*iB therefore rc^rdi?i] by the Larcns as ihtnr greatest cnemy^ and 
hdnf accused of vaiii>us ofTeacen waa brrjught to trial for thom- 

Hia accuser waa Charles de Vabia, ihe brother of Philip^je le Bel. 
There vru no open cause to be alleged ftgainat Mvrign/, and n 


cauiio-an yroE he Uv E^nUirc thikt ni^Itlicr ^^'otd nor writing could l>c 
brougLl lu evjJeii^ti ii^u,iiiBt Liiiir But Cliiu'k-^ hod rt<4:uui'&e ttt the 
RCCUfiaLmu of sorc^r^', ugHiiij^t ^vbicli, iu Ehoiw ilsiyv^ tKiim i^uldrjefsiid 
thcmBelv». Au iToa^ of the king id ivajc had^ it wa* said, boen 
made by order of tJju wife or Histtr of Miuigny, vliioh waa to be 
mtltud in tha fire, uid u it dw^iodlcd away ho iroulj dviTLdJe the 
persiin whom it reprKsetited. Mari|^,v vroa i:ojitl«iiini-d and bung 
on n gibb«t» Rnd hin wife was rhrown ioto priKin. Ten yoara afler- 
vrards Charlfs de Valnia bocaine ci^ni'inced nf hia injuatioer and 
andeflvirnirod lo inakc' topuratior by reatoring Miirit^nj'i^ oatatee ti> 
Ills children nnd causing hJA body to he hoDonrabCj ictt^red. But 
ii VfBh liieu loo late tu retrieve tlie ill cocisequeHceii of cLea^i. The 
kingdom, so airong under the gpvpfnirient of M*ngDy, fell into AKtate 
of the moit deploTuble weaknei« nfmr hia deitth, A quarroL broke 
out with the Flemings, and Louia would fain hav*^ marohfMJ i&lo 
FUnderni but hia coffers were empTy, and in order to raiao uioney 
be Imd reouur^ (o tlif; Eerlo. He offered, oii tlie pHyment iif u cer- 
tain RUID, ro pet fri?i" idl who briongod t-i hi^ royal domainsij bul ilj^ 
9t3Tis preliirrGd (hi^ir monuy to their liberty, iLnd Louin viu tlieu 
Hcliiallj obliged to make a lav compelling them acc<rpt tlio proflercd 
ad^'AutAge, Tho iiubltv fulloweil the kiu^a exatnple and m-tde tlieir 
fiurfs purchssi; thrir frei^nm^ and ihiii^ a great, cbiirge was mloa loot 
ill the bofial coTidition of Ibe peosanLa, but ihcre vaa no prmoiple oT 
ri^bt in it. Tha Uborty granted was only a quoBlinn uf Rolfiab cal- 
djlatiou on tbc pari oi' the king and the baronB, and the real opprts- 
BiDH of tlta poor continued to be very much vhoE^ iL luid 

Loiiis jil 1ii«t oolUot^d An nrmy, nn<^ entering Flandera b«il4 

Cwirtmi, But the weather wnn bitd; ibc rouda wero nearly!] 

abk, and even in the cump it was not CAay to pawifrom tent to 

without sinking np lo (he kntea in mud. Provisions also ran bh( 

and LtmiB wat" at IflRt obligfJ to bum hi» bagg;ii^p to prevent its fiill- 

ing into the hands of the enatny, and llien mak** the best of hia vray 

iilfi ^"^ ^ FnriB, That was the chief ibraign avcat of llic ycJir !315 : 

ibe chief donieatic event waa the king's «cond nmrria^e with 

Cleujutit^ d^itLghter of the king of Uungaiy. Before mjoilier y&u 

had pBfaed Loilib wn^ dt-ad. He had beeti playing at t^^ooia-batl at 

t\ie asM]ii of YincflnnflB, and when ovsr-heal^ drank wine tnimod*- 

^ji^rately. The couflequence waa an illneea which provod fal*]* 

nw expired on tlie 5ib of June, 1316, in tke Iwentj-aeveoth year of 




i.lT. 13lfl-132?. 

1^ LoiuA X, the r«g«ncj of 'France tmturally fell io his 

Philip, in fxpt-ctaiioQ of tha child of Louia flii<i 

leuCQi who wad titJt bom uutil about four ruoutJiB aftz!rq^Hrd& 

iBlCTinediabe period y/aa ouc of diHciiBiuga na lo the auoccaBioa. 

If ihfl chiJd 1110x111] bt a girt, cnuld hIib inherit the ihrone? The 

ldwj«ra a«erle<J thaC, atcorJing to the law of the ^^Jian Kranka. 

vbich was tha acknowledged law of tho Frunth moniirchv, l<?rual«a 

were excloded (rom ibe aiicf^Beion. If thia were m Philip would 

be DOC nfKQt« but king. The dii&L^ult^ waa iki a^ rest lor the luorueni 

t, when, on till? I5[h of Nor^nib«r, l^lti, queen CJemen^^s gava birth 

to a bey, who received the n:iini- of John , hut he lived only s\x diiya, 

■nd Philip was then crowned vith all d^m Eolemnity, U ta right wk& 

diBpQted by the duk^ ^f Burgundy, who set up thi? civha of lh« 

priacm Jeanne of Nayatre, the dbiig]^L,<T ef Louis X. hy hi^ drsi 

wife ; but Philip inatjinlly aiimmnned tha Suiipji-tienera.1, and caused 

■ ibna^ dccrea lo >ie puhljalifd by that h»dy dticEarmg that femalea 

*tere incapaVfle of ifihctiling the crowa of Ffuqcl-j and the oppoaititm 

«U carried ao further. 

The acceiraon of Philip reetaed Jikeily to prove advantageous U' 
hiapeopl^T ff^r hiB di»rpositioTi waa Dcble, nnd it was hidaLiicerc aim to 
ffinder hia country protperous. Unhappily, however, ho was so much 
mibiicd with the pcraccutjog spirit of tlii^ i^fifi that, under the idea 
of duty, he leut himself to acifi which caused widcsprtad m'isary. 

The Pope contJ?mporary with Philip V. waa John XXII-, a mnn 
rf humble parentage, hia father ht'ing a cobbler, but whohadraiaed 
hnuelf by hia talenta irom f ho position of a p^or scholar puCro]tif>ed 
liya FHACJacAU fri^ to a di^riuty deemed ajpcrior to tJmt of kinga 
■od emperor?. UufurLiuiuIcly his j>rofouLd learning only Bcrred faj 
vliihit morf Htrongly tht- iguciraiice ol' iLk b^u iu whl[:h he llvbd, 
fiv be gave the eanction nf hia uurhority lo the cotatnoa belief with 
T^lpffd to aorcery, and even {■onaidtr^ hia ova life e^ieurcd by virtue 
cf» serpentine ring lent (0 him by Maj^ret, count<^fla of Foix. 
Cruel puaiflhrnents w^ra eaforc^d by him a^alnal, all who vrere COD- 
vmed in making the fhlal waxen imagts, or in any of llie many 
fern* of Borcery thea prnfeaHcd, such as abutting up evil spiritB in 
loQlcing'glMAefli cirdelB, and riuge. Tlieee proceodingH were aup- 
poncd by FbUip V. For il waa novr the Pops, not thfl king, who wu 



the iiiflater. The brjeft, pi pontifical latltra, which John XXIL, wlio, 
likf! his preJecfsifrr^t re:iJJeJ At Avigiioii, aildrebsed ki Hillip ^hoif 
hia **ense of the WPJiknrtis uT Llie king. He rebuki'H Philip fir hw 
hnbit of talking upon (Ji^hJeeCs of biuineBS or amtiacmcint ia uhun^h, 
oomplajns of the rntionnl [Tinr^q^cot for Sundayi iLiid oeiwcirklJj ilvtt 
it WW made k daj irif aLnvinp tht hvad and trimniiric the l>eurd, and 
on ttll pckintfi asiiiuieA An Aunhom/ ic »hid] the Liii^ a fiither would 
never for a. niotnpnt hnve Huhmitled, The Tnixiiirp or weokn^n, 
suspicion, nnd vimplicit)' in PhiKp'ff i-haracter b efpeciiilJy abown by 
the ordere iseuod for ihe managenient of hin prirttie and domtetic 
affaira, ThcmleH Inid down menlJOD ' that he will hear mass vretj 
day, hut Umtno (laeOito internipl hira in uhapc] Uy o3triiig petilionft, 
jind thai no fine flhJill npfiiik in liim in dinpei e^i^ppt hin corfeaaor; 
alao that no pewon of m«m birth Ehull enter hia dreReing-rocm, nor 
osiElh in mnkinR his bed, and thiU oi^^cinl care ahnii be Cnkeu that 
CO flheeia except his own almli bo put npon his l^ed,' The lut diret- 
doQ douhili^B iiad ralfirehce lo the conimon belitjf in puJeoning nad 
'lorcery, Wanknesa and RupenititiL>n, inde^, seem to have been the 
chief cause of the miseriG? of the reign of Philip V. He had no 
piovrcr CTCT hie Dobles, ond the pcaBantrj, oruehod by the esactJoiu 
of their (>i]^ii!riara, ^ere at length goaded to inodGeas, A aecroad 
in^urr^ilion cif the Paftuur^^ux broke out, led by a n'oegailt- monk; 
muT, nnrler the pretenoe of joinin[i; togot}if>r lo r<'covflr lliB aepulchre 
of Chrij^i, a larf^a body of peasanis net forth on awild journev totlie 
eft3t. At fir*t they wert unarmed and harcfooted, find mjirchin'r two 
and tivo |-ie^|£Bd fgr food at tht ;;nlf;s vi ]ibb--yB and cantlee ; but era 
the:/ r«irhpd Paria th4>y wcr<! :in urniy and liad brgnn 1:0 plunder. 
Swarming ihmiigh the street ■, ihey bimlopen the pj"!«"kna, wt frefl tha 
priaonCTF, and tben encanip^d cEob^ Co the city and offered hnttJe to 
thfl king'n troops. Being unopposed, ihcy set uff for the Ftrnjlh, and 
when they arrived in Irfngnedoc their iinnibern were 40,(J(HV The 
JewH, who )\ad bpon driven fmm France by Philippe ]e hf). but had 
retiiratd during the reipn of Loiiip Hut.iTV wfre th*iobj*<:la of their 
eB.po«iaJ cTimity. The Popt from lh« vallq cf AvigFion rni^rht hava 
beheld the« wild banda ravajfiup the country, Ilf jp^ued a bull of 
e:t communication Dgainr^l thpm zind aummoned lb»: Aenet^liol ofGai^ 
ciiHWiine to defpnd the >hcrf» of the Hhone. The fiercp rabbit won 
found both their advAiioe and rei.reAE out off. SulTorina frnoi want, 
^old, and fever, rhey were onui^y uttnt^kud, dofctated, and huagvritboqb 
mercy^ and the inaurrpction waa at an end. But cnitlty cogenden 
cruelty. The following year thu outtry agiunat the Jtws rtioe again, 
and to it vcae added a frenh horror. They hnd joined with the lepaa, 
it waa Bi^id, to puiwa the fipring>4 of water. Philip V. waa engaged 
wi'-h hi* parliament at Poitiera when the TaurniufJi apainst the 
wretched outcaam, victinia of a terrible diMnac, usBUmiAl a definrte 


form. CoDfessiooH ^ere decl&red to have be«n vnmg from them. 
A ooTupixacy had been formed to poison alt the foontunain France 
mud GerwAnj, The Jews had bribed them, eo hod the Moorish king 
oC Gnnnda. Such were the accuBadoDs. A decree was iRBued by 
Philip iot the arrefit of every leper, and of everyone suspected of 
infecdoD. Then fblloued a peremptory order to clear ihe laad of 
IepeT& And the laad vaa cleared ; for m many porta of France 
the iniBeraMe people were burned alive. The Jewa were treated 
with no lees cruelty; gr^at numbers were bumt^ whiUt their 
property was seized to earich the rojai treaimiy. 

That stme year Philip Y. was attacked by fever. The cause of the 
illntes could n<it be diacovered. He linjic^red five moatha, and then 
■^ died ott the Srd of Jonnaryt 1323. He waa only in the thirtieth year 
of hia age. 



l^iLiPFt LE LokGt when hedem&nded of the States- General of Franco 
to iwoe A decree excluding lenudea from the throne, hud one aon and 
fbur daugbtera. Only a iew months afterwards his sod died,, and 
now, at his own death^ his daughtera were the firal to suffer from the 
mJe which he had himself been io^trumenrid in establishing. Win 
hrttther Gharlea, then about eiuht-and-tweaiy years of age, the third 
son of Philippe le BeJ, claimed the tlirone and look posecj^on of it 
without opposition. The events of thia reign are but little known; 
there wm no hiatorian to cbrooiele them ; but immediately a]>er his 
aocefluon Charlee Bought to divorce his wife, Blanche of Buivundy, 
who had been imprisoned for ill-conduct, and having brought for- 
ward the plea of too near relationship, obtained a diapeasation from 
the Pope, and waa permitted to marry the danghter of Henry of 
Lcuemboi^, late emperor of Gennany. 

Tbe marriage waa peculiarly aecepfable to Pope John, who was 
carrying on a violent quarrel with the emperor Louis of Bavariflf 
and waa bent upon deposing him and making the king of France 
emperor in hla stead. The Luxemburg family were, in consequence 
of the marriage, brought Jnio close relation with the French roya^ 
ftmily. John, king of Bohemia, the hun of Henry of LuxemburL^ 
and brother of the new queen, came to Paris and took part in the 
reioidngs at hia riater'a coronation; and, to unite the families still 


Chrltt IV. 



morir claaelj, one of hit eons wn* lu^rricil to a Freuch princesa and 
another wnt Ui be tdu«iteil ai th^* ctmrt of Friince- 

AU thia promised w?!! for iHp Pfipe'n yimj(>cts^ nnd Charles le B«l 
n^pQirtd to AvijE^on^ whcro be met liing Kobert of PJaplts, and with 
the aid of ibc Pope proceeded to pftrtition oai ll»e prealcr part qf 
CliriBtendoni. CLtirlf^ Mia to have the tiiupire anil Roliert lta.\y. 

But iTip GermorH were bj no means wtTlmg thufl to raibmit to 
the dumination oftJiePope. ChiLrU-n expected th^ cdpotorand prtnci* 
of Gerniaaj to Iny the ifnptrial cr(jwn at hie feet, but thoy bold h&ek| 
being uuHilUrtg to tlecta foreigner, and st length ended their dispntfcs 
hy agreeing to huve (ui the time iwo joint euL^/erora, Loai« of Bavurln 
and Fredpriet of Aufliria. 

Wbilflt CbiirleB v/ns thug entertnintTig a hope of becomibg em- 
peror of Germany ht wiw 0I30 enleavourin^ to tKteod his dominions 
bj ntLticlkiDg tlie En^clifih poHae^ion*! in France. 

England wiLs at that lime !n a rttoile oJ' ^tabnefla and diHorder Jrom 
the *rreJthed inrnpncitv of \\w Virg^ Kdward TT,t and tlip dinpntM 
between biin ftnd hra wife, Iflabellu of Franue, the daughter of Philip 
IV. niid the iiilitritrir of liia Tioea, Charks mode i^greHHiona upon 
GuituuQ uEid deftati^dtlieEngllelL under tlie earl of Kciil, audlsabcllD 
vaa despatched to P.-irin to m-trc^inte a peace. When tharE»sheAeiLlfiDr 
her young win EHwarLl (sfti&rwArdiJ Edward HI.) and began to fnroi H 
plot fur dopcjBJug IwT hiisbRniJ. ChiLilcH agri'eing to oeaiet hfir both with 
nitn and money^. Witliiri two montha allcr her return to En^^lvid 
the unrbrlunate Edward IL fouud Idmbplf a priwuer in the hand* 
fif his wife, and his mnrier speedily Ibllawed. 

The death of ChnrlpB le Bel i>pcnrred the following j'ear. On 
Chrii^tinari Ere the king vra.s Bi.'iied with a violent illae^f^ Eind on (he 
3lBt of January, 13 JS, he expired ut Vitiueunes, at the age ortliirty- 
four. ThiH early and rapid t^tincLion of tha iamily of Philippe 
le BpI WflH regarderl as a manifest retribution for his Crimea, 

Charieade Vuloifi, the youngect broth*!r of Philippe la Uel nndlb* 
claimant of the throne of Anigon, died abcrut three years before hi/ 
nephew. He has been noted aa the son, the brother, the uncle, and 
the fatlier of klng^ buL not b king himaelf. He luid £>iarid tlit 
crimtB nf Philippe le Bel, Jind remoriM! at Inst so cook poflseaidrn of 
liim that be died of a diHe.-ue oeoasioned by ment&l nngui'b, ^ 
^hich tho phyitJckuuB couM &id no recnedj, and which wu in oon- 
w^uence attributed to miigjc. 




Though Charles IV. had three wirea (having married Jeanoe d^rreux 
after th^ d^aLh ofMarj ofLuxemburgj the BUCcewioD waa imcertaiii, 
for ■« he had as jet no eon, and in the doubt whether the child whom 
be expected to be bom of Jeanne d^Evreoz would be a boj^ he gave 
dir^ctioDii on hiH dcflth-bed that in the event of the birth of a prin- 
cess the cotincil of peers should a( once meet and adjudge the 
crown to him who should be deemed its lawful inheritor^ 

There were IJltely to be two chief claimani^^ — Edward III. of 
BngUnrt, the SOU of IsabeUe, the late bine's arater, and Philippe, the Hon 
<tf Charles de Valoia — and immedintely on the d«ach of Charlev it 
vaa Ibnnd neceoK&rj todiacQM which waa the nearer in aucceadonf as 
the Bnglinh king claimed the regencj- The argumcDt against 
Edward was that his mother could not transmit to him a right which 
ihe did not herself poeae«^ and even if this were denJed there was 
■ibotber claimant, the comte d'Errenx, whose mother was a daughter 
of Loiiia X-t and who would therefore have a prior claim. The 
n^la tranamicted through the female branch bemg thus so doubtful, 
thcf were at onc« set aside, and Philippe de Valois was accepted as 
ifgent of France, Two months afterwards the queen gave birth to 
s ^l, and Philip was then at once decUrnj king, 

Philip VI. waa at that time about five-and -thirl j jeara of age. 
Ha waa generous, brmrer courteous, and pesfieaied considerable talent, 
bat his ruling passion was a delight in pdnup and show. Hts corona- 
Lkffi WIS Bolenmiaed at Rheima with unusual magnificence, and he 
dttD gathered aronnd him his aplendid and luxurious court- The 
csttte of Vizkceones was the Windsor of the house of Valois, and 
dicn Philip delighted to receive botb kings and nobles. The build- 
inp, with its fijor towera and drawbridges, its central donjon or keep, 
tt^itsknreljr clock-tower, stood in the centre of a noble forest, and in it 
from time to time assembled the kings of Navarre, Majorca, Bohe- 
noM, sod Scotland, ^^ger to engage in a tournament in the castle 
KilttDg-ground, c»r to join in hunting the deer which in the day time hid 
(bemaeires amongst the branching oaks, and at night ventured to 
truDple the earth cloae around the walls of the castle. So attractive 
*is Paris also, with its royal palacea, that John of Bohemia declared 
ii to be the meet knightly city in all the world. He wandered about 
Eurojie, but he never &iled to return to the court of France, where 



Fhilip VI. 

ioiiHta iind toumHmeiila renlised the roniJincHW of chivalry iinil r&- 
cdiod tha dftja of tlia faoiouH Artlmrand tba b^oee of ibe Sound 

Thcie -Kera, however, ^avc political aSaiT?* carried oq ATnidstaU 
tbJA tdiovr of pleasure, and Avheu Loiiiti, count of FLiaderflt ouu uf 
thf! ntPBt brilliftnc of tho viiiitora at Vinc^rmm on the ocairtLon ofihe 
coronation foBlivitiea, encreated the Icta^ to oAEJEt hiui in aijbduiDg 
biaievolicdBQbjoctfl, Pliilip eagerly 3tia'.'dtheopj>ortaiiiEjrofj*rcngth- 
ebiug bituiv-ll' bv flc^vjiring militJLry glorj, Ordt-ra were givru fot 
thv ftpisetly ft»vmbling ol" a. hirgp urmv, hjvI jIip citi^cTis of Brugw 
und Tpri'H wnd Meveml othpT towns prppjired to mwt Inoi at Cuae!, 
where they bad eritr«ii<;bud tbemKelv^?^ oo a bill, and in front of theu 
CBQip set up a banner on whith waa inscribed — 

Qunud re soa ici chauLura 
Le mi trourA pj Bntrari.' 

The ' roi troiiT^' wm Philippode ValoiB. ftad the allumon was to bit 
title to the ihroin?, which was conddcred dembtful, 

The FletaingQ were more lacklDK in patience thau ia ^aura^ 
and dcrifitid&J an imTnedialH \ian\p ; and tbeir letd^T Znnnekiii. 
dres^^d like u tii^b nierchaFit, made bis way Inlo the French caiupf tite 
■ "- 23rd of August, l3:iS» and carried buck a report of the cuomy's condi- 
tion. Tlie noblta werfl amusing thfm&elrflf — feaatiug, coavirmiig, 
payiiitr viaiia ; the king biniaeli' was ai dJLner. Tlie bold buc- 
ghera acMd upon the ^efK^^t and atincked th*? oamp. Thej advanced 
OTon to the klng'n ti>[it; but Philip atid bia knights were nctthuflto 
He iHketi. They tiimeJ bravely agninsl tbe enemy^ and th« dtiaMW, 
burdened b> the vrei^Eit of their Aplendid armour^ fonnd it dJiGcalt 
to move. No le^ ibuii 13,000 ure tuid to Iuiv4> been liilt deiid on the 
field. Ftundera at onco utibmilted tu the county and Philip, lAer 
giving wise caunaeln for tlie hitnro goverarawnt of the coontryT 
returned tnun^pbantly to PnriP, 

lie now felt hituwlf aiilHderitly ]iowerfii! to confront Eiiglandp 
and Kdvarrl IIL wo^ HUinmoncd to apjitur at lita ajurt and rin ho- 
mage for the duchy of Guienne. Edu'rirrl complied and met Phdip 
at A-miena, bill ho had made a eecret reservaliori with hi a council ot 
f^tate to press hia own clajmato the crowo of France on tbe £nt 
fkvouniblQ opportunity. 

&tx years, hnwevpr, wr-nt by before the looked-for hour amTed. 
and in the mftajitiine Pbilip hud rairied up for himi^elf nn enemy ID 
hie own fhtnity, who wa^i the chicl cuubc of the revorva which Trkricw 
ultimately niut with ut the hands of Edward of Euglaod. 

Roheri d^ArtuiSt tbi^ giuudsoa cf tbi^ count wbo ThII in tin 

' WhdO lhi( Si-ek h^i^ns tp ting 
Uerfl ibalL flnter the Aiimdiiiig king. 






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BOB£&T [>'ABT01S— MI30N1NQ AHP TORQEttT. 151 

A.-l^ I'L 

Ipfittle of Comtni, had marrted Jeanoe, Philjpe hoIf^fflHter, and the 
two princes were on the moet iiit!iii&t« terma; Robert bad been 
«ep«cialty urgent ID upholding Pbilip'flclaims to ibe throntofFraace^ 
He bad Dimself » clatrn of a stmiLar kind to the coirniy of Artois, 
whicb bad been adjudged to hia fiktber^s youngest si titer, MattLda, the 
counter of Burguodj. Tbe king, it waa eaid, would acknowledge 
Kobert^H right if he could produce aome lett^ or paper in support of 
hia title, 

Aa time went on Robert spread a n.'port that certaiu nuaaing 
docunientii bad come to light which rendered hla claim indiaputable^ 
aud the coontesa of Borgundy upon thia came to St. Germains, where 
the court WHB sitting whicb waa to try tht caae- The enquiry began 
■ 11^ in June 1329, and in the October following the countcH died of a 
™ myrteriouB dlaeaae. Three mootha afterwards her daughter died 
alao in the eartm singular way. She had been spending the even- 
ing with her ladies, and when she went to bed her butler, who had 
been formerly in attendance upon ber niotber, prepared for ber some 
wine which uie was accustomed to lake. She had no aooner lain 
down to reec than she waa seized with a terrible illntwi, and expired 
almost immediately, her body being entirely covered with black and 
white spots. Strong suspicions of poison were excited, and Robert 
d'Artoia waa &eeLy upoken of as the guUty person, but still the ttiftl 

The chief evidence produced by Robert was a packet of papers 
purporiing to be a deed by which the county of Artoia had been 
fbnnally bequeathed lo hia father, so that it became his especial 
possewon. In such a case the son would be the natural heir The 

Cpers themselTpa were brought forward by Jeanne de Divion, a 
ij of questionable character, who said she ha:3 received them 
Irom the bishop of Arraa, the friend of the last count of Artoia 
The bishop had given them to her on hia death-bed, but up to this 
time she had secreted them. 

The evidence as to thin important paper was carefully ffifted, and 
the witnesses who were brought forward became conlused, and at 
length the demoiselle de Divion confeaaed they were a forgexy. The 
miti|^(ur waa Robert's wife, JeanDC de Valois^ who had threatened 
to dT[?wn or bum Jeanne de Divion unless ahe would conaent to give 
lier aid. * Both the count and biswlfef^ said the denKiiselle de Divion, 
^vere bo eager in the matter, and so aad^ that they could neither eat, 
aor drink, nor rest, by night or day.' The seal of Ariois had been ob- 
tained from an old charter which Jeanne de Divion bad bought of a 
dlizen for a hundred crowns. A skilful cltrk had forged the writing, 
^ then the counteas^a two tadiea and herself had attached the Heal 
to the paper, one holding the c&ndje and the other helping her with 
ibe docQOkcnt* 


Tfaia confoHaioEL vu of coiirM futal to all coaoerned. It vhh la 
vain that the dcmoiBellc dc Diriou pleaded tba threaCa of Jeanne de 
Vdnia. According to the cruel cuaCom of the age bLv wu burnt 
alive in the pig-niarkpt iiair tliu Porte Stn Hotjur^. The king's 
water was nnly impriannpd wiili her two diildren. The iaftrior 
cuiprita were drsM^^d ia white garments covered witli figures of red 
tofipacfl^ and placed io tho pillory. As Jbr Hobrrt d'Artois, over- 
whelmed with alianiti iml ftar, he £ed to Bruasels, aaJ in his nbBCQco 
h[a eHiBi4^ vrere confiAcuttid, From ihat tiaje he hecume Pljilip'it 
daidly ioe. 

It vaa the year after the d«ath of Jennne de DJvIon thai a monk 
namcid Henry was eent for by the count lo Bruasclfl for eouie aflair 
ol' iniportonca not named. On hia arrival Robert jnfi^rmed him thar 
he had a Hecrtt to tuinuiuiiicHEie, but it musL be undeir the ical of 
Ofinffsficn. The monk agresi. Th« count opened a cjibinel and 
idiowod a was figurCj about a foot and a half high, of a young mau 
dreiiecd AccordiDg to the jjiahion of the times. * Touch it not, brother 
Henry,' said the couut; ' it ia quite rendj; it ia baptiaed, Theyaeni 
it to me from France baptised- It, is lor John tif Fr»!ice- I TnU th» 
in confeHHioQ ; but iher© is another whirh T wifth tf» have h^ptieed by 


And for whom is t^jat intend^? ' a«kcd the monk. 'It i^ 

fnr the f^uoeni' mid Kobcrt. ^ Tlut is not for the real queen, bub 
tliH evil spirit which ban uktn posBcsdou uf Jier, If she or her ma 
John wcrn dead I should pel on well with tho kinp: ; so I pray you 
baptise the figurp- Kverything -'lae is rendyj piodfj^thcf? and gmi- 
mothera and nil/ lirolher Ueury refused, d^'chirin^ that it vu a 
ainful belii'f and a sinful practice, to which Kobtrt couid only aoaweir 
' I would riilliar atraugle the devil tJmn thai the devil ahouhl ^trajiglt 

Rutnoiira of thea» decdi reached the enr of Philip^ and Robert 
d'Artoiri wan compoUod by Uirouta lo Ilhiva Inlanders. In diro in- 
dignation tha count crossed the Chaaiiel in d[f^ui3c, and at tbeduae 
AD. of the year 1333 appeared at the court of Edward of England, pn^ 
partd lr> give bia aupport lo the claims nf a foreign prince upon the 
throne of France, 

■ An edi^t ]i»ued by tbci French kin^ forbidding nil biR vaaaub to 

I harbour Robert d^Artois wm rec^ivt^ by Edward aa a deckiialJOP 

I of war. The Flemiuga were ready lo be hiu alJii^, ft:ir their cooai 

I WB9 still unpopular. He liveil in Putift^ arid when the war brohr 

I oul, without consulting- hia Hubjecta, h^ ordered all the Ecpliah Id 

I Flandcrato bearreatcd. Edward retahatcd byaircating the F]«miagi 

i in England, Upon this the peoijlc of Ghent cboa« Jacob *ho 

k ArteTidde, a brawer, ae their leader, find he. eallmg tugi^iher Kle 

I fe1low-citi7enR, WTth those of Ypr^s and Bruges, gnve bia a^lvio^ 

K tLh to llie coune to be puraued, ' Without the kmg of Kaglnnd^' h( 


HiUji VI 

sa)d, ' thoy oould not live, for tL^ proxperit^ of Flandf^ra iv»4cii upun 
cloth, and cloth crould not bt iniidQ without wc]oL II« cotmseil^d 
Uiem to uke tlie kiug I'f EnglivrjJ fi^r their £rieijd/ 

The nobles nf FUntoif a^ wfill as rlie oiliKens profeBsed tlaem- 
kIto md^ to Ibllow tht? Fj[r^^Rtic>Ti cf ArU'V«!de, bill (b« diike of 
Bnih*Dt» tbcy said, b4?]d thv higb^t rank aniongEl tbeni, no^i ho must 
spevk firet. The duke cif Brabant [imde hia decJj^ration ; but th«a 
the nobles had aaolJitr dillicultj. The cnipcrur of Gi^rnjanj, Lmiis 
of Bavaria, must di^j Philip l)i;fore WiGy did; for Flanders wnj< fliih- 

dto the empire- The emperor did what waa rpqnirwl, for he bIbo 
ft q wtqI DgiuiL^E France. In a diet at Coblonf, at vrhicb Kdvnrd 
himself WciA present, he heard the fkcctisntiou brought agaiitflt Pliilipt 
And aftet^aritfl plKicg cue )]juid on the &cop(rt aud thu other on eIq 
globe, whilst a knight hddover hit headn nafc^ h von I , ack nowledged 
Edward of KngUnd aa the imTH^nal vicar oa the lelt bink of' the 
fihioo, Tht^ wert: bfive at^d bold wordti, but they went no fiirtber. 
TL« emperor rejected, had Bcruplc^s '^nd at Icngtb^ iuiite&d of on- 
gBguig ia a d;uLgcrou4 iror with Franco, inadt: hia naj uvQr lIh- Alpa 
tcio liftly. 

And DOW tb«T« came another obstncle. The Flemings were under 
profnise to tiio Pope. Thej hud engaged to paj him two niilliouBof 
fli>rin* if ihtry atlanktd tht king of France- Jacob Fan Artevelde 
found a remedy for ttib difllcLiIty. Lie proposed that liie kin^ of 
EnfUod i*ho^)ld declare hiniaelf kiag or France. Edward con- 
vntefi, and the FlemingR thpn opj^nly Jirowed themnelvea in bU 
1-^ EiToar. This took place in 1337' 

Open war TolCuwcd- For wme time it woa carried bu chiefly in 
FlandtT^i wiihoul awy roiuarkahle huoci-hh ou Qitbcr dido; but in 
^UjO. hoth Pliilip and Edvrard having ]irepatoil large fleets, well 
EnaFiEu^d and «<|Uipped« an cDgii^Dieul took pla^'e near Hetvetaluya, 
■llhomoutlKif thu .Scheldt. Fbilip'a Heet waj*hupptjrli?d by Genooao 
RkUcjajUiI commauded by the treiUiUrirr Buliuchel, who [mderatood 
uuJ* else llian btiw to ktE'p atcuuij ts. Ilaviug a torrur yf the hta, 
Bthu^-het krpt bin fleet shtii up in 'he port, lu Tain the Genoeae 
cOTOiuiadtr iried tc persuade him lliat he must give hi* ships room. 
Tbe Eagtiah l«ll upon tht^m whiUt tht^y wcrt! titill moorod cIobq to- 
Whw, and iht result vsaa the total dtleat of the French, with tha 
WclSCOOO moo. AuouoniJoUAabip, the ' Cljiiatopber/ wbicb hod 
bnc taken frain tho Fnglinh Jit the Chjinnel Borno months her', 
■11 recaptured by Sir Waller Manny nt ihe beginning of the engage- 
TvDt, and \ii\^ niainlv dtoidt^d tho lbrtuui?a of ihu day* Th& 
Ocae adjuiral tacapJd, but the unfortuiiite triiaaurcr woa bung at 
maat of bis own vcsatl. The ejects of ihb defeat ou the minda 
iflbe French were uioat unpormMt. Tin}' lor-i liieJt n&v&l courage^ 
md the KngJiah remaineil maateraaf the ChaniieL 

1pj4 SIEOE or TOUBSi^l — COHTEStS IS fliClTTAKr, 

J'A- ftp VI. 

Kdnard. Hifler file battle, proLceilcd to Client vith Ilia mIA' 
Philippa, whii tiii-TK gHve birth tn \wr tliird snn, rhft Jara'ma John ot 
Gfluni l-ir (rhent), duke of TjiiiCJiirt*r. But nfter a resf of a ftw 
weeks he iiadGrtook tho aii^G of Toumay, CO^OOU FJomin^ sup- 
ported liirn — A mighty hoot in number, but utifDrtuuateljrtJclicietiCiii 
jikUItanr tnlsrprisu, Bt;ing weury "vatb i}ie seigQ ul' Tciirnaj, so 
§ayR the nld chronicEur Froivsari, the FlemErigG vreDt olf to Htuieb nud 
piUage Arc[Ue°, ncnr St. Oint?r, biu it tin.' mid'ile cA' tku nlgLt tliey 
vr«re dU ecizi^ with euch a vvoiidoHiil panic thnt thi-y rooe iip^ 
nifthed out of tliL'ir tontw, threw them to tin? irrciind with thfir bon- 
uerfi> and fled, liuberl oi' Armia and Ht^iiy ijf flaudem I'alliiig out 
after Eliein, * Good gentleTnen, tfU ua wlierefore dn yon Hey ? ' To 
vrhich ao one Htopp^ to reply, but bqcIl Dian took the diortest rofkd 
to bia own homt?, rind the two Gountu had nothing to do but taretuiTL 
to Toumay Had relate the tnle^ 

A truce WUJ4 now concluded, fnr with i4ijc1i alli^? the l^ngli^i 
could do uolhing. The raain objocr if iln- Fleminh lordnwaimoTieT, 
nnd when ih^v werQ paid bv both pnrtiHS they atoyed uC liome. Fot- 
tunotoJy Top ihfl aiuViitifin of Iho hiug ot' Kngland an occopion foi 
reopening ih^ conM'tt hur^t forth in Brittatiy, wliicK vtam cuiupuned 
of mu(?h mt^TO iiifljimniable marcmlK, 

A country stern and wild in Su piotiircsqiio bennty, Rritfany waa 
to France in Bomc respects whiit ticodoiid wna to Ei^gland. Tbo 
lirelcoa htid alwaya l>eea ready for war* aJways, a» tt pecrawl, 
HLvking Ui Jiud an vneuiy titiongtr llian tljcmaelvop. Tht^ir oarly 
hi^itory i» a Cdntinuiitiou of achi^^vem^^niH markerj with iht chivalry, 
but alao with more tlian thi^ ordiuAry iercK^it^, of t^x^ middle b^?i- 
A.Li. Duho John 11 L. died without childrt^n in Aprd 1311, Iraviiif: a ni«<« 
^" and A Imir-brotlicf both claiming tho dutLdoni. The niocc. the 
daughitr of uu tld^r broiJien hud umiried Charles de Blui^, nephff* 
of Philip VI. Thfl French ting vrn^ ihprtforj? on her sido- Tiff 
half-brorhcr, Jean de Montfott, Bought tho eupport of Kd^?lLT^ of 
Engluad, The Brclons fhcmsoWcii wito divideii in their allcpan*- 
The MontlrrjrtA had bet-u a very rezuArkahle jjunilv for man}' 
VMrn- It was a Montf'in. who had urged tjouin VI. Ut arm :hp com- 
munOG of Fr^ncv ; n Mnntfort who tpd tlifi cninade against UiB 
Albigcnseu ; a MonLfort who in £n^l:ind laid the found Mii^n of lt» 
authority and itifluenco ol the commotis house of parliaoicnl; *iJ 
now, iu thf? fijiirieendi et^atury, it hji3 a M^mtfort whose uaoiD nlliv 
tht Bretons nroTijid the stjimlurd of resisULiice la Fniiii^. 

The opponent of cIja comte de Mtmrfort, Charlt'H de Bloifl, irM 
daeiii^Ll a saint. He coafes^d hoih inoruirtg and evening* liunl 
lire or ais ma^seH every <lay» made pilpiimagOH in the mow with baip 
itiet to the alirine of 8t, Yve^ the fainoiifl Brelcn Niint> put pebtlr* 
in his Hhoea, and futeoed tight chords round bis body with liard kiuHA 


Sip VI . 

which cut into ih^ Heih, Btrt &a he hod nu pity lar himftelr, aeiiher 
babd be anj for othere. 

Wkien JeJin do MontfuTtr bcnring of the doaUi of bis brotbeTf 
look pOfseaioD of Nnntes, Charles do BJait bogioi.the content by 
UjJug ^w^K lo the diy jLnd throwiug iuto it the heads of ihirtj 
knightfi. Montfbrt jielded, anil was n^nt as aprisoa^r to Pbilip and 
ahtit up in the Louv-ra, then both a pakce and u pHiOD. JebZinc, 
<ymt«s^ do Montibrl, wbo, uccurding to Froisiaart, had th* CTjrftge of 
« nian luifl iho heart of a hoiii waa iu Itenuea wheo ahi; heard that 
hT huAhamt AVHH takciL. She called her friends aroun*! bernnd pre- 
•en(«d to th*m h&r little boy. who hore bin l^ihtr'a name, * My lords,' 
aha (jdd, ' be cot discouraged Tor the loos of our count; he vas but 
one man. Set my iittlfl child ; lio, by GaJ'fl bdp, ohall nvcDpe bis 
&lher iirid rffitore all tli[it hhs be&o Uiken froin uh.* SLulujig horsolf 
ap in Hennpbci/ine, abe opi'n&l coinmuniciLLionq with Kdward III. and 
paTieclly nwaitctl hJu piviOiiBed iiid. Th? plrice was beFiUjged by 
ChnrleA <ic BJoia, Jeanne mado F^^vorul -vi^rous Borlics with her fi^w 
Iroopa. bat her case wn* becoming deaperate, and bcr JorJ* wtre 
actually diKiiHsng hefera her the leima of capitulation^ when iJib 
Ion)} lo4)kfd for nifcoiit from En^hidd^ und^ the command of Sir 
Walter Manoj, arrived, 

* Who tbci>i' Buy^ Froiesnrr. ' had fitcn tbs coonteBS proudly de- 
scend the Hiepfl of Jje caarle, aud lueeting Sir Waller Manny, em- 
brace him Rnd bin mnipBnionfl one after the other, again and again, 
■imld tmly have aaid that ibn wa« n thlimit lady.' 

The king of Enplantl canie hioiaelf to Britiany at Ihc end of ibe 
^or, and the king of Fr^ncr did the ^ume. It iieeined oa if the 
little war wjl& likely (o biKoine great, but both ihe kii^gzn were pocr 
iipf] A ppnce ^iT three ypjira wiia aigroed ispon. the Br^-tonR bfing 
left It Ijberty to carry on their qiuirrel. Philip whk the first to renew 
l>ie «ii-ugg^o. Ho inrited to a toumpment tifiecn of fhc noble? of 
Britlaliy whatn he hiid rcruoii to belicvt iaTriiirable to ErigJamlT aod 
pat them lo d«alh withonl a rriaL Thu brother of one of lb*'Be 
■riJeroeD, tx-ing a priest, wilm lanti-ned lo n Inddfr nud eiprwed to Ihe 
people, who were allowed to Etone htm. Three nobles of Ncirmaody 
vctfl aoon after <:?{ecv(ed on a eimilar plea, »nd Philip would fain 
nT« taken the comie d'tlarcoxirl, but he eucaped out of h!n hands 
iii<i became SB useful ti> the EngliNh as Robert irAit^^is. Tht» great 
fpudal barons, it ahonld be reniembpredf fr^Ft bnt little eeruple in 
Mgotiating with o foreign prince. They locked iip^n themaolFes as 
bdepftndeTit, and the nohlea of England and France were w ch'Urly 
connected, both polititTtlly and eocially— even the langaage of the 
iBo coTirr£ being tbc mme — that an alliance with England was in no 
*aj ecD^d^red treason to France. 

Edward of England could not henr with indiffert^co of Philip's 




I'JtUif Vi. 

atiw of ufuelty und injohtice. Tlie war wa* rtcoitiTutaced, lint it was 
to be carried on by the Ergli^ih king witbniit his ohiefnlEy, Jaeob 
V3n Artevelda- The tickle burghctH of Fluiittera had tumsd ftgniuBt 
their once popuJiu" leader; ihey ftccuaed him of appropriating ta 
lnin»:U' the ti^vbuuhh uf tbe cDiiuly^aud aa angry njobuf^mbJed bt- 
)urc^ hU hoiiFHP with the dt^maiid Jbr h reckuTilng of ihii publii: iquik^j. 
ArCovfilde apppfit^d at the window. ' I have inken cot n farlhin^, gpa- 
tlcmen/ ho said quietly. ^Go back to jour homes and rtimto ic^ 
morrow, and I will give yna a fuU account/ ' Nity, nay,' waa the cry; 
^ think Jiot to eai:.-Lp«. Tbe treaouro }uu) been wnt tc Euglaud, 
therelopft flhnJI yoii die-' 

Thfln Arr.ifvelde foJde'l hU linnda and w^t md nard, ' Geotlein 
you mada iriB wbnt 1 aru- Ynti awore to defem] mu ; notf jou vould 
IciJl me. iUvt I not fiovemed you pcftceably ? Have 1 not resl'>rcJ 
yuur cQEumerci; ? flare you not hiuL aU bUiugs at yuur dir^poail 
'hrough me — com, wool^ mGrchiiudiM of all kinds* * Hl- whs inier^ 
rupCfld- * Come down ; ve will hear no more,* And Arteveldc, seeing 
hi* words Xf> bo uaelcbB, doeod. tlio window ani lied to u cburtb. 
Ttijther tbe mob fidlowed bim, and a weaver named Tbomoa Denis 
gave him hia deaih- wound. ^^H 

So Edwnrd aela 1o hava no help from Flanders, and iberdb^^^ 
bging urged by the cijinto d^ffarcoort, he entered Ntinnardy. Phili^^i 
quiDinonod hia German ^\Y\k^, iind John, king; of Bohemia, with acvo- 
rul otJtcr German nobii'ii, joined bia fltaadard. Edw^ird udvaikoed 
nearly lo Tmis, pHIui^n^ tind burning, Thun PUilip'a iucieuidug 
army mndo \t pnjdi'nr Tor him to retrHtt ihraugh Picardy. He r^-aohed 
the river Sommt, Tho ITreoeb gufltdvfl all Iho bridge «» but a boy 
dirccEud him to .t ford passable; at Low tide, aud near vbich tJ>e 
French hnd [>o:^ied hevt-ml thoii-qad man. The Engliah croond | 
■udltily, and Lht FrcocL followed along tlit; bdJiknofilie river ; but tbe 
tide WH4 HsiDg, and ^vb«tL chi>y ri'ficti^d iho ford it wasogain LmpoM' 
able. Fiiilip mitrchcd his troops to Ahbevil]?, wbor^ the So 
could be orosaeil without difficnUy. Ho wna prepiced for a W 
the ntxt dkiy. Not :<o th^J wcE and raniiahed ETi^lish. But fitill 
were tbev pn!|Uired To continue dieJr raLreat. Fighttng Httinif^l 
involve the 3fla>*r ri^Jc^ nnd when in the morning the French army 
^vBfi seen stativfi^d m nn eXL^iiUent poeition upon the ^geof tlio Ibrtft 
of Crecy, lidward gave nrdeiii to confront it. 

Tliti f'piril (if the French kius witi greatly fltirred at tbap 
"f ihe ^ondirtp for he haLcil ilie En^Ii^h. 3uauuo;iing hia uia 
he E&id, ' Li<t ihe Genoe^ arch».M0 IwgiTi the ba-ltla in rhe name 
God and St. Denis.' Tlnj Gonoeae, who aloao were thoiighl ahle 
enoounttf the dr^ded En^litih arfherf^ stepped Ibrword ; but t' 
coid^ of tbi-ir bowA wero wet and h*^ lont thdr fun:i^, TIte I^ngliBh 
pihowpred arrowa upon thani, whilslb the arilliery, used Ibr r)ie lirsl 
time in battle, struck them down with balk 'Quickl kill th 




Taacal G^snoesei thrj i]o bitl i^Jiulwr dit voj/ vKi^laJni^ Philip in 

^^^pA wnih- The French tmcp^ preastd j'crwjird orer the tklftiD 

^^Kbwo, but in dotag to ihey hroki- their nmka, and the English, 

^BbidiDg 6niii lired on them, Thi' diaoi^f.'r Laorfaaod c-v^ury iDOTDcnt. 

Hie blind kiog John of Boiteoiia wfia BUciojL«d alrtiT, ftLippodsil hy 

& knigtit on «:ach KJd«. ' I pnv jou,' lie tujd, luniLU^ iu ilii<ia, ' leul 

me «rb«n I Utty urikf a g<>i>d blow/ and ihe kniglim. ftLnvning r>ieir 

boiiw Us his, fwted v^ith hiui madlj' into the batri*;. Tbelr bodte* 

werif found ihe next morning, knigbts and honta bqU liakcd in 

UvKl)]. AamoUBUmccrowinnifcflfo ihisdhy llieapot w|*crelJ»e/ fell. 

Tbr grt«t n<^h]**B of Frjvuc*- fcjnght draji^niwly, TIk tounta of 

I Aknv'^ '^^ Flandt-n fravpr^d t]i« en^my'fl linoa at fnU g7dlop, 

I ii»ko ibp rnnkfi of Ute Eng^lifih i.fcb«rv, Abd prened on tc tbo Epot 

f «l)«v? lilt yoxuig prinw of Wules. a mtce boy, ^sut cotrmnoding* a 

diTiviou. Th^ <'arl oi M'arwiok, w}j(i vru la attendaoi^p on Elm pnuc«, 

Mat to king EdwknJ, who wua wau:hiik^ Lhe bailie froui a vindniill 

Ofl VI s<fjcinJD^ htip^it^ de^driDg moi-G BiJppoTi ; but thn only answer 

ht fwocitcJ waif ' Irf't the boy vric bia «f'Urs/ Th& Kiigliah itood 

tPUmrAblc^ Th« coudIe at Ak-n^ou and Fland^ra won? clnjiL. aod 

Pbiliu who bvl biruaelf fougbl v/iOt most diAtrngulabedTaluur. sflvr 

■anlW fof ft'ttie LtuiH waiobiug ibu alau^ljiier or hid biBv<'at< tnxipfl, 

i<ahMtuiLlT ff>] l"p^ from tho field and at <lavbn?ak dn^w hU r«in 

b«f«n the g&t» of ADiJCQa. * Who jv it»^ ankcd dio wardcT, ' thai 

l}iii» Mokv cfitraiiH OB a ftigitiTc ? * ' The fortune* of France,' le- 

ptiKl FbUipt ftod tijf> gabF4 were iLrown opcij. wbilat die inkalnl- 

aam cnvwded Bruund ilieir wver^gn weeping and bi-yailiiig tli^ir 


Jl wiia indeed a wiro^fal Umo For Framzo. Tbo fjo^liah oata- 
Ukfccd tbanBelTei in the country, for ib'?y werv rcacrlv«l lo lokc 
CahiM, live tfi«y migbt be nuutcrn of tbb E^iTaitA. EdumriJ built a 
lovm vtraniJ ibe town; hpinipndfdto pivpirr'himwif hoih fi^r wini4»r 
■ad Miiufnr<T, Tberp u-i-rc r-tti'eit and, vith ri nivrk«t utd ahripa, 
v«U fumuib^ by aca frcun Knsland and FlHod^n. Ntws oaine ibat 
th« ScvU mere inTadiiig KDghmd. but Edward nvT?r moved; he had 
CAcbcled lb« city and the inlialiilJjLjU wt-iYi flUuririf. Thvy niiBt 
iooovr Or lai^r yield. Aguin t^ni*.- die report that Ohnrku di- Bkna 
had I— n Duult- privtnor, thiu affording nn opMmag liir conlinuifig 
Itm «ar il Bntliiiiy, btit th« Englidb lucg waa not lorjipteiJ by rhv 
■iiMiCC4. I'Ldip nrdcnUy dcsred to Hiiccour CalaiA. Hv ofTvrcd the 
nrBJA^ Ditmiry wiiliuul atint, IJe nouJd give up to tli^m LiIIe. 
ftMhttne, ind DoLia/: he would mhkt their citizrtmkni^bu-; be iVDuld 
gm ibmi anytbinn^ Uiey JMirnd if ih^j would fomke Edward imd 
M hm- But mtmtiea and threat! «e» alike powerJeai, Itdward 
■maiMid MtiUioury before C«Uuri) and ^iLea atlcrt^h, in the cxtremiliy 
of iMnffWi ibe loVB cajMlulated alWr a ait^ of antrv tUaa a J<% 


PMiip vr. 

Kix of ttie prJQclpal cjtizetifl were obliffcd lt> give thcniaelvefl np to 
Rilwi^rd, und flfttir L^u Junng iht i^E^uU'Bt humiliHiion were tinlj aaveil 
from d{iith bj the interpiMilion of quaeQ Philijspn. Tha Itpya of 
CnlftJa woro the kaya of Franco. Tlie town, now bocomci English, 
was Jot tvfO c^DtiiTJoa an open iloftr for foreigncrti, and Englond wuk, 
as it were, ouce more united lo the cntiiient. 

The lo"* uf iliB bsttlR of Cr"siy slmwei] tho Hii(*norit.y of the 
hardy infantry rJrawn Iroin ihp mrnmonftlty of EngJsfid over th* 
robloa and kni^hCs who tutd beea trained in Franct^ upon the fcurla] 
eyKlxm. The ohivtLlrouji Fipitit wil^ docayioj^, and a <7hAngo -irv 
comiDg over tha fact: uf BurufjCi bull h wiu Qcrt at anc*; perceived. 
The immerlmte cflecl in Fntimct of th« bnttle of Gre*y wuq only that 
of Titter discourngeraent. Pptrarcb, the Italian poet, who viftU^d the 
country soon aftor tho hnttle, gi^cfl, in a Juttar to a h^iciid, a lament- 
able deacTiptirm of ita etato. ' It (ippeared/ ho a&ya^ ' everywhere 
deoolatHl by flro hdiI Bwoid- The honjwe were lallitig in ruhia, ex- 
t^ept thoao which harl hptm converted into fortresses, and trace* of 
the havoc comuiictcd by I ho English w^ro to be seni in alt directionB. 
In Puria many of tlic Btreotft were qiulo dceerlfld, atd woods and 
brauiblea grew in the hi^hwi^yB/ Under such cirmtnatancea ibe 
truce which wha how agr<:ed upi>Ei iDiist hrtve been mo^t wekdrae. 
But Lhe power of rallyirto; s^tmi^ fnr it whi)« Iore. Sf^u-^oua of dfe^ 
Hpondency are BeasonFi of mortality. Wlien men conae to have hope 
in life thL- springa of life wtm lo dry up within them. The depc- 
pulacion of Frouce woe mpid in the latttr Jays of Philip V]; and* 
lo increase the uvil, mmi' the Blaiik DciLCh^ b.n uwful pla^e which 
began in Provence, and Hoon wpread over the whole eounfry. TTk 
yomiff rafhei than tho old were alricten by it. Men m perfect hcAlth 
one day were on tJis nest carTied to Che grave, niid thedcathaat Ifidgth 
became m numeroua ihnt burial was Rcarcely poaaible. Pear ncleJ 
like uuuta^iou. To vbut a tuJTi^rer was zilmoat cerLiiiuly to die, and 
only a few memberfi ol' ihe n-Ugii^UFi orders vpniitred to touch >nd 
tend tho nick. Everywhere prini^e and peDBantsuiftiredfihke-' PhiJip 
lost his wife, J«Hnno of Burgimdy; imd the duohead of NorinaDjT 
iind I^c i^tEcen of Nuvurre and many other peraonn (if diTiiJnctiaii 
fell Tic^tinis In Lhf* HIack Death. Aruongat ihmn wa^i Luum de SadBi^ 
the lady to whom the Ihniciia 4onni!tR of Petrarch were addreivd. 

Thn lorriblu scourge lafteJ ubout two ycare. Tbo exciCld 
mperstition of tho uneducated people ehowed itself In the wiU- 
Hrt Ibmi- They iiiTented fierce self-discipUcie in the preeenc* of the 
juilp;TnpDt* of God. Half-nakpti ami bearing red cTossea, they ffi 
fortli in Irantic prooesaiona, rttitTn^ in ev^ry town nns <iay and ont 
night, &]id iGOurgcd themaeliri>a twice in the day with whips pointH 
with sharp iron. Noblemtio, ifeotFemen, even Indies of LLch blrnh* 
joined these Flagtllact^ aa they were named. The Pope condemned 


, ibom, thv king |mnui.-<I iljein, but iijll ili€ excireui^i ^irenil- It 
, bfigan in Gt^rcmfiy. paw<^ on to Fldiiders, and tram theofw it rv^che^! 
^ lk« tiortli of France, At Chn-^tnjiui j;i4U Lhe Fkgelbmtv were 

I nkattl to Ilaly, Bixc&ccio, thp great □orclist of llie period auii 

I Uw author of i1j« ' Decamerone,' give? a descriptJoD oC tLe statb uf 

I •i>^Pty urheD th« Black I>ea[h itppi?Jkred in Ftor^Dc^, which wnAa to 

abow tlktl nu'eud of rouaioi^ thu rii^h and fuahjonahle to reptsnlaiit 

Urmr, tht awful colanaiij inJy eerved to einh theru deeper in pto- 

Vfboi at Iraiplh, in 1 350, the ccmotry wua freed from the fwoarg^, 
dftta— Eic oomtbrt nrLd bappineaa vrerc Dgain Bniighf an^f marring^s 
bacune the order of the day- It waapropocedthat (he yoimg prince 
John •ht>uld iDJiny bia oousin the lovely Blimche of NqtiutC^ it'lio 
!■■■ juat eightefTQ, The king ^ii^t-Aird the oltliiitce, but vh«n he tAw 
th« beauty of hi« nn's iuU^ndeJ wife he pul u&ida the dia|iarity ol 
a^ — An he mu Oitc fldy-eLghT yean old — and iniiiriU-d ujhmi Utkin^r 
hm hiiiiivlf The dJappoiiii«d nlohn wom obliged to be coniented 
«Ub a young wtdow oC fouT-di]ri'i>^'i.'nEy, th^ heirera of Hurgucdy, 
brou^^I upon hiai imt only tlm tl:ira;e tjt poYemiDg Bargiimly 

li*r, hal hIho dial dP eduL-aiiii^ bn-r iJtile boy. Other ^nurriiigtiii 
plan* al the iwine ItmE. muI thp 1e(j?iA liy which They vere celv- 
*vte n^tot^al^y niarbcd hy die introducLi^m uf ntw ood 
nbaani ^fJaon in rtre^e. The peiitUinvn'4 dtces wjia quite tight and 
gf |ii» «il-jUfB; thtJr hair Wiifi ti^ in a qutue, and they wore ahma 
vlih iniitaui'Iy loiijif tiirned'Up pt^iiil^ wmitwhat Ukt? nuikeA, The 
IbAm wor^ enoimniw niilri^A on iheir hp-jila, fntm which depended 
a ^mftUt}' of ribb^in^ flnating like the Hags hungiog from a mtuA ^ and 
l# mfilik* vcre thev that they inslet-'d upon mounting £cry boraea 
tmA w«uSng two dagger* in lh«ir girdlt«. In nda the citrgj 
niMifaad agiLioic diew ahnirditles, aod in vnlii djo Benalhle parckm 
a# tlM pwple ridienled ihem. Folly and ittstiajr were rapidly 
I^MiOi^ ih* mviiiory of the Biaclc Death, In the mEdat ofthiA fri- 
ir«lhy ibtf king wua Sf-ized with a iingcrinir ^iehit^i^'^ and afler an 
1!Idcv of a few months upircd on the 2^nd of August, 1350, He 
hMl rrit?!^'^^ twenty-two yean. 

Philip Vt. waa the first French hing who impcaed a tav on 
m^L It wa^ kntiwn aalhc 'gabelle/ but, diough exir^mely proAuhle, 
14 b«cwB« uttimately oppr^nve and odiout to vho peuptf, 

Jo the Ualrrv of l>jia reign the DaP|)litn or lord of ViednCj haing 

■bom IQ Tdire into a luonaAti^iy, ai.«M biji tslate to Philip on bthaif of 

prl^ia Otarbw, the king'h grandsor^ on condition that the provinoo 

af Danphtair ifaould tivfcr be united to the c^rown of France. In 

jflir* thv pnwioce wim conaiderrd the inhi-ricanccof the reigning 

~ '■ aldeit ion, who t«>nk rhe title of Dunphin. 





iOna THE GOOD (L£ dok). 

John, Ihe son of Pbilip TI., htia been cnlled the Jciog of gentl*- 
inei]> MuiG cliivalroufl and more unfc^riunate tlian liin fathi^ri ha 
took for hiB model ilie blind JoLii of B»*heQiia, -who, linked to bis 
kuighta, fought and fdi at Crec/- BuL b« begJin liii!^ reign bj un anE 
of cruelty. On the huri' anspicioQ ihat bis fntber'a prSncipnl conn- 
seMor^ tbe cormLibltJ D'Eii, was kooping up on underBtandm^ with 
the Enplibb, lit' bud him put to death, and beetowed hiu office oo ^ 
farnurite of liis itwn, Cbiirlt^ de la Cerdoi to wLoiu bt; al^o E^v^ ^ 
county of Argniil^irii!. l^ib county bad only luLeiy lit eii ccvied to 
the r-rown af Frimce bj the king of Nararrf, iipun i?onditJon Ihatbe 
Bliouid receive eoma other fieh in tKchan^. Jobn bad witlibeld^ 
fief*» and now t!ie ting of Naviurv iiidignantily laid clium to AEgoo- 
t^me aabin own. 

Charles ot NHvnrre m kmiWD !a biliary an Cbarlai the Bad, IX^ 
cerlainly bis bistorioil character jiisliEiea tbe epithet. But be W 
u mun of grf'at UiK'niE, liiscinating miuinon^ and roMiarkuhLe oId- 
qiiencc ; and va.^ bkcly to be capcciully dhiigcrcuH to John, bccj^u^ 
be had, iu the eyes of eomc men> a very Jujit clnim to ihe ibnjue oi 
France. His njotber being the danghtpr of Louis X^ Churlei woulil 
unquestionably have been the rightful Bovereign escept fijr ihe 
Salic hiw. Jiiiin, anicioitH to convert a rivnl into a friend ^ had gjTtn 
the king of Navaire bis daugbter iu mnrriago. But now tUer* fn^ 
a grave aubjecl of cornpIainL. Four yraia, however, went by heiiire 
CharlaA npeitTy »Jtn«/nd his enmity. Then he sLirpri^d tho coTUiabltf 
De La Uerd^t at the town uf L'Aigto, and canacd him to be tiBaoBaiitM^ 
John waa iutenaely indignant, but he dared n«t ehow it; bia oVA 
posittou ivaa dangoioun. He is known aa Jubn the Good, but |0od 
should 1>e iziterpfeied to mtdLii prodigal, opt^n-bjinded raclter iban Ugh' 
princir^ledr He iipent ir fbe present and promi^d fnr tho fururo* 
nad when he could not obtain moneiy he mado it by altering thaooi»- 
ji^?. Tbia wnAhisgnuidrCBouroe. Al liia accceajon a silver mark, \h*^ 
tlic current coin of France, was worth fire lirrvt and Rve aons'. ^ 
QiiXt year it waa declnred to he worth four livrra, the ypar *fte^ 
r.welvt liiTes, and at length it was eren declared to be worth 10? 
Livrea. The nuCurtU result waa utLer confusion in tho country^ Hx 
promi^A ^ere no aoonvr made than they were broken, an<l m A>tot 
GMBfja tbey ^gimj^^^^ wiiB aioiply contradictory to kt!ep- 1^ 



noUMcf Pioirdj, for inslancer were tnfd ihntlhelriTij wmild nKowthwn 
to ntein ihe rigJil of i^iLrrjing oa pmnte wars; Ibe i^itiienn of fJor- 
moudy wtito unured Lhnt be would prohibit Lhem- Both pnrtica m 
^ttUiLiuJc! voted 9. certain aiLiDiint or aid to tbe rojnl E3-eiibury, and 
Johji w»a ottisRed, iJiou^ti liia aubj^^^u were* not. Bui tli«i iiunhem 
provinf^H of Fnnte were lew nuhmi^nro ihun the fontherti, and pr«- 
piMod to Uk« tb« ^UMtioii iff trixatioD into their own ^loti'JR, mid 
decide (or tbcauieJvcs the BinDiUJt to bo ^d, n>ccjviiij^ ita occounl of 
ife txyjcniiiliirt:' L'pon tbia conditioD thev ng^re^d to nine & l*r^r 
piirUy by dje^^h<'L]e,' uhldi* likeuli Uuiea in those day«, pn^shi^l 
hoiTiiy upon ihe poor. EnglAnd, in the niHdle &g«s in ^^^^ 
KHnib]«<l Fnini>{:, but in Eogland the middle and lovev 
hy degrc«fl giaJnad freedom and powi^r, and vrere abJo to put 

OQtl t<i iha injuBtic* ; wberea* in Frante it wrni oo nilenlly, 
ormting ■ >«dv of opiire»ion which dn^dly drove ibc people lo 
rrvohition- Chwlpit nf NfiT^rro H*»l*l Ijuidn in Pran^?^, and on ih«e 
dfiBium the 'ffabeEle' wan dflmnndcd. But he, with the comte 
d*H ANioiirt And ciber Frexich bari>np» refuacd lo permit it. * No mor,' 
Utiry mi^. ^ iti m\\ Frnnce Bhntild djire to kry the lax n-jthm tbc!t 
ivrii'iriv, but he iJii>nld jia^ for it hy death/ Thi* r^Kiauiace vm 
n»d« kr^nwti la chii kitto. itfid, wniind<Hl Ia []i» quick, he ^sT'OaimedT 
' I liiidJ iu'ver know jK."rf.'ct happinosa whilti ibMO mel) arc flh^e,' 
SMKMniug K fifTiall body of LriiahM, h? left Orleuns, vr]ii?r« be wns 
iImb raffing, and hJW rJdlng for thirty hours nrriTvd nith Mhiijid- 
pfcoion* at the castie af Ilnurn- The n^nphiTi, a* duke of Somnndy, 
VAi holditig hi* coTirc tlirre. It vmt one of the kingV grant grtev. 
4aM» that hie pon hxd mjult^ a choBeri friend of the kiu^ of Nu^aire. 
At liiftt rery moxncDt tb^y v^f feoHting togctW irith rhe comt« 
dUmrcnufl Bud other di&UiipilBhcd gue^a, 

Thff king dixmramted »nd strode inla the hnrn|UOriqg-!j»ll pre- 
OVd^Jtij ft^qiiiro, who cHed, diawing hia iwopd, ■ Let nn on* ptiroti 

ffi<^^ dflatk by thiv svord I ' John Approachad the tahltf and toOk 
of Cbarle* of Nafnrre, lud mdely ahftkbff him eiiclHimfdi 
'TnHoT, th'4]art not worthy tojuEat my Aon^n Uible I I will neither 
tm nor drink whdiit tbf>u Iiveot ( * Chitrf'^ hih ii]Tei4lHed, but rhe 
DiflfJiTh. who wH Tiry younn^ thrffw himiwlf at hiE frtther'k f^«l. 
*AJs«ir,' h* Pichiimed, ' pun diBhonour me I What «ill hi- ^M of me 
vWn I hare rntitod tho king of NankTre nnd bin barons to d!no with 
■f audyou inaX ll^rm Ujui?' ' Sileace, ChnrJei^' replied the king. 
'Thmfatv wtolced traJrjir«; ynu know not nil ihnt I know/ nod ad- 
Wwrinft Tnttil wmt^ d Ifnreourt he Htnicrk him heldml the iihoulderA^ 
■^gkT«ord*n that he, wirh two otliar nobk'H, Hlir^iid aIao be h>lted. 
n« pffivneni were LAken liita ibe o^urtyArd of the ciBtle, uid iillt 
nili ibc evceplkifi of tiie king of Nrnvirre, were beheaded on i]ie 
aot Tbft nek of ChiiTleb niTecl hi^ Itfp^ but he hu caniHj iiff to 




Iho ChitQlttr where he waa trooted with gtait BBTBrit^ and 
ibrefllciied vrith death. 

Tl]ia terrible Cmiredj toot pUice in April 1356, aud in that same 
liS y™^ "'*^' '*^'i'^^'^ ip t^y '^"^ bn>thPT of ths king of XflTarre aii'l the 
brother of the comte d'H&rcourt, broke out between France and 
Engjnnd- Tho Blaak Princo, who was rciaidiTig jit Bordtnux, inraded 
the French torrirorj, Wwiu thoao days was not so mai^h the adraooe 
of a rvgiilar army Ji& ihe iacurALont of ttvit-ips ol brigatida. The Er)g]iah 
left not a shed tn Ft1ie1tf>r a liorsf, md the unlmppy peHuiriTi* r<^tuming 
to tlieir burnt and plundered villapw ollwi couJd not lind a port 
Htandirg to enable ^pm ro eaj^ ^ Thie waa mj home/ nr * mj ia- 

Johu mfidu TigorouB preparHlianFi to repiilH> l]i4 Ibe. He had 
lrf),000 mfin, ih^ prince not nbove 6,000 ; but wliea, afl^r much ticit 
had been lort on bot!i aidee in flcotimg tho country to ohtain accu- 
nttc iTifoTinacia]] of the portion, of tJic roBpc-ctive orrnics, the t>ro 
forccH rntCi in tlit neigh bo urhooil of Pijttiera, the jjriTH^e, fiiiding bis 
troi^ps wflll plawd, rietemiinptJ ai; aTl risks to hazard a haitit. 

The English wert* ulatiritied en tho elope of a hilJ inferwcWd with 
bed^B and TinejaHs, and which eould only be Approuthc^l irtMn 
Poitiers by & narrow, hollow cauHevaj belween two Ptccp bants. It 
was scarcely ponsihk^ thereftn', for ceialry to draw near. Behind 
the hodgefi nnd in diiehps ring fbr the rfOLj^inn the F.ngli^i iiruben 
were bidden, aiid there wjlh hIho nn ambiiEoade of GOO koigblB and 
archere under a lamoUB hni^bt, the Capt^l dc Bocb. 

The battle began (he fnllowiti^ morninj- ihe I5di of Seplcmbrr, 
13'}&. Al^tr a vain ait4!nipt at mediaiiun madcb^ ^wnpapjiZ l^ai»i 
who were with the French amy. two Frpnch marshals with a <?bosen 
body of knightB charged gallanily up the hollow way atrivinf^ to 
rcaoh the hcighU where the EngJiah were posted, but rhey were 
I luufiiled by the archers from hchind the hedges and by the Cnpial de 

L* Biich frtrmi his Bjnbuseade^ and thrown into coiifiiHioHr A« they 

■ turned baet the prince of Wales, acting hy the adviee of Sir Joltn 

I ChQndoSf ruBhed down from the heights and ehargod tlia French in 

I Front, and the fortnntiaof the dny were then decided- The Dauphin, 

I Charlen, and liiii two brothers toile away fium the Jidd of totuZ^ 

I followefJ by ftOO tnighlB. The iniofiH i^omniiinfJefl hy ihp dtike of 

I OrUans Jbliowed bin example. The ting remained, rl^-aliog blows 

I on ail sides with h'vr battle-nne. Hie j-oimge«t eon, Philip, ki^pt dow 

^K by him, warning him — ^ Falher, etrlkc to the Hght, now to the left i' 

V but Htill iht foe presM'd forward, and eugei triea were heard from 

W ihone near! ' Yield I yield 1 or jou are ili-ad I ' A kniglit of St. Omer, 

I tall and powerful, made hia way throngh the crowd. ' Sire, are. 

yield ]' be fiTcliuined. ' To whom should 1 yield ?'^id tb^ king. 
' Where is my counio the prinoo of Waica? 'Sire,' annwered th« 




knight, '1 Am Denifl de Morhewjut, a knight or ArioH; but I am in 
th« urvice r.i£ th« kiag of England, becaTiec 1 hnva forfeited my Jonds 
in Frmtice/ * Than," replied John, ^ I yield inyMlf to you,* and as 
be spoke h« tOBHed hio ri^ht-buid glove lo tbe kaig^lit an a token of 
mboiJiwiuQ. He wh[> t^kto tii tbe |irince of Waleiif hdiI tfuL hbiti^ 
ert^DtDg tbf Black Prince waited upon his royal prisoner it dipper na 
if h« had b*«Q his own futh^r, and endeavonnng to console bini by 
Aying, ^ Atj noble hit, though it was not God's Will that jou should 
■ran the day* yet the pn»j of valour is youta, tuuoe cvtry Engliehmaji 
saw that none Xxie bims&lf so bravely a^ you/ 

Jnbn wofl firtit carrit-d lo Bordeaux, hut the next spring be waa 
ooavcy^ to Kngfand, and made hit entry mlo Locdoa upoD a vrbitfl 
honCf uhiIsC th*^ prinoe rode by h\s aide on a anudl block palfrey. 
NomiDalJy he vmn a pri»o(i«r io the Savoy Palace, but lie vat Uealei] 
BS a diHlJnguinhtid gueftt. The grHaWr tiumlier of the Einmeroiin 
pri*crnfira were ncnt tjnck Co Fnince oo tha promise that th^ wonld 
■peediLy remit their radaaRi, 

The alarm of the inhubilanta of Pons vas great ivhon the futri- 
tirei ftora Poitiers, with the Dfluphm at iheir htad, returned wilii tJic 
ivfiort that the king wok in the handa of ibe hated EnglUh, Very 
hUlc help wuB to be eipeeied frnm the Dauphin ; he waa but nine- 
teea, weak and timid, and woa known only ns hvfiag iarilod ihe 
frienda of the king of Navarro to the fainl dumer at Rouen viJ 
fcATLug given \he si^cal ibr flight at the bottle of Poider& 

But Paris was rftwly to proie<;i it*clf. Eiienne Marcel, *pr*vfii 
dOH nwrchaDdo,' orthecbief iuagititTat« of the city, gnvs orders for the 
dcftnce. Cluuna were forgod to prevent any nurpriBe by theKngliah 
•t night- The wallm were niised, and on them were placed the few 
cacaon «h!eb PariA pOBbCbHed. And uot only wiu clie old city on 
ih« itland in the Seiao thus fbrtiit^d, but walls n^re built round the 
fluborba, which h»d by this time extended far on eaeh lide of IIl« 
rirer. These preeautiona required a long time for their oom- 
pl^LOD, and in the lueftatime Martial took advantage of the coq- 
dicon of ibiT ccuutry to endtiivour lo obtain fi'OTii the Dauphin cer- 
lain important pn^ilfgea for ttie lower ordere. The StiiWa-fienBral 
vers Asemb^ed at V^rat a month after the fatal battio of Poitiera. 
The Dohleii wore for the moet p*rt priEonera, The biflhopa did not 
afipear. Th^ Dnuphiu heard the complainln brought forward, bat, 
not b«Ti^ kiag, he i^onld do noibing to remedy dietn, aud therefoie 
wipBtawav to Metz if^ receive hia uncle the emperor CharleelV. of 
GerrnaAy^ whilst the queen mother departed Ibr Dijoa to arnuige a 
fiunilT mArriA^c. The country was then IcH to govern itaeJf, A 
frightful lime followed. When the hatoiiA releaaed from capliTlty 
IB England returned 1A^ France to collect (Jieir rananm, they vrere 
obliged to extort it from the pessiEita. The pcxir people, in th&ir 



despair, UH tliElr liuTDEa&Dil llirunj^^til Lurail^. 4nd b^jnd tb^rn CtiTDe 
rTCinjPriof HiRhnriJorl soldiuTrt. pilli^^rng find killing, and even VirtiinDg 
thi! iitihnpp^ iibiittjiQlR, who had naLbing Dior? to give. Tbi^ Danphln 
diemLifioif urn StatOR-Gaavtni when he foi^nd the difiic^ult <]ti?atioaA 
which were under discuMicn. liiit they wore niminonGd ogaio m 

iSi F*^*'*'"^ '>f ^'*^"*'*ty''^'"n35')' TheiiRoben]eCoq,blshtipo£ Lson, 
a friend hoth to the king Hnd the peijplf, an^JoTimred to brLtip itbnut 
an nmicahio flstll&menC of |>nb]i<i affuin. A lint of griDT:iDi!C9 wn^ 
pTOnrntcd to the Dnnpbin, witb nn nddn-ss from the Slatya-Gtiicral 
Tlie Dauphm ^a&Advir^cdCo fear God, aad tohDiiourlllDiinhoDotiniig 
Hla miniHlPT^. }le wua wnriiifd That ha ^uuld N>nd fkr from him Eh-> 
vriok^d, and liniLnn /inr In t^iR nann^l? cf the young, Hiiripk>, ujd 
ijjnornol ; and, in ordftp t)iat th« nocaaenry relnrma ahoiild ba curritd 
out. ii was propwtfd that a tomraittte of thirty-six pornnnB nhuuJd 
be iiuinLjiiLLed by t]m h^UtE'-^ tu aid the Danpliiii Vkilli thf^ir advice trlicn 
Lhe BRi^emhly wji? uol fiitllu^. A kind of co[iB^r,utEDnHl ^nvnrij- 
ra^nt wfl9, in fact^ planned, whicli would entiiefy put a. stop If* tht 
anroruigtj'a nb™lutc oulhority. If thc&e propopnla wtro n^ccd tn^ th<* 
StJitea promiBed to raise Jind support by n aiibaidy n body oi" 30,0<Mi 
mon» 111 be oouunuiidtd by officers dittsen by ihfiniatjhes. 

The Daiipbin Hignpd the nrdinnnce, hut ^ecrvxly Iif proi'iin^d from 
hiA falh<>r a rofuHil to mtily it, nad tb^n, atipporc^ by hian'tbJefl, who 
in^i^i Jiiiu to maiat the Qucroru-liEnciit^ of the ciTizcua, he foTbade hi" 
Bilbjecta to pay the taxen wkich the States }tju1 voted, Ktienne 
Marcel remonsLrated, aod tlm Daupbin rexoked the prokibiiiaa, Hih 
v/eakoesa wns fatal to himeelf and to hifl people. ^I'one could Ictl 
vrtom to cbcy- 

Mttrcd nnd his frienda, leuringthepowGroftKc nobles, now tooli 
A Btep vrliicb woa det^ciictive to ibelr own hDiLoor. Oo tJie nijibl 
of thif Bt]i or ^th cf ^'ovtl□U;r- tbcy releiui'd Cbiirlea of NarofTC 
by Ibrce fttyta his priaon, brought hirn to Paria, and allfHT^d him W 
make a public oddrfl^a to tho ficopb Irom a kind of pu}[>it ouieidf 
tbe thurcb of St. Gornioin dcs Pr^a. The Dnupbin ^vjl'^ prcnenl, 
With an iandioua gentleneae ihe king of Navarre Addri:fi^«^ him. 
^ Wliy/ ht aftkftln ' bad he ln?en dtatruALtd ? Waj* be noT Fr#™h 
Jfoth on hU fiitbCT'fl and bi« tuothtr's »ide ? Waa he not oven ne»r«r Vi 
the crovra than the king of England 7' So long Kud eo do/|U(^riI 
woa tbo oddrofiA that the i-iCiEenn of FanaBlIow^d tlicir Bupp^-boitr 
to pii3i in lifit*^ning, and ^htn he conchcdedall were prepansl lo look 
to liim ni their iemdir Thp npit day the young DmrJiin miul*i an 
■ddrewi, but ic i#aa Ii^ei i^xciting than tlint of th« ktMg of NavMTCiT 
Andr beeidoe, the people had fiiith in iho powor of Cbarlea the Bttd; 
ihey thonpbt he could deliver them from the briganda. Civil war 
wan immintnt. 

Tlie Duuphin obom (bts time again bad recourap to tbe foUl 





cKpedieut of alt^riiu; ihtt current coic. The very ^f uftor thi' onlrr 
WW uBmU MaiueJ and a cruivJ of hit £jlloHens Hi.-iiriD;^ led And 
bhu hood^ ihe i^olourfl of cha towii^ l^roeJ iKtir wny iqUj ihe iipan- 
BMAtt of th4 tfriiic?^ ^iih wham they fouod hia lybiet advisers, th« 
mArtluttA ?r Criamp«gii4^ and NMrnn^Jy. Roi^lily uJdfo^ng hira, 
Uicy mClcd jpOQ bim to rcatorc 4»rdeT in f Ij^ kin^otn^ The Dtiuphin 
rrpll^dt wilii mure Uildjina tLaii iuuhIh ' 1 woulrl du dO wiliiugly if 
1 had the mt^ftn^ but ihow who po»v4GSK the r«venu«ft of ibe coonCTy 
■re the T>eT«niu to akc thargc of if/ Angrj vordi foUovpd, icd 
«t U&^a M&rc«l, tuming tv his loiloMtirBr excliLimo<If * Tio your 
hunimr— i^ioJckly.' utd infitaiit^y the in<;n threw thL-iuaelves upon the 
iuiku|^ numhal ofCbjiiu^ngne anil kilW hLm gIom loiht; Daupltin's 
ODiub. The nvmhal of Noniian'ty a\\\ti hhnMlf up in an adjoining 
bm he aJM Via tJik^i:] and Icill^, The Daitphin ivnflalont ; all 
oBio«TB bud rt&d, * Save my \ih^ ho fixclaimi>l u> Mjircel The 
fVOVOBt rf?|'ii4^Z liiot ihiTe waa uothina; to fvar, and giTJriq him oac 
of ibu rfd Jiini blyr liiAwii* biide hiiu proiect hjiiistlf by the city 
fotoun. M*rcel then left the [wlftCf irui j»rin?pi-(Ipd ti iKp Place de 
U Gl^YC, where h mob wiu UB^timblcd, AdJr^aaing tbem Irorn ■ 
wiadov, he loJd Ih^'m iLut thoav who hfkd bcec killed were traiu-rri, 
ADil dHUOiuied if they would eupirort liiiu. Many uscnTfd, cryin;^ 
OiU dnt tlivy Mould lie Wis ih Ufi- uid in death ; iwd Mnrc4.-J rrjuiu- 
ly rouiroed tu ili^ unfurtiiQare DflUphJn, to tuoore him that rhere 
bv DO *Dxi*ty. What luid been done wii to avoid jl greater evil, 
h WM the will o( the pcopte- He hjid only U> ny that he 
ol The iHiiphia cjtjld not hot imhiiLit, and fuur duje aftr^r 
» obU^vd to jKlniLt the kin^ of Navarre to UU int4iiuu.y, md 
t^ lb* ODimittad uT Ukru«l and Robert Je Co^^ dine with him 

JfATMl Lhooght he had gained ibe support of thi^ king of Xavarr«, 

bo liad Icvt that of the Sialea-Gvoirrii]- Mnny oJ^ the depuiied 
Psri*, det«miitied no lon^r to tuke part la a goTernm«nt 
bad fidi«ii into tnch hudu, and when rhe Dauphin retired to 
CcBif'i^nu lb« nuMe« atno ^therod round bim. 

Al ibia criua a leriibleevil burst upon the afEicted country. 
Tba brigaoila had bt^cctmc a ix^wcrfid Icice and itpreud tlieniBelvH 
ffvar lb« isuuntfy^ Tbt citiiene of Paris dared not allow tht^ liella ol 
tk^ oborebvi to b« rmip ejccepc once in the evening. I«t they might 
faU M b«ar ll4 approach of the bvles bandH; and icifi said that they 
Vftd* • TMiTc <rfferin^ to fht (LurL-b cf Notro Dmne of a wax taper 
Uh koftb uf ibc aruujt of tliiRcity^ 

TIm alarm vaa even ipaaier in the proTinccB. There the pca- 
^■ia Air««l Mrt alaep. Un Ibe tuofca of the Loire they paMed the 
■Igbl OD llw IilU« idaada &c*r ihe river, or in bmta oncbored in the 
Bt*4'ff* of iC la Picardy the iahabilont* dng pita in whicb to hide 



themflelTe^. fn otbor plai^ea rJit-y took posHe&^mu of cxvcrn& 
appear to huve liten formed in the Norman limea, aod wliiiili (<l>d- 
HiPtcd of gnlleritfn with eb*mbeTB oa each aide, and jl woU and shftft 
in the <:ciitrc admitting both air otid ^vater^ Here the irotncii and 
diildreu hid ihemficLvea wliilut iha nien atule cauriuuslj out to aee if 
their encmipfl ware ppar. Bui famine ovtrtork tht^n^ and then in 
iheir turn the pensiinti hecAme rnbbflrs and atfjiplted Ibc noble*, 
Thi^ proud br^aDs had tuughod m tho pcuL^nt Vthcn Xhny DppT««a^ 
him ; thoy hiid called him Jflci^iiofl Bouhfimmo ; and now Jacqut* 
gtLve his auuiti to l1><- moat rtiglitful p€;LB>ta£ in&iirrecliuii which has 
ever been known. Tln^ JacqujTiu ha^ become n general nam* for 
the mnflSBcrt of the rich hiodowner by ihe poor cottager. The 
foudai tflflLlefl wore pillaged and burol, and tim aaTag^a oiurdcred not 
odIj ihe baron? but their wivei and cljildreOf and whilst atoiaed 
with the blood of ihdr victima drfiswd ibeniHeUte in the splea- 
did robe!4 which had ba<?i; worn by them. Tfio nobler, withont 
wny disfiiiction of party, unitod aa one Tnan ngaiat,i tJie^e atrocitiM, 
Churlett of Navarre invitod the principal pfaeiuit leudera to a coa- 
fercDcei and tlien aebed tbcm, ajiA crowned him whom they c&IW 
th^lr king wlih red-hot iron. But MariL-l could not aQlird ihim io 
make nn enemy of the TTfteiperi*-, nnd, encouwigf-d nnd supported bj 
him, the peaamtA beaiegt'd Mvaux, where the wi(b of the DaiipLint 
With tho diichnsa of Orleana aud about 80U ladies of nrnki luui 
tftken Hl;eller, A horriblt; innsaacre Kemed every loouiuit im- 
peiiding, when wine EijgJlbh knigbtA who w^r*! in ihv neigh tiourhood. 
beaded by ilie Ciipr^l de BncK. heHring nf the danger to whioh thff 
ladi«s ware exposed, rode gailimtly to Miiaui, and ftttflcking the 
insurgents enabled the b'.'^if^d citizcnii to miikt n nucceu^ aiUlj 
nnd hoalij to aucceod in ullerly rpuling thu ptaBoutfl. 

Then came the trinmph of the noblejf, and cmelly was it alii- 
bitfld- The peasants wfi-e hunted down [ike wild lieasta in every 
dLrectiDOi and in thu conise of a few wotka the quietnefic of di?dob- 
bon Teigned in the disturbed dietricts, whilst the Dauphin ood hit 
uoblufl entuntpeJ with a lafj^e zirmy befura the Walls of Piuu, wheir 
Mnrc4-1 nnd liis piirly «rili held smiy. 

The king of Navarre, who was then at Si. Denia, treated Becrollj 
with ihfl Danphin, and wiM otfvred dOO^lXtO florine if he would na- 
dertakc to compd Paria and Morcd to jield, whilst at the yerj 
KimH time he wo^ receiving largo euma every week I'niTn Man^l hr 
tlia payment of his Troops. Marcel, Jndo&d, woa alwnya on the rhJ 
to St, Denia to conaiill with CbarltH of NavorrOi and uet the NaTorrCW 
BoldioTA were dovnsUitiog the country up to tho nalU of Pnria. Tha 
citiieoB grew aiiHpicioud and ffavc him notice that they weit reeolv^l 
to chastise the Navrirrese. They njJuJe a Hortie uouordingly iu liio 
direction of St. Cloud, and without h&ving Eteen an enemy wert 



renaming very vrevrj — for jhe venihGi wsa hot (it wu the 2^ad of 
Joly) — di^^g their sivurda aud luving imltmaened their visnra, 
wfiPQ a body cf atmut 400 men ^udd^nly appeared in th« rr«ii M.nd 
fell apon ihem. The vLlizen« tled^ ]>iit 700 were kill^tl before tLey 
oould T<Ach die gjhi«£. Tbi blamt! woa thrciwD upoD Marcc], U 
wi9 ihougbC he had been treAcheroui and given DCtice to theenuny, 
vid his life nas id conariiiii-Dce in Uie greniAtt dariger- Hvi had but 
one resource left — to give up cvorythmg to the king pf Navftrr*— 
hifficelf, uid Parie, and the kiii)fdi>iQ if he coald. 

By a secret tre&ly with (JharlcH the Bad it wofl agreed that en tho 
night <jf the 3l4t of July tlie key a of the ciiy should bedcllTtsied ap. 
Tke agrevueai^ huwuvf^r, wad not kept hi iwcrtt but iliat it wuhsus- 
pec;t#l, and Ji^an Maillart, ^^ne of ihe HhentfTH of I'ariSf who deaired 
wi aUiuDi^e *rith the Dauphin, prepared Ut dof4>at it A liCtl« Lcforo 
midnight oa the Dppoicitvd ai^ht Maillnrt luii tvru of the chief 
Indere of the Dauphln'a fjarty irerc at the Potte St Atitoiue, by 
which the NjivnrTL'M- vtre eo hv lulmittpd. Here ibpy found M^rceJ 
with the keya in hi? haada. MuilWc af.*PO!>ipd him: ' Etienne, 
EtiaDni?. %rhfit doat thou here at thu hour/' * What is that to thee 7 ' 
rtplied Manuel. * I lun hero to^uard tho city, which lain my uharg^' 
^fiy HtT^veo it is not hi !' exchiimtd Uailliiri. ' Thou urt here for nu 
good purpose. See' and he Lurued (o hia &ierub4. ' Ilit hia* the keys 
d lh>f ^r^a iu hia handfl ; be would heCrav the city ! * Thou lieat I ' 
«xeiainied Marco! . ^Nay* traiiarr but ttou lieriC ! ' rophod MjtiJLart, 
tad he almch Marcel with hia wcapou, at ibe fame tiuie cajhng out, 
"Death, death to him and to hia foUowciaJ they are traitors all I ' 
The unhappy provost was felled to thv ground and killed vitli six of 
tb foUowem, the rpst bejnp made pn*>nera. 

The aetl morning Maillart ^ummcirLed a public oiw&mbly and 
idated the «Tenca of thi,- uight. Load wcfe the expreuionA of thank- 
hJaeiifi, aud when, two dtiy'^ aftflrvardsi lli« Daupfaia eutertd Paiia 
Imung ti|ioa Mj^rt'^l't murderer, theacetaruattonaaDd rejoidngB wer^ 
yetvore vi?h4?mei]t. 

But with all Lhiri appearance of aatiafaction tho people had bat 
little ConBdence iu thi? Dauphin. Hia toll, ap&re fonu, hla pole com- 
ptsjtlou, aad Icng, uit^bnubuly face wen; disFrJc^iug tu thuiu. They 
expected nolbiDg From him. He knew neither how to Iota nnr how 
(0 hale. Everything ^v&h bome with the sime air of iudiffkr^'nce. 
On ihc day of hie eatry iuto Parie a citizen came up to hlru and 
«id with an oath* ' If they had littenei to me, itirei you would uever 
hnt eat«red Faria ; but tiie peoplu will do litcle for you.^ A tioble' 
aun *T*'^^'^g near woiird have ki[1od the oma on the epo^^ but the 
I>iiiphui tfopped him and replied quietly, * lam learcely beliereyoii^ 

Paris had been nearly atarred beforej it wab in no beUer condi- 


tion now> Ttfl king of NflT^irrc stojiped tlia commmLicatioca with 
the ]}Tovitices, uqU the pe^^^iarjia whu hud raiiAbt sAfecy in lIiv ui.j 
wfefe utiftble lo rotuni to their homes. The EnglUh. too, wtrB 
Hddiog: to the general anaerj. Tbuy establi^hj^ theaLselvoB whtre 
thoy Uioupbt fil, and tht-re was no one tooppofie ihem; and at length, 
in utter deHpairi the DnUj'hin iitui tho kln^ of Nnv^rre agreed Xo n 
jifuin% whiclif though dit^vuuCagQoua to the DiLuphm, vrould at least 
)pvts brwkfliing-tinie to the counlty. Bui ppiu^ -was not ■□ store lor 
t'fEJice, ior at this time newa arrived from L&ndtm that cha caplive 
king John had mado n Ei'cfLty, ceding Uj ]:,ngla[K] at Ifinsb onQ-hulf of 
his doiuiiiiouA ; and the Duuphin* ruu^ from hU aputhy. itut odIt 
rel^iat^d to acknuAlbdge tlje diehououriLbif' luinty, but iLsat^inbliug Ehi' 
SiatPB'G^nfT:!! nt imc« rleclarad war with England. Edward IIJ, 
took the held with the tull intention of conquering Franco^ but ht^ 
dt^td aW< to make yvttr comforEably- Tho English curried vitii 
tlicm tflrrijigea, nulla^ forgea, cvenr, and all kiuda of mfvable work- 
rfiops, Thpy evtn fiimirJiod thtniwivea wilb pacts of hounds for 
fhe chMe^ r'rid skifTa with whidi they roigbr fish in theriFer*m Lent 
Therfi was some reason inde^ Eur tbebe prepariLtioiifl. Frnncu wa^ a 
ileotTt, no ctopfl hnWiij* Wn sown for ihrec ycAra. 

*^^ Landing at Caluia on tlie 2dtlj of October, 1359, ibe Englifi 
Hrmy marcrhed in the m'ldKi of ram nnd mud to Rhfima. Th^e 
Edward had b«t bU h^art upop bemg crowned, but Bevon wceki 
paesud ivhilst he vnta hotnc^a^ the citVi and tlcoa he gave up tfac^ 
fltttfjupc und marched int-o Burgundy. 'Tke d\ih- of Durt;undy piir- 
chufy.'d die iiEUlratity of bis dumiulutib for 200,000 gold crowDn^ and 
the Engli&h ratirerl and eucaniptd near Paris. ' From the Sein? to 
KtrLinpetf,* Bays a c^oDlemporai^ eyB-yviiiiUbt^, ^ tberrj w?u not at (fall 
time & man to bo seen.' Everyone luui iiikcn rtfu^o iu the aaburba 
of Purid, aud from ihe liei^btri the amoke <if th*; biirniLUif village in 
tb« tjuvirous wiLi viMbie. Yet BOw&rd darod not AUack ihti city; 
why 19 ikoE known. HcmoVfdhifl troopn tawardn th@ Loire, promisiTig 
ibem that tlity flhould roTum cud phiader i'ariB in the autumn, 
But hefoTO tb« autumn arrived his plana wita entJToly cbangcd' 
The English Boldjem were wearied out with {jrivation and iii«> 
tivity, luid K Mrrilic teiupent which bruku cipou them^ at ChiirrreB 
utterly B»bdu«d Thtir spirit, Edward, touchtd by their suflfering* 
and by the miaery of Franco, tnadsi it ia said^ a row to restore 

*-Jj ponco. On the tlth of May, 1360, a treaty wo-i concluded a* 
UretigJiy by which ihi- province of Aqiutaia^ and Jour coutiti» hJ- 
Joiuing CaEuiH werti ceJud to En^lnnd in full KivBrpigniy, vrhiJ^t tho of king John VTTtA fixed at three mil^iona of^^ruwiXB- BdwaH 
of Eiigtuud, on hia part, ranounc^ hiu claitn not only to Uia croira 
of FtuiLce, hut ulfio lo the &ncJcnt poddCBSoOB of the PlanUigeuvCfi 
north o£ the Loin. 



Tbia tt&Axy cicit«d the aCmoBi joy in Patia, Tlic Dauptua And 
iho Englioh djmmudoaer irtidt togetLi-r tu tte chumli of Nutre 
Dmiw to svearto iUobserronr^o. Tiie h^ila uf the cburche* ptulud 
fertii marCTj- The dergj ordered theTeDeuiu to beeuns, Every- 
one vu thoukfitl except tbufit vtho, h\c UiG jutuoutl;!^ hiul miide 
ibrtuEkea by the war. 

The province* giv^m ap to England hitd mj ivlfih. however, to 
fcroftin Kngli«h. The pi^ople of Koohelle exprf!i<wd the ^iier;i| 
f««liiig vhrn they attid, ^ W« ^hmll iubmit to tho EngH&h with our 
tipAf but never with our htarta.' Fr*Tn;o bad in &« bocomo ona 
gfrat fknii. irorketl for the bcaefi^of Eaglanir Tilt? peupEe laboured, 
hot it VM «[l1j to pay ihe prodigtoiu fluiu detmuidcd for the king'fl 

The fint mfltaJmeat touM ^farcely b.ive boen raised bur for the 
MCTifice innde by ibe king in ptrnuttiop the niatnnpc of hia yomig 
dangliKT Itabdle to tha boh of the fert>uouB Gtdeazto ViBcoiiU, duke 
of liilBii. lueteBd of receiviug a dowry uith iLv Lttle piiuL-eim, ilie 
4iikir, «ho ihonghi th0 nuuriAge noiild reader him luore r^ijecE^ble 
ift iIm ffta of the tt&Iianfl, ooiuoni^ to give one, and the buju thus 
«|itueni w*« jviid to EnglfkmL 

At length Juhu wiuMt fre«, and ou the iStfaof December made 

jA^fbl entry luto Parla. But Lh« troub]«a of Ida rvi^^n VHre not 

Th* terrible plagiie^ the BJzick DmUi, rouppcBrifdj and the 

«u aniunf^ ite fir^t victims- Th« youiiff doke of Bui-gund)* 

Lj her first marnH^t', wba bIb^ fltniek down by tt, oail Juhu 

pfiin 1 1 nod cnftde good biji cLxIm to the duchy, vhlch he bc- 

sit nprm hia yoangcBt fton^ Philip — afterwards imown m duke 

pthff tt<t!<i — HS a recornpenHie l«<ci it nas expre^^ly amied id t!^e 

) f^yt tho coumgo and filial difVotion ihown by the prince iu 

MvDilictg bia fnthtr at tb« bnttlE o{ PoitUr?. 

It WEU DOt liug alter ihla that prjocs Xjouia, John'a wcond sfiti, 
■fco lifld he«n left hi a bontagealCulain iiiL<!cFtl>e trenty of Brecfgny, 
bvcaoM vtwy of fail (ronfinemenT and oi^^perf- Jobn'44 sf^nw of 
h u n um ««■ disoply vounded by thia net- Ut jBUrrender«d Itiui^elf 
tfsifi V ■ priBoneT to Eupbrid, and ivrrivcd in London in Joiituiry 
^ t9M« PftGii» dinuent, iiiid iiup|i?rb were prvpuvd for lE^<; j^opuJar 
fiapiiv*, hvn \a th^ miditt cif these enieruj amenta Jcjbn wa:^ tikkea 
iB, u^ aft«r a abort p^riof^ of mff^Hng died ni the Savey Pit]nc<i 
#■ llw Ctb of April, at tho ugn of forty-^ve- &lvud lILgavD hiiii 
« aunfCootw fnncial at St. Paul^ on -which occofuou, nc are lold by 
M i^e-wiTDtVi, ihat 4,000 torches, tvi-lvu f(ct high, and 4,000 wax 



CEUfiLES v., LE fiiG£ (lOl WEU^, 

A.T>. ias-4iSBo. 

Tbe young king CbarlcB V. wan, it hti* hovn uid« bcro old. ITjs 
litallh w^u l>ad, owm^ to huvjog tati:u puiiwDf euppomd to luiTe b^Q 
udtniniptered ihroiiEh the agGTicy of CharlM of Nnvftire. A Ger- 
man pliyHiciaa haji stopped tlie progreRfl of the poioon at tlie tim^ 
bj oppiiing ail ii«ue in tho arm, btil Cbwloa vwj toid thai wljtnever 
VIQ tasue should closQi hia Lfe could not be prolcLiged fifteflo d;ivPn 
Tbia aiitici|>ati<fii of lOjjLDbt sudden dtuith ul juiy moruf jjt dcmhiJiiw 
tended w give him Ihp ^tuvp, ihnnglicful cbaract^T which gained for 
h^m tb« iiAiDfl cif Li> Sage, Wjirt tio br 09 rcgird^d bis ]>enMinnl 
c^orta, wofi on imfioaBibilitjr lo him. He bad b awollt^ hand aod 
could not bold a lonco. He never rode on bomelinck, Aiid wn9 tbe fint 
1(111}^ XTho could bf.' re^jreyeni^d in bin i-JligLea aa seahvL Bih pltf- 
flore WHH study aad the conipntiy of learapd men. He lived eitlier ar 
VincenDei, tbo LouvTti. orbiBtiobJep&laceorHdtal deSL Pol, built in 
tbe c<jntrc oT a larj^a gnrdaif almoat a j~inrlc» This p&lacCt a perfr^jl 
]ab)TL]itJt or^p^tments wttinKotedwiTh mrewoodH, and tbe chluiuey- 
pieijeii supported by coloa^al bUiLueii of iiieii ;uid liuiinitK vm* re* 
Henredforthe prinreaoftbe blooii royal, and tilchena, lirtJers, bake- 
houfiea, and all thingB needful for a perfect Tityal QetflblishmGnt wcrp 
providi^d in n manrior to n\x\t the cumoqib of tbo iig& Hom, Imi 
fbr tbe unhappy caaditiuij cE the cuxuitiyj Charles le Sajfo uiigh; 
hflVfi livfd \m enjoyahle and unpful life. As h whs, he conid never 
have knowD a rpflllj prajoefu! moment, bulhe neuertheleaa iX»nlriTci 
According to thu mudora French e?:prvmDii, ^ to doBierve vtili of hia 
country.' Seated in his Htiidy, he dtfied armie* and iuaurretlioai 
agiied Ct-Eutiea wbich luined Euglundf uud iuti^erBd in the Jt&inof 
tha papacy to rhe ajigmndi'ieinent rjf France, 

Tb& country had then (hree evila to conlond with — tbe Eokluii, 
tho Xftvarrflfl«j and the compaiiicfl of )iirod eoldiors who inicBtea thf 
provinces. The Arat act of Chnrlca was to choose able provinctul 
governors and valiant military Iiyidertt Laoguedoc was given to hit 
brother Lf>uU of Anjou ; Philip was confirmed in his duchy of 
Burguij Jy ; the eentre of Frant'e Churlei was to protect hiaiBjIf. 
But h<j uoeded an arm^ a etrord, and auch oould 011J3' be found 
amongAt the Bretona. 

Bertraud du Guescliu, the son of a pool Bretoa guitleuika, 
had from hia childhood heea marked out for diHCmctioa, yet 


Hot ti'om any ppr«onnI nttnii^tjonii. He waaDl'iiiiiTdl^ mc, nfn bmvrn 
Mnplcdoiij oDd hfid a flAt DOW, grucn oy«A, wido ^houldi^rSf long 
DiUB, snJ emdJl faacJiL Rou^h and rude, scinecimc« figbt^np; with 
bis companicDB, someTiiiii^a t«a«ujg aod buitiiig them, lie \ias dt oae 
dme flbnt np bj Tiia feiher ; jet it vsas decidpd that he jnu«r ulti- 
aateJj b* riraotis, for a nun hat^ pro-Jicterfl that he rtoufd Ihe to Iw 
t TmliAnt htii^ht, and tuch nlsohad been tb« prophecj of a certain <So- 
jMHaeileTiphaiDfc.whtiiDtbi: Brston^ deemed ft Borceres*, but whom Da 
jiwBclin neveitbele^ffl* wlien lie \:flnie tu luan s ealate* dioBe to mmry. 
And hrnve Dn Guef^'ilin imqucationahly wun. But h*- vat* hpnidpij 
ihrowd juid clever in hU pinna ; he knew liow to forowe und to pro- 
ride fof emergenoicB, find pref^irrtd to 0OD<]tir?r hy artifice ratlier than 
bv Aiw». Fmnce could Acarti-lj- hare hod & better loader. The 
cfioaen chantpiun of a king wLo eould not do buLtle I'ur LrnuwFf, 
On Gn^flclJD'fi Arwt nt^hicv^nieni wai? warlike. He fluhdued thi- 
KiTtfree^, and iheii turned his iilt^ation to the war which woa adll 
beiog corned oti ia Brittai^y, The Englieh wore Aitpporting SVIont- 
foit, and the Frectch king mot 1,0()0 kaces, tinder Do GneHciin^n 
diaige, to the aid or Charles of Bloia. They wer^ defeated at t])« 
&nioiu bnitle of" Auray. Du Gaesdia b^ing unhorsed, wan uikon 
ynxmeTf and Charles of fiLoie wjjh killed. Moutfort sh^ teAre ovtr 
liir body of hia rivnl, for he regarded him aa a raiot. The hajr- 
■^>lh wijm by Ch^rlea htotath bia cuiia-s redrtmgd juiiay ofient^e? 
ia hiA eypfi. and it was rtmemberefl new that ihe tvnnt of Bloin hfid 
liagbt luoi fiw liEiTiBQlf^ hutout of regard fnr bin wife, who by birth was 
ihv heiroae of Brittanj- The king nf Fmttec, who took no plcoBure 
m «ar, now mode a treafy with Montfort, and persuaded the widow 
*f{ CbarlcB of Bioin to renl conteated with the dui;hy of Ptnthifri-ri! 
ud wnne otb^r leader terriloneR, and having cttun a^curod the alle- 
gitaee of Brittariy turned his atiertion to more vital uffuirH, 

The loog war hnd iaHicted grievous wonnds on the coiiiLtry, and 
prneiaJ oieBirure^ fcir the benetit of the people could not be carried 
o&ti hut iiidiviiJuul ulmk uf prMtt^liLrii Uj the opprei^aed tended UJ 
JwLore confidence in ihe gottrutiient. Lirtle, however. Cimld hf 
^imt wbilal the FreeConipaniej^ fir"t br'>iiprht into the cojnTry by th* 
EngHah, were ravagiog the provmceB, Fortunaroly for Fruncp a civil 
■uin Spain bToke i>ut about thJ^ time between Pi^dro tho Cnid, king 
of Cftrtile, and bia illei^timate brother Hear/ of TmHiamarti, Pedru 
W rendered himsell' halffiil by his tymnny and by tha mardor of 
iii *iie, Blanche of Bonrbon, the aialer of the queen of Fraoce- 
Tbe raf^mbcTH of hia familv dreaded n similar late^ and Hcary of 
TraHtamare Il«d a<;roi5^*< iht; P^reneeis and appt^arin^ at ibe court oC 
Cluuleis i^atrtzuCiid his :iid ni depoAtug the tyrant, 

Cliar]t>4 was cinly Koo gind to litiien to the proponab It gfive him 
ihe opportunity of ridding the country of tlio Free Companioua 




Eut n liNLder vaa neodtd, unJ Uu Guasdlio was etlU iu priajD. 
ChurluB jjuiJ bis rnuKjfti oa condhioD of hia undertukio^ thu eJtpo- 
diiioD u^tinHt Sp^u. 
*,& In Deocmber 1363 Du (lii»*dm entered Caulonia, sod Pwilro — 
''^^ foTBiiker by ina fnoiidii flu J iiQbjecta — took refuge at the court which 
■he Blnch PrinGL' liui e^tabliohcd at HordeauK. 

Tlio prioce w/is penmsded lo auppart bia cfrnfle, for Don Pedro 
wjLt; willing to proiuiae pvtrjihing wljii^b wHsusked. Ha badtLmaAod 
trmfliirt', to he diM^kr^], kept in secret pliio» known onlj ic himself, 
ar\d he could eunily [-uj the lroopA,and if th« prince woiild aid him l}i« 
pruffifict of Bictuy aJiOTiId be the rccompfnae, — a lempling ofiir, 
for (lie po^tesscD of Biacuy would give iLs Enj^JioK an entrance iaio 
ihe dt^filea of the Pyrerjtitis, flud be in fiLct a Caldia for HpaJc. 

The jrrin^e of Wulaq hud morf? Tneii than he Tieeded; the diHi- 
1H7 cult^ wuB to 1«ed rh^-iD. Wheit, on thi> Srd of AprlJ, \3Q7, hn 
army reuc^hi-'d the Kbro between thu vilL.igee of Nhjotli nnd NavanU^ 
he found liliuaDlf in a countrj su deftlltuu: that a hmull loLif of bicnd 
could only be piirchiuud Hit a florin. Hi>ury of TrzuioJiiuri! wa> 
mcHmped on the opposite nid^, uitd wa^ advi>^d lo lci>ep the EngEiA 
in IhoiT jirortont powiioo by gnarding the river and bo stflrving theHi 
out. But hiQ SioDi^h pride Eurhadt^ rhisf and the battle begnn. ^ 
Jvhn ChiizidcB (xjiuinoiidod the Euglijdi, and hy hla «oo] bravUT 
^m«d the dity. Throe tim^a Henry of TrusraniAru rallied )tk 
troo|a, but ttill in viiin. The Spaniards Hod. The Fue Comi«n[« 
fonght bravely, but all wore kilJod or token oapiivc^ nnd Ubunaoa for 
the seoonil ti[ue niude the coblu Du GuoAchrJ bis priaoner- 

Tbe BEflck Prince renutlned hn u com^ueror iu t^pulu, waiting (ill 
Pedro the Cruel nhonld pay the suid he bad pronnii*d from bia hid- 
d^ treasiirea. It waa :l wear/ time. The bent of ibe cIiEUattf *v 
OTcrpowering ; illmaa broke oivt. and theEnKlisli troopa, wmtLfulftI 
not receiving their pay, brgan to pillage. The piiJice of Walet, li 
dM(wir, told iheni at laai L[i:\t th^y must seek iJieir living elflewh«rt; 
but elaewhero cuuld only mean France, and thvy iiocordingly eatCM^ 
tbntpouncry, atill piliagiii^, taid oiying that the prinoe bod auihoriM^ 
them tbuj4 to pay tbcmaelvt-p. 

Tfje only hops tor Fnuicti wna that Jtbout tJiia tiiue Du Guenli> 
was fLtt fre^ on pnyment of h large ran-som. Sir >John ChandM ^ 
clare4 that he wotiM never hnre consented tci tliia, but it bappoDaJ 
one day that the prince of Waloa being in n merry mood, vid b ilii 
company of Du Gitcaclin, euirf to hira, * Wdl» Bertmnd, how doyfli 
gei ou ? ■ ' Excellently,' wa?> l]ii^ reply- * fiinue I huve been hejn I 
hara disncivenrd Thwt I am ibe lint tiiight in Christendom, for IiB 
Lold by evieryone that ym do not dj±rG To put nie to nmaoia,' IT" 
prinec v/its piiinud, ^ You tiiink, thpii, Sir Bertrund/ he mid, *tli*> 
it is becauae of your bruvery Lha.b -wg k«yp yuu ? Nay, btit 

MJ ODesoLw ntEK — T^EATH OP raono — WAR WITH bla<:k prtnce* 173 

100,000 Erxflc* and jou arv free/' The enm whb equal to n million 

of the pri-wnt daVn hut Dti GueBcIin undertook to mtse it. The 

tiacra of Cafitite bti'I Krinc^. he helieveJ, would lielp largely ; but if 

they did not he w&b, as be said, ccrtuia th^ tTcry wonkoa 

ia Fmoce who knew hnw Co spla uoidd work till Lbir muncj W9» 

febtmijied. HU co^ilidenci; viu not, d i an p pointed. Thn prince of 

Wale«ui»QtribTiTP-lS».U0OliTrea; Sir John ChandriiQffprod hin wliole 

fortune- Du GuowUc, set free on parolt^ had aciTuilly caJJeclcd tha 

tani required, and noa rttiimiot* to Bordeiiux, wben he mcl ttn p>or 

, kn)ghl« oXnj Wnt oa ohuduing a nuimin. The Icind-henrtpd knight 

[pre (hem all that he had -^nd went hnfk tii his e^tptivkj. Rut ho 

I did HM Inag remain in il, for th^.* kin;^ of Fmnc^B himsvlf paid the 

' CHID dv<eir^, and Dn Gncsi'lin waa ones more af Ijhi.'rt)', 

And now the king fvIC thai tbo tinio had nrrired when he mJ^ht 

nalljhopiflo free hin ctmntrj from the woiu-ge of tite Bnglish. The 

Blnrk Prince wn* ill nnd annbletoLjke the command of hij< forces, ind 

Charlea took didv^otAge of this to ri^iow hifl support of (Uary ol 

^aetanriarc. The amnies of Pedroaiid Henry mot ntMonticJ, Henry 

beuig Aided by the Free CompBDien ^]Q^^e^ Du OueBtUn. Pedro wa? 

deie*ted and rook refiigH in tliB cnstLe^ and it ia said that Heary of 

TiaM»niQTe having tiviied hia brother in Ui^ ni^ht, waf; rio^niJr a»- 

,iill«d bj him, and iluit in the Rim^gJe lUnry ra^iaed P^ro> poniard 

Uidinveif'defctiec killr'd him. Whatever mny have haca the precise 

rbcDiaiiLanceB Badcr which Pedro melhia dejith. it Ucertnin ihpitlloiiry 

pinov rero^isp*f cut the sovereign of Ca.Hlilti. Aiid Cliarlen V.. hnvin^ 

nothing furth&r to fear ^m Spain, nolongorhetttuled to defy En^laEiri, 

On (he i6th of JnnunTT» l'^6i*, the princo of Wales r&eeiYed et 

BoTdcaiUE a doct:>r of civil law and a knij^ht who came oil tho pwt 

of the king ofFrance to Huramon thu Blaclc Prince to Pa^i^ thereto 

iniWCT befopp hin prfrn fiir crrlain moleHtntinns suffered by thfl 

ptqUlai, harona, ntid knipbf-'* nf [h" Mnrphwi of Gnurtiny. Th^ 

priaoe, sick and nuOetiTi;;! luitono^l to thir n]<-9>vige, and th<in tnking 

up die wordu apokrn under vimilnr circumBtancca by liifl nmveftlor 

wiDiam iht Conqneror, replitiJf * We will ^\ but it will be with 

^Hn helmet an onr hea^J aad wiih 611,000 titers in onrcjiinp^inv.' 

Thji answer voa aoc^pte^l i^uietly at tho moment, and the 
taith kind; even sent the HUck Prince tiflj pifws of ^od 
^iac, which, bcw*rcr, were not aceepled. But this appeiir- 
tooe of poodwilt waa oidy temponiry. Charles waa no rnioner 
fully prepflTed than hr* mmiltingly went an open defiance tu lie 
king of EogliLQil by the hand" &f fiii£ of ihe servanta fif hi» 
tiicbfOn Al th« same time bo ebvc the command of hi4 fnrees to 
Km iltrec brothans thv dukea of Burgundy^ Anjou. and Berry, en- 
Jnaing tlieia on no act^unt to engage in pitched battlen. hut to 
' AAOtbrr AcaHutaDj-ilLat Ih^GuKlinHiDDelf fixed thoaum for tia tmnHm. 




174 SV3TEU or WARFAHE — OLinKrt DX CL1BS0H — THU^. 

Char 1^4 r, 

hKtut<a tlie 4'Eieniy by^ Hkiniiiabes and tutigea. Tlic plan ytu vriw. 
hut irritating u» bnLh jjarnps, and tht pnndpl* yrn9 carried bo far 
en l\io part of the Krencli that en otit i>c<;iKion tike duko of Bourbon 
BOW liis tnother, who vris aljin ilie motbi>r of the queen of Frftaoe, 
curied awaj on liomi^lmuk by t-liG enemy, and actually poaa in liuol 
of Tiin Ksmfj and ytL Li> tkir^ net risk abuttJ*- lo ewvp her, bill wu 
obliged to (Nint^Di hima^lf vnlh proptHiTi^ n dunl. Tc w>h ■ period 
of terrible poifibring Ibr the country, Th« English adTaoced to ibe 
gatCM of Pftria, nnJ tbo young- king (tqei hia Hfitcl de St. Pol anw 
the flameb of the butijuig villages which he did not durr to aid; 
whilst ilio Bhck Princp, though flinliing under a moTtal disefls, 
foiiiid strength to hi^Rtege und tjik« Limoges, and order a niELflsacreaF 
Qver^' raaa, wouitid, nod 4:hHd in the city, Yvt upon tho vhole tho 
French were Raining ground. TJic ledoubtahle Hir John Chandofl 
bad di*^ not veij long after war wiia declai-ed, and in ibe following 
*^ year, 1370, wwin JiHer T.h« taking r!' Limoges, ihe prince pf W^» 
aJloired bimwlf to be per^nfided by hi^ phyudans that it wua Qe«d- 
fttJ lo rotum to England, to breathe v'hjtt a nindcrn French ^rriter' 
tcnns hip native tog. 

The French, under tbe command of Du Gupselin, now creatfiT 
eonatable of France, were then eDfih!ed to reconquer ali the coUDtiy 
betwoeTk the rivera Loire and GiiT^nde. The nUegiance ahio w 
Brittany w*h ri^fliried. The Bretona wore French in their eynj- 
palhic^t and wlicn Du GntHclLn appL'artd wtih an aiiny in BriV- 
lanj, the people dttterted their duke, Jean de Montforl, who W 
obliged to flee to Enpland, and once niore ringed themael^'ea on dw 
Bide of France- Du Guesclin wan accompaoied io this exp«diti«d 
by Olivier <ic Cliiwon, a fierce knight who m hated the English lil' 
he had fivforn never to give them qujirter. From tliJA ulniuinHaAor 
he nequired ihe mirnnme cf the Riitchei, 
^_p, In Jnlj 1373 John of Gnuntj duke of Lnnenfller, who had miimel 
'■^^ the MgM dflughkr of Don Pedro, ilio lale king nf CofltUc, took die 
command of tkr army which Edwnrd had raided Cot liis final in- 
Ta^un of France. But the Ayt^I^m of harHssing ihe enemy vhUtJ 
avoiding pitched battleH^ which had before bi»en tried by Cttarl**. 
proT&d RgnLn fiUCcesEiful ; And £dward fit length aijceplfid the niPifuk- 
tien rtf ibi- Pope, and a iruco ILt two ycaffl wiiji prr>cliiinieJ. Thi* 
censation of hoiitilitier« wan greatly priced by Ednjird'a own [«ul]j«it 
To unp the wcixIh of Midielet, * it wa>^ jnnredihly dttliirnit to jntk* 
Enghmd like wnr.' The nation wan alrendy tired of it after i^f 
battje of Crecy. When, in order to piquo Tiioir lionnur, the mflm- 
bera of the Houac of Comnione were afiked, * What, would y*^ 
wiab for pfrpetual peace 7 * ^sy ri*plied nairely, ' Tei*. certaialj. 
we would bceejrt it.' It had been thr>i)g}jt ihnt ever)'^ibing woul^ be 

■ Michelnt. 



IfawiliHl wh^ Calaiii WM raken. Tljpn oime ibi^ Tirrory it Pnitiirn. 
wbich oiiiti* tiim^l th^ p«op]e'f h«iidfl. They i&nded that the king's 
mijMOai woaiJ pr«T«TLt thfdr ev^r bdno; caiJed iLpon to ptr tnK?«. 
Thm, Tben ihe war wm cftmeil into Spain, they imngined ;Iifil Don 
Fedrv* bidiJm lr«UQi¥a would make up fur all dieix Jobbh i liut 
vben thej iDDtid ihat they Iih<1 gainei] uejtJier iaoiivy aor t«murry 
Avf lott all pitien(^«. and llie kin^ wan odfiged ro yield to t1t« piihllf 
«IVBO<iir nn*] brin^ the war to nn end, at leasC tWr n timo^ 

Bdli the Black Prini?^ ncd hJ» father dtrd Neforc the truce ex- 
pire and Charlei refuied to icnew it, hoping to rake adTaptage of 
iIk ififficultin in whti:li Eagland would prcibably \te pluced nnd^ 
th« lang minoritr of Riohwd FI. He ownpJ, Tnflf*<l, tlint E<1w»t6 
in. WB^ n |riklfAi>C priDc?, and ordf-rc-d a rpli^ioup femce for him in 
the Sainie Chipell.' ; linl four *iajH after Edward's death the Spaaiah 
Aim 4d HcTirv of Tra^tomarc, with French troops on boards were 
iknMning llie rout^ of England. Kye wns reduced Id ashtiK 
B&d llip Ifle or Wi^ht w^r« r3VN,ced. and Ih? Heel then pra- 
to stt>«k Danmouth And Flymouthf and in remrnuig did 
Ut Sonihampton and Dorer, 

■li gdaui that the grvat ladrra and ddeodeni of EogUod wi^re 
IcL the rvign of Edward Hi. no one would have dared lo 
r# Hieh an e«peditir:rn . 

Charlr* vtv* at thiw timi? na sDccessTlil iQ n^otiation as m wnr, 
Hfl iiiarne*) hi* brother Philips daks of Burgundy, lo the young 
Ur«a* of the count of FLmdera. Thin was the beginning vt that 
poweffnl dnkedoiii of Burguudy and Flaudrra whjc}i in afti^x yean 
WW ftbU tA riwaJ Fruice both id mitiian'nnd politioaJ inflnenre^ 
Tb* BtniAfO wai a great chifdt lo Enghth atnhition, (hr it bad long 
fawtt t^owtbC that the h^iien of Flandpra would mnrry one of the 
taam M Bdward IT]., and Btkdiag tbeniKlreii losing groiukd, the 
BiflUl tfoTeniinait pought to ntreogthen tlieinaclTa by the fneud- 
4ap oTiH king <if NiiNirre, Cli»rT» the Bad accepted the offer of 
a tr*A(Vf bnt wiping io decfire rhe king fA France, bezant hii son, 
tlw «D(nt« de Heaumoni. to Pikriii wImIbI \\ wna undi.'r duau^flioiiH 
Aa kiDff had, al thai tJnje» reaaon to miap^rrt a plot apainst hifl life, 
mA on* oT ilie coiuM de Beaumont's atWndantA, De Hue, a Navar- 
ma Dobtaman, waj arrMtC'J as t>erng JnipJitvii^ in it. I>e Kup mn- 
bvid ibtttCharleH of Navaire had ptaTin^ lo poinoo the kinp; hy 
1m^ of a young phyndan from Cyprus, who would, it wa« 
miy obtain an introdnction %*> rhnrlea and picaar hinii 
hm q»kc Latin bpaulifully and wan ver^ argumentative. 

lloTtiAtd at tbia rprelaLion. the oomte de Bi-iiUTnifEJl withdrew hla 
fmikj fi^Ertii hia frthtr and ord«r^ rhe gOTpmora of the fitrtmMft 
«1m Uko kiaf at Nararro held in Normandy to deiiter up aU c-r- 
•M Ctwrixilttg to Fmncc ; and Churlco of Nnvarre, Gndicig the war 

' hit 


1 ^n 


likely lo he nnsncci's*iful in fipito o£ the En^liah nlliBfip^, wai 
length indacad to purchasG p-^acG by th^ cfUbioa of fiovcral of hit 
Btrongr?nt c^atli^a^ France w&a thun otlLl further etreQgllieiied, w^ 
her territones were enlafg?J, 

Thin siidden restfjmTion of the down-TrDi3di?ti fcirgdoto was 
^rdod AH n kind of miruolo. Prinoea and fareigii^ra crowded 
Phtu" To look at and iLdmiru thn Kovcrcigii who bjid t-onqiiprod \if 
d^knuiiiitiguot Hi iight ; And nh^D there the b^illdiiigii 'A'hidi Cfiaric* 
in such troubled tljues had founJ iihe means to erect tilled tb^m 
with &tjll grpiit^r surjiTiM. Th<? miignificcnce of the vast Hotel de 
9t. Pol, and the splendid hoflpibiliry ^liich wRfi thfrc ^howa 
rhcm, ontirolj deceived them ns tj the ftate of tlic kingdocn. 
The Hire de In Kivi^^rCr the clever ininjat^r of Chfiflea lutd the hjoA 
H(!conipliBhpd geiitli'mHn of liia age, did the bouniira of the palncv, 
eKhibiiing ihn ^ll^ipH nnd librvirij'R, nud ihp bulfem Icud^ with 
gold plate, »Lnd Cbnrli^ urafl eallpd the rich king- The tima £or 
which ha hud longed Frecmi^ at la.7t to hnve arrived, nnd he trail 
knew how (o profit bj (l. Hjh ludjita >rere reg^u^ur lUid ^impfe Hii 
rone bi^t^vei^Ei hx nnd hpvdti hi thid rncimhif!, Hiid guve amlj^'noe to ill* 
even the low^nff who wished to fip»jk with hitn. He then droMwd 
and £.tterided mu^ Dt ^ o^otock, iilter vhjch he devoted himocJf V 
busintas till 10, ^vhen he ait dnvrn tnhifl first regular niefti, instrmnentt 
i>f iimaie being played whili<it he partook of it. Foreign aDibaaanden 
and f.trATig;era of all kind* vere then received for about l\ro houn^ 
ud at] hour of r^t folEon^gd. The afternoon was spent with prirsV 
irifiDds, nbcn the king rfton emuscd himself with looking at jeijrelii 
treaHUren, and curioaitie», Ve»|H'ri* succeeded, fltid tlie eveuing w*m 
iiL the itumnier, apent hi the gardens^ where tiLficbjiiriA iiad iruJcs- 
pacple *?ntne to exhihiT their goodfl. In winter, Pfjiriw from tlw 
ijihle, or hooka of philopoj'hy and acienee, were read aloud. An eat\T 
aupper was often followed hy some theatrical repreaectAtiou, tfi 
then the kinp retired to rest. 

The philonnphcnt in whom CliarlpB nioj^t dpligbied were ba 
■strologGra, hilt sistroloRy wna ni^t then th*i n^we vain dr<iftfn whidi 
it afterward! became ; it won connected with ,eTperinienta m ficiaac*r 
and the a-itroJogerft tjf Charlee'9 court were men of great talent awl 
able to give hirij tfisa eounaela, which he as vriKly follovej, 

Charles V. mftV bp Hild to be the first French king who nido^ 
etood (he value of books. An easiy on the right of peace and inT, 
cnllod hy tho whimsical title of tho ' Trw of Bftttlce,'waa written by 
his ordenu Hid tutor tmnnlDted ArletMle, aad one of hia gttfd 
lawyers made n \erwon of the Bible in the national tongue. 

Yet, while thufl reiloring the grpntneiwa of hi* conntry, Chmta 
]q Sflge took no etepa t/i give hia jieopfe a xoica in Its govemmaat 
Ho eonroked thi' Stfiteo-GenenLl only once and oubstituted in UuHT 
place what wa» called the AaseukbEy of Notablea, consiaUcig 

' oosrut-ncti or rmt cauftCH^ — attempt to annui AHitTAnr. 177 

Sefiirtles from sjine of ihe tovna and die univemtty. a f^v prelnres, 
md (be ^eai officers of hJR linimeln^lii- Hfa own goTOnimi?nt wad 
l» prudent that ever^ooe Hubmitied to it without tnuitnuriD^, but 
it ma no good education A>r the people as it ktpt them in tlie coa- 
lition of children ralbtr than of meiih 

The portion of the churclk at this time vls cme of great da* 

Edition The Pope had n^ver dared, pormanenlly, to return to 
m« dflce C^t^menl V., th« alave of Philippe le Bd, had tAkeo up Eiia 
ibod« at AvijfnOQ- One, iDdetil — Urban Y.^^had retorned for & ^orC 
lime, but be wait uiruid tc recxuLJn od orcoimt of the popular dia* 
h i 4i«i«M- His HUccfKior v/na a liTtle mar^ fortEmQt«, aod AOluoUy 
did OBtabliah himself in the chj, aod di«d there; but imEuediutoly 
ifterHrorda a great schism broke out, Tvro Popee yrnc elected ; out 
^Urbsn VI , l3m first glioaen — kept poBws^Mni of Hoiae ; the ether, 
CLempnt VTI.f being supported hy Charlfs T., went to Avignon, 
A» the ATignon Popsfl had hIwajp been entir^Jy nnder Freru^h ioHu- 
tbce, hnd Uio bcDcficGB in Franco vrtrc bestowed solely accordio^ to 
fte kifig** will, Chttrles woa by msDj -pttaoan hitterly reproached for 
fcaTing in this matter coni^fted hia owu Jotereet, more eapeclaUy av 
Jfti« greftter Qninl^cr of Europenn flov ^reigns owned the validity of 
Urbn't tlectioD, and the fomoiu Catharine of ^i^na, regarded Aflaa 
Inapved nicit, ^arruitced it. 

Tbe kfit y^sTH of the n]j(:ii of Charlon ntre dialurbed hy the 
of JntnfLTiiig lu nive hid t^ubjecta in Lan^nedou Irom [he 
of bis brother T<oi]ia, duke fif Anjou^ the governor of 
tbc province. The po'^plo having risen in inaurrection, Chariea vaa 
obliged to Hud comciiaaoncrs with power to reform ahuacs; but 
WoKD QDJost conduct in Britten j led bo still greater troubles. He 
vn h0it upon annexing the rlnchy to the orown, and with this view 
vmivumed lh? eKp*?!!^ ijuke, J«qii de Monefort, to app«ar before 
4* Court of Petra. and on reeaiving no reply daclajed the dube'e 
AoaUDiOfifl forfeilEd. 

The indigntint Bretona^ both noblea and dtieenBt rose la arnus. 
1^ duke, rertrning frnm England, was received with tninaport; hia 
*bj«t> wailed for him fin the shore, and some rushed into the writer 
^ to their kiLeoa to meot him. Evca J irannc, thi: widow ot' Charlea 
'k Bloif* came to Dinan to welcome him. The heel leadeta in the 
^^jtl army wtre Bretons, and one aEler another they nOA gave u^ 
Uu wmmand. The cimstable Du Guthclin would fain hnve doua 
''i but Charlea could noi afford to Euee biu seTvicea ; n-nd aa he re- 
W ia fipht in Britiauy, ho waa aent to put down some lawleee 
of Kng]i^Frc« Companies who werermvaging the (rontiers of 

r..— — bedwing thg fimall town ofrhfifeau Kiindun Du GuEBclin 
^Miied vitb an illoGaa which proved lataL Feeling the neorap- 


ITS i>tATB or sn auniouN — i^eaib of oharles — fbiut-e VAmESO. 

prorich ot di&tth, he nueed himself on hU couch^ and to^Iog in hn 
hncds biA Cfin>iEflblc?'fl xword, he loolrtd nt it with iPAn in hjg «vcfl 
and Baid, ' Jt haa ajd«d roQ in ovt^rcoming the enemies of mj kLitg, 
but It has brought me crnel fbee of my own. To jou' — und ba 
tuTD^J to hja friead the marshal de Simcctre — * I cohudU Jl, muJ 
folemnl/ I di-rlaJE- limt I hnve never btitrajed the trust which ihe 
king reposed in me vrheu he cotifidpd it to me/ Then uncovering 
hia hood he kiHHcd his sword, and totho old cuptaine and otliGcrsvha 
■urrouoded h\a bed he flJiid, * Formal not, in whaterer countrj jou 
m^y bt: fglitiog. that prieatSf women, aud dijldren an not joai 

OiiviGT de CHbbm) received his finnl meeiuge. * Moruicnr Olivitf, 
I fp4^i doQth ur«r and can any but [jiik. Tell the hin^ thai I 
would fair have fooght far bini longuraad turned every BuglinhiOBB 
out of hid kiDgdoDi ; but he has go<id ^rvanta^ who vlU work tor 
him ;— you, the first, Monaieur Olivier. I repommend to kini nj 
wife and my brother^ and — far^vell — I can no more,' 

The gAiriaou of Llftndon had promiacd U^t deliver up the tcwn if 
it wna not auccouredi and, faithful to their word, tJt« officers Iwd ^ 
keys on the coffin of ihe grrat eapoiin. Du GueBclin waa imortd 
ht Sl Vexda, with aJmost royal tonoura, amorgeE tba lozubn c4 tk* 
French kinga. 

Two months aflonv^ rda the pyniplonui which it hod bean foreM^ 
would be tht! procuTBorH of the kuig'a di^th hecauie etidint. Charfi> 
dtd not deceive himself r? to the r^flulL He calfed ai^nnd brm hii 
tbreG brothers, uid his brother- in -J aw the dnke of Bourbon, lUiit 
oomiacndiag hia young i^on to their care, and givin^them m«nj wiie 
ooutiwJB sa to the mana^ment of the kingdoai, he died at the outi* 
^ of Bemit^-flur-Mamp, the 16th of SepiembHr, IH&O, at tha ^ rf 

Jeanne de Botxrbon, the wjfe of Charles V., died bafdrc kof 
huabnnd. She waa a very graceful And Aecompllalitd womdii, Odd 
the maanere of die French court under her inJlucnce were (rrowly 
improved. "But the advice given to thp ladies nf thisage by a «m>- 
cempiir^ry poet certainly given a curioua td«a of rha ondviliwd 
habits even of the upper clnamffl. Ladica are told to be neat in UieJ 
drefi»s Q<>t to daub thejr Hngers with their food, or mjilce uw of ;ha 
table-eloth an a pocket- haudkerchLt-f. They are not lo 1>)unce into 
a room, biic to give nottre of thetr eoming by a gently cough, Ths^ 
are to walk lo an orderly m&nner to eburcbt and not to juinp m 
run in tha vtrcete. Thoiie who cannot read are to Tcain thdr pttlttf* 
at home, no that ihey may be able to k^p pice wlili the prLe«La,bllF 
ettpeeially they are to i^rain frori etealiti^ and t«Uing lieM. 

Dreas about thiH time underwenr n greot change. Hitherto 
moi la a roapBatabla station of Me Ikad been aiJCUHtomed to wfltf 



booda, which Knag dowi:; the b«ck^ tuid the nobles had boHldeH long 
AowiiLg robeR ; bur now the younger nobility adopted n lihoit f Icue-fii- 
bngjack^, with eJe^VMof & moat extravagHUt size, Au account lent ia 
about tbifl period ior a dreea pr^p^rod lot Charloa oi Orleans, the 
brother of ChhtleA Y.. describts the iileeTefl Ad haTing the muaic luid 
w€>nlB of a toiig inscribed npun theiu, the uotea being tonrked by 
pflnrls and tin? words of tbe eong embmidarftd. The geatlemau's 
bootfiof ihd period were inlt^nded to r«preuat birda; the front pro- 
jected ID ■ fihorp poiDt lifae a be&k, and tbe heel wae k'DgtTicntd out 
like a claw. The Jadic^ carried on their h«ads Urge Ligh 
hoTTiHt mill on HAch side, iiiilead of esTrin^ they wore faliid ^n, 
whTch protrude ho fur liiBt wh^n they paiued from on« raom to 
another they were obliged to move sjdewaya,^ Tbe fsshiona at k«t 
became ao absurd that the king publ[«bcd no edict against them. 


Tfovqb Charles V. on his death -bod bad committed Lo hJi Foot brothers 
the care of bis son, then only twelfffyearfl of aga, ho must have been 
TcJ] aware ihat the roynl dukea wero af ambitioiu and nTarioioUBaB 
the nnrlea nf the young Eiigliah king RinhaH IJ., who had come In 
ku throne only lliree years heforo- The duko of Anjoii, an Ehfl oHent 
ttrotber, vaa of nccraHty named regent| but the dukes of Burgundy 
ind BourboQ were to share his fiiiiljority, and the m^ocity of the 
king VTBA Q^ed bt iJie oarly a^ i*f Juurieen. The ilukp of Herri 
■aa not naumd by tlie king, hut he was nItlmFttoly mnde governor of 
Linguodoc. The duke of Anjou ezliibited the bafiensaa of his 
diacBcter even whilst hiA hrrither was broat^ng his lo^ lor ho hid 
kbivdf in a room adjoining the death -chnmbor, and tiie momeullhe 
king was aotoally dead took in^ his keepiagall the jewels, furniture, 
ind plat*, and seiz&d also flome trpftBiirefi wWeh Chnrl*« Y- hud, it 
VMS known, hidden in the waJla of the caetta of Mehin, the prrciia 
^l being only known to the treasurer, who wsa now compfllled (o 
lercol it on the pain of inslant death' 

1 FroiH«*(, Erem whoM chrunwlfs oar ehi*f knowl*dg# at the erfliitB gf 
tbia pniod is derived, vu a Irlaming^ bom at Va]«n<naiinHi sbcmr 1.137, ■I'iri 
tho diad in 1410. He sppiDt his life at ihf courts of (ha kings and feuJsl 
priDHB of Fr^DtK and KnglHodn J^ud tiiiu rainnl bis ii^formalion- But ttta traa 
bilarUo of Ohsjlu T. w^a a woinap, Christijia d« Pihd, daogbifu-uf Uir 
lip^ aatnflo^vf . 




The duteo took llieir nepheir to Ebdms for hia corfoation, but 
Lhej would nul allow liim m pas through anj town, 1eti£ be sJiouid 
h^iiT cnmpfainta froin (h& popl«- Amt though hit^cnimnnpinto PariBi, 
on hie rotunij wm* arranged with great eplendrmr* fountains being 
niado to tiov with milk, winrs* ocid rosowuterH there wna ver^ tittle 
bread m the city, incemliary fires were doacilfltinp tht* ctpuiitrj', and 
the people ymr^ londly murmuring at the heftvy l4ixert- The regent 
And hiH hrothem were obliged tji hflgio Iheli udminiRtrfltioTi by pro- 
iniacR of CheiT abolition. But the r^eol had no intention of keep^pg 
hJB word. One dnjr a piiblio oricr appeared on hor^bfi^^k io one 
of the open pquttrea a«d annouriced that scinie of the kiiig*a plate 

ehad h^en stoW^ ind a large rftwnrd should he given lo anyone wto 
would recover ic. When he <»w Mie t;ri>wd nccnpTed with the neura, 
be f^avD notice also that a now tax would bi> lDTt(.-d the next day on 
all aiticlea expoKd for enle. Then he rode off at full ipallop. Tlie 
following niomtaj;, tlie l^t of ^furd], 1382» the collactora of taira 
Bppearfid in the marliet^ and one nf them hepan hv domnndiog fl 
payment Froia an old woman whf> had fiiat cold a faw crepfeit A 
furioua outcry burst forth, and in a vory nbort time an op^n insrar- 
rettion had begun. The peuple broke into the Hotel de Ville and 
flrmed themwlveswitb j^IuIih and ma(!&ii, uid then proceeiW rnreTj^nse 
the prisoners oonfinyd in the Chainlet. A promiop from the conrl 
that-tbfl obnoj^ious tax should bo abandoutKl indtictHl them to \wf 
down their nrmn, but tbey luid no ootmer done bo than a^veral oi 
tbeni nure arrested, and, without trial» drowned Lu the Seine in iho 
dead of j]i[;ht. As a nfitural con^uonee of tbi^ treachery the rv- 

ibellion o^u broks oui^ and was only quelled by ths stiliul tnftn- 
Agement of the ndvofliiCt^-gQDoml, Jenn Dosmarats, who wiui muoh 
bojoved by ijie people* and who aj^ree<1 with tbe inaurgeoca <}a% 
100^0Q0 francA should be puid to the covetous duke of Anjoii, and 
tbflt ao furtlipr arre<4FA should be nuAde. Peace wa5 then conclridet 
bctwoen the govornment and iho people. 
Louia of Anjou had apccjjU T^^^aaona of Ida own for speedily 
bringing t!m Frendi Iruublea to iiii end. He had been adopts by 
Joanna, queen of Nnpleft, Rft her heir; and the queen being now 
dead, he was anxioun to t^atabll^h himself in hia new dominions 
The life of Joanno had hien one of aellieh wickudno^a, Hor fimt 
tunbnnd, Andrea* son of the king of nungary. had hetn miird^red, 
and there waii very lUtle doubl lliat shi* was privy to the crime, 
and iintnediat<?ly aftfrwrirda she married h^^r coiinin, the prmcfi of 
^^ Tap*n|o. A eiTil war* headed by Andrea'a brother, king Louii of 
^^B Hungary, followed, Junnna tnistcd to tho eupport of Lna^a of 
^H Anjou. but hia aid wa^ delayed until too Ute tQAave her. She wad 
p tok&n fu-isoaer by her eneiuleti acid ultmiaiely flmothere<^, and T»TiLa 

t td. Anjou mi Jctl to mike good bia own claim. He bad collected ^ 



!wge iiTiaj. find waa ennoKwl hy the trcafliirofl whicli he h:id eeiatd, 
vbea hj/^ brother CKiltJch V. Jied. Man and moQoy wfrv, IjowurcTt 
pow^teu against the enemies whom he hud to Qncounter — aa en^r- 
v&tjng cUmute^ fa-miiiii, unci tlie liatred cf the pcopla whom he pro- 
posed to goT^rn. Charles cf Dur^zzOf a r»i]>4m of the [ate qu^o, 
and now the dalmiLtit of the throne^ luffered theaa foea to do their 
Vr<trk without a regular buttle, attd ut the qdJ of a Eovr tDontha men 
ftod Qnfan* luid alike iramahcd. The var- horaefl ha J died of hmificr; 
the □utile knighia were mouuted on uaeSt the duke had suld hi^ 
pUt«, his jeweler even hii crown, and at kngth, ntrerly brcken down, 
didd of a fever At Baxi, His boq inherited hia chiiia luid took tho 
title o£ Loiiifl 11.^ kia^ of Naples^ 

Wbeo Louis of Anjou Irfl France, Philip, dake of Burgundj, 
became the chief ruler of ihi? kingdom. Having married the 
heiresft of Fltndera, he was e^ippcinlly interested in <^elliag the 
Uumrectioa which Beemed alnioat chronic in that important pro- 
TiacCf und which was nov CArriiHl on by Philip, the cou cf Jucob 
Tan Artc^veld^- The cauiiL eagtrly sought the aid uf hiKHDn-in-lBw, 
and the diika of Bi^r^ndy aVAiled himi^lf of the c^portnnit^y to 
aire tt« vcung king hin fiiio. expeHenco of war; 

Quiries wbfi by thie time nhoui fourtf^D yoar« of age) and wot 

ira0 Already htB dream Jbr [ha futnn-, as honttng vraa hia amiifleruedt 

fi^r the pr^^sent. Wtak aiid exciTabie, it ia sud ihut hi^ imnginalian 

had been firpd whilst ypt a hoy hy TowEing in the uho-S^ a stag witii 

a feuded collar round its neck, od vhrch waa inscribed ' Cs^ar gave it 

me/ The incident imprtaMd itself on his mind as ?\ presage of victory, 

ud when, ou accuinpiinyiug hia unclt to Fiiinderp. a great battle was 

puned by (lie French at KoHthecquu, the yoiin;^ king placed in hia 

Oieut'^heon tlie wonderlid stag, nnd cho^e tho bgute of a atag aa a 

■upporter fnr the arma of France. Thia battls of ^Hobeoqua wa^ 

i'£(6ught on the £&th of Kovcmher^ I3fl2> The constable Olivier de 

Cliavn commanded the Trench, fuid Philip Viin Artevelde the 

Flemiaga. AiteveLde was amongst ih@ slain, and with him fell a 

division of 8,000 ciliaens of Gh^nl, who were cut off to a man. The 

iUDg'a Tuidea led thsiT nephow to tho field of battle when the victory 

wiiB gainedf and maJe hivalook npon the hideOLJamoaaof dead bodia 

piled oue ujnin anulher. * It waa lic,^ they aaid. * who had gamed thw 

diy, for he had givetj the aignal for ihe fight, though he had hmn 

kept out of the action. Heaven had shcine upon him, lor tho snn, 

tftof beifjgobacurcdforfiveduya,]udetreanied out upon ihc orifJomme 

the moment he had unfnrledit.^ Ti^ceffeciof ihidiluttmy waatohard^j. 

the bey'fi keart agaiiiat hloudahedf and eajx^^lally to Jiicnimc hr:4 In- 

drgtutioQ agaiiii^ those who in Fmnce, as well as in Flandera, liad 

Vt^n in imiUTflction against their lord; and on the Tettim of the 

king and the dukca to Paria oo leu than 300 of the principut la- 


1S2 uiftBUGE or ciuF([.ra — proposed isvajios or moLim: 

batntont^ acouaed of Kjivin^ taken port in tLc lata dit^urban^^eH, wor? 
f^?cul^- AmongHL t^Bni waa Jean Deamaretti, vbo liud been liulfu- 
[iieitiul ill briogm^ about an ogrceFaetcit with Louiu lil' Anjou, hjhI 
who VTHS a I'aithful B^rvoni of the crown as utill as the frii?iid uf Lhe 
people, ^^H 

Two jears after tho rictoiy at Eo^becque Looi^ counl of ^1*4^1 

xj). dera, died ( 1334), and hia eon-in-ljiw Pbilip of Burgundy, g^ncrauj 

"** known na Philip the Bald, aucf^etiltil in rlghr tif hia wife to hia anipl^ 
domiuionH- H*? b&ajne, iti fa*^!, a powerful MiTcrei^ prince, own- 
ing not oalj FJjuudeTa, Arloia, imd part of Champttgoe, but al^ the 
dui:hy of BrabaaE. Uts clJeHl pod had ruArrti^d a daughter of tbe 
duke ol' Bjvnj'Ur and thb conri^ctioa aug^c»tcd the idm uE an alii- 
Afice betwtieiL the youug king Jind iKtbeliaT or, au ohe ia often culled, 
Iaab«aii, a priaceu of thif wlid^ fnmil^. 

la oidw, however, thaL Charles might have fl choice, ft 
painter wub ordered to Uike the Llk^ncaea of ihrea princcfwe^ 
daughters of Lhe Juhea of Buvnria, Lcjrraine, and Aufitria, &ad Co 
bring them buok to France for inf*]>«tio[i. Tlie BpivuriflTi priucffl* 
was the most beonttfiil, and the niarriflge being rtgiilarly hrrauged, 
Isdbrjnit wfLs bcought in ^eab stfitu to AmieuB. The cr^reinonj wju 
to bike place at Arraa, but GharEes, fuacinated by tbe chumu o| Lia 
intended bride, decl&red be w^riild brook no dtht/n and tbey wi-re 

*'■** ftCfordingly nuirtied at Amienn nn the I7th of July, 13S5, thf 
kiiLg bejiig Btxtifea rtnd the pnncetia fourteen yearH of age- II 
had been the eipreBH wish of Charles V. thfil bia son nhouJd ally 
himaelt' with Germany, tbS a eupport against England; but die 
marriage proved moat unfurLiiiiuIe. Iiuibenu wjui dee^titutti of thti 
qnalitiDfl nnost to he prized in a woman, aud wh-'^ the source 
intinita evil to B'nuiQe, 

And DOW tbe duke of Burgaodj propnp^d to himiFeir ati ubd 
(akiog of the most arduruia kiud, nothing Itsn than tlio couqueet of 

1^ England (1386). Peneehad aeVE-rreuUy been madi? with the EngiUh. 
They atill desolated the south of France and made th.dr way ipio 
CofltlLe. It aeemed better to carry the war, if poBaiblei Intotb^ own 
laUnd, and the moment vraa propxiimia. The king, Hiehard II., itae 
un|KjpulHr, and hifi EubJK:Ls were on tbe point of relh-'ilion. Tlie 
eonntry might be invaded And attacked before tbe approach of NA 
enemy wav perceived. 

The preparationa irerc ptodigioaa. Not only were ah ips engaged 
for tbt^ troops, but a auniberof tranaporl veiteelawere laden with wius, 
sik, Ditzat, egga, biacuila, bay, com — evi-rything, in fect.^ which ooold 
he n£*dc?d for provisioning an army, besidea, an we are told, a ready- 
made woodGu QLtyf cut and built in diiTtront porti'Uia in \X\^ for^a 
of Brittary, and whtcb, when set up, v^ to coT«r a ^pace of three 
milfiB in dianiEir^, and to Iw ta the French what Oahiia wxa id 


DUfj-r rj-. 

I £zuFlmad-. Ttc materials are Kud to hav? filled Hev^ntj-twc Te&<«lfl. 
! It WBA ft gnud ideOi but tlie duke of Burp^undy woa oot (he king of 
' Fraoce, and thar« were otliera lo inieffcrt with liisiirajpctc. The duke 
J of Btrri, who cared nothing for the Bngliah expedliion, occiipied iLe 
king'i attention by marrying hi4 aon to Chnrle«'A lucle aistor, who 

nine yearn old ; ihca he mnde him liavej bo aiovrly thnt vbtn 

he vrived on the coast the eeitdon wata aJnjoat loo Alt advntiood to 

stuucpt L^osbing ihe Chana^ The witodfiti city hIhu was del&yed, 

ami on ita arrival whh found In bemut^h injured. And in the tnenn- 

ume the Enght^b had become fully avare of thoir diing«T, and vrbUat 

the French Btjld^fira wero diamii^cd to mvogo thfrir own country ite 

EngU^ tleei tore down tipoii the co&at uf FliinderA and Attacked^ 

bumL, Uid ULptun]d n ^lejtL part of ih& Frentb Jleel. A fi^cood 

&aerupt for the jnv&doaof England wiw bbi on foot In the foJIowiog 

b^fHt, l8OTf bat the coricUibk De Cliwon, who vm^ to comiDniid the 

^'tenp^'waB pQnonftJly ohnaxioUB lo the duke of Brittany, and when 

the Brmament w ji9 ou [Jteix>iQ^ of sailing the duke decoyed liim into a 

Easily and made bim pay n h»ivy pum ibr hia libi^rty. Hia troops 

depri^^ of their commflnder, disponed, and \}te eDierpriHe wan 

^BJD rclLiKfuiflbed. ]t vab in this year that Cborlea (he Had, 

of Navarre, met hia death by a horrible accitlent. BtiJig old and 

chjllj, he wrapped hlnuKlf in a cloih Hteep«^ ia apirita of wiaef and 

one of hia servantA Mwed it up to hi« throat, find finding no Hi?ismn 

Deu ut bund, burnt off the eod of Ibe thread wilb a. lighted candle- 

The cto^h, being very inliutnmable, burst ouL in a blaso, nod the 

onhappy king of Navarre died a death of agony. The n<?Jtt year, 

13BS, an immcceesfaE pxpediunn waa underuiken sgaiiut the duke 

of GualdT«s, aa a paDifibjoent fo'' bin d^tlant behavioiif ro Charleo, 

ud tbia repeated faLure ao exaaparated the peopla. vrho attributed 

ev«rj miafortune to the bad gortEJiment of tl^e aukea, lliat Cbarleo 

Vifl vtreauoualy urged by th^ cardinal bishop of Laon lo taktt tho 

foremment upon himaelf. 

Charts, now one-and-twijnty, waa quite willing to act upon bis 
^viw. The diikea cC Burgundy atid Berri wltb coutiooubIj 
^Wked fof the core they had tuken of the king and the countryi 
bui it wftd intinuit^^il lo Lrhuiu that iJieJr eervi^jts would nu longer be 
nqoired. and in ;.>riAt diagunt chey c|iLiited th« ci>urL. On ihnt name 
dij iht biabop of Laod was found dead, and there could be ua doubt 
^ hfl had Wn puieuned^ 

The change in the gOTcmment waa undoubtedly at Brat very 
^vantjt^^^oiia- Th^ constublt! Db CAibeon and Bcvtrul of [he muat 
lUa minjflterif of ChnrleB V. varo pliuzed at the hi^Rd of affjiira, and 
^ the next three yeflta many measun-a for the public good were 
Etrn^ out, and a truce with England lor throe yearu wa^ concluded. 
But wbilat the go>«nime:it grew wiaer the king grew mors fuoElah^ 




Hifl only ^(ilight wis in estravagnnt fries nod persouaT 8elf*irtJu!- 
g^nce. Hiii fiiind. which htwl bfH'.n !*o phtIj FsciTed by heing haiE^ 
■G a PiinqiiproT nr Ko*wlipfrque on a field utrpwn with ihe bodiea of 
SG^OUO dead, now inquired a BTimiiluii of n difTerent k^ntl. HiB 
<|a<?en, If^Vcuu, had many times viaittd Pana, but shti hud HtiU \c 
DiakK ht^r £ret ftsrmal pnLraace. It was to bo a f^te e'4[X'c;ially for 
ihf pHople, and the Parisinrfl witertd int*i it V'ith a gay forgPlfLlnefi 
of a^I but tiho aTQiiiwrnenlof the moment. Tb^ citisens fur themnat 
part drPBE^ thcmHclvoa in grcor. The king^s ettcndants wore roae- 
coIl'UT, YoUDf girlfl appeared at tliQ windows xvith scMrlet dredce 
uud puJdeu girdFes- Milk nnd wme Ibwed from tlie TuuntaJju; 
muMi^innn were Hintinnfld nt onch gn-te lhroiir;h which the <jutennii 
to paw. At cert^Lin broad thorough fiiw-a childrcD were ntaiion*d, 
10 act ' myatpnes ' or [M?on^ from nacred history. When tte 
queen proceeded alon^ the etreet of St. Deoip, two little ohiUrtja 
repifMniing angels were let down by a c<ird, and placed iii)OH 
head a crown of gold, siDgiog aa lliey did 

Dams flac1c]#o cntre fletira-d^-lic, 
N'£tJ»-Ti>ai pas dn ParHdiaP 


And on artiving at the chuTch nf Notr<> Dami^ the people atv viih 
Qftoni^hmcnt a man v\th t^o torches in his hand descend by 
means of & cord Irom tl^ie pnjat cathedral tower- 

The king mL\ed qilh the i:rowd to enjoy the fi^tea and the ad* 
miration heptowed on the heauhy cf hiH young wife; and in liii 
extreme good' Tiatiir?, knowing that there were many flCrun[>er^ ia 
the city who rogrettod that they ha^l novor- ^ca bim diepUy hii 
flkil] Id the joUBTfl of the courtf be toot part in those of the cily io 
ardvT CO pinuie chem. 

The queen'n fete wah ncarcely over whpn another was prepowd 
ID honour of Valcntina Visconti^ daughter of the duke of AliluL 
who beoftmc the bride (»f the dufcc of Oricane^ the king's y&nngptf 
brother Volcntina was heatEtlful and amiabte, and Chailea <]id vrdi 
to wplonme hpr In his kingdom, for t^he was detttned to exercise more 
thou any rithpr person a beneficial inlTuFnce npoo bim in the after 
yoara of hia unhiippy lifo- 

At that time> however, all won apparently brig;ht, aad Volen^sit 
having ra;t3ved the honours prepaTed fiu Her» the king pi-epared tc 
make the murof hJs »outhrm provinces and enquire into th^TPpons 
wUit:li had been brought him of tht.- nmlHdiQinirtMitinn of kU un^ff 
the due de Bcrri. He wap unaccompinied even bv the qiwfti. 
Bo deairod to be free to hear for him^lf the complaicta of hu 
lieople. and to enjoy himadf without restraint. Ai Lyons be mf 
teceir^ by fnur young girls on r dais coTered with cloth nf gold 


Tb«j conrluctfd him to t}i€ palace of ch^ archbishop, uid there fbr 

, four dava ganjoe, f&tos, nnd buEls occupied his atteMion. 

I At AvigTioD, the rtaidence of ilie Vupe, Clument VIL, Liarecep- 

LHJEi WkU fitill rii(>rQ sucnptiaous^ acd he left Avigrion eadreCj devoted 

Ui ClefOtfot, who haiJ placed at hU iliJiiKisal a rer^ hirgK numbfir cif 

bcneficeB, besidt.-s allowing him lo nDmirtale nham he ple&sf^ tor 

I tJie TicoLit iLt^hbiB^iopric of Rbeinifl. 

I Op hia arrivat in LKqguedi>c Chjirlraliejtid nothing but ccmplftiiite 

of die Juc de Bi^rrl, but fv<pei;iul[j of tlic duk^'fi Lfcuflurer, BetJHit, 
This man confeaKeii hi* crinitB, but aiwi-jtert tfiat he had only dieted 
under the orders of his maftGr. Ah it ^tm didioidc to procead 
Agwnal him, he iraa Qdyiaod to uvovr hinijaeir a heretic, that his cose 
might be reserved for the jxidgmeot of the Pcjpe ; ha wootd iheiit it 
WAS Kuggested. be uJiimaiel^ Staved, Tbo luihapp)' treAmirer I'wk 
the Advice, and wda burnt iilive under the king's wradowA amidiA 
the aceluinatiozis of tJie people, and thiu the people of Languedoc 
vrete aatielitd. 

Duriug ibis timt a deef^laid plot wee being formed for the pur- 
pose of upselLtiig (he oulj authurity^ which wua able to save Fruiu.-j' 
frotn th^ con^equencea of iiA monarch'ii faulla aud Iblliea. Ths 
'Duncoiifiets,'ormoiikG^B — such wae the coQtemptuoua epithet ai von 
to the chJer xnididtere of the cro^vu by the king « undeb — were haled 
bj them wilti a deadly hiitred, ;ind the dulce of BrittaJiy pliar^ tlie 
feeling- Ht? coidd ntrer fcirgiv? himself for having allowed the 
coDttAblo D« CliASf>n t^' L-^Bf^pe uut of his bands, by accepting a rBOfiota 
for hinu De&th would have reJ!i:^''<:d him of his cneTny ; yihy had 
be tut availed tumaelf of \\it oppotturubj ? New the temp ^tion iigaiu 
pffiMfnted ilfitlf, 

Pierre de Craoa, a rektion of tbe duke^ had been diBmivAod from 
the oourl, ua be bidieved. at tlie iofltigation of tbo eonstable. 
TtiirAing for ri:vtnge, he sought the support of the duke of Brittany, 
- ttd wiilj the duke'fl connivance return<'d hi Paris by niglit, filled \\\p 
lOQK with bin followf'rj*, and then with barred doors and clceed 
ViBdon waited for tbe iSth nf Jiino^ 139?, wb«D a grand gala waaio 
ttike place at the rojal reBidcnco, tJio Htitel St- Pol. The coniitablc, 
•bo wbA preeent at the f£te, retiirnt:d aJone to his h6tclt whith was 
lA a tjiuLiitr of the city where tliere were only \sx^ii private bouacs, 
gudaiSf mid oinveDtfi. Dt Croon Btnrioned himnolf wifh forty hiirac- 
IiBi at the earner of oae of T.he i^r^^et^. Whuo the conatabl^ 
TBKhed the Bpot the torehcH were extlnguiahi^d, imd (bo riLffianii 
ttrew iheiCBdvcft upoa him, and De Craoa. aa he gave him wh»t he 
^uped wuald be a deadly thriwt, cried out, " I am your eueuij, Pierre 
daCraoDl' The eonstJible defended himself, leaning agninai the half- 
open door of a bakci-'a eliap. Tbe baker hjid riiwn early, and wa^ 
Iniflf with hJB oven afl De Clideoii Jell ; balf hia body woa within th^ 



shop. The asea^ma doj^d not dlemount to complete their vor^- 
They rode off, find tb<> cun^l-^blc vai* lell to the cart of tte bwker 

The uewH of the attempted inurdtr np^ii^ily rimchtd iIjc klog'a 
ears. WitlioiiL vraiting \i\ drpsf^ himself or tofiuntmon h\» attendaDtaf 
Char]©9 threw » cloak around hira a-nd hairten^d to the spot, Tb* 
CjCcetabie had already rocori^red hia codhcJousdc^ nnd tho king, 
prcDueing to rcveuge him, swore that never deed ahould be puniBhed 
like ihut dewl. 

The murd^reT hid himBolf, The lting'« unifies naiil he ^raa in 
Spain, but the Iciog knew he waj^ is Briltaay. It was tliQ duk^ whi) 
ytaa the chief criminalf and Chjirlpit bum^ with the deeiri; tcinrade 
Brittanyp He Biuameiocd bin uncleaand bade tbem ttC4:oDip4ny 
with tht^ir vosruJa ; but they delayed. 

The king wbh but jij*4t Tecovering from a ftver; ita aftects 
fitill vieibi^. Ujn uiidi?a begged him to Tcniain quict, but ho oooU 
not be persuaded, Impiitioitly niount^af; hia borae, tic led tbo vivf 
to L<T MiuiBr Tbi-Ti:* btiiij^ Yt^ry unn'til], he was induct to Etay fin 
threi! WM-ks; then thhiking himsi-lf better, ha unfiuled hie siandald 
and rode forwnrd »Jth hi^ tru^pB. It waa the middle of munolflri 
the beat mtense wittj tliosiiltry cpproanivGnesfi of Auguat. The kinff 
wore a coat of black velvet, and had a acjirlet velvet civp od biahfiif 
The princee liagered behind him. They eaid it would cause leal 
dust. Alone, Charlefi tmvonu^ the forest of Im nfiinit amiiiBC lm& 
of Blunted growth, with Uia hot min pouring down u|ioTt lb* own 
gludt!8,LUid iho heavy, htiatcdmiatECDTGringthGEODdy diHtancQ. Twuit 
yeara before he bad been riding in like iiiJiitiirr aloite iit a firtfh 
whfiL the murvelli.iua aiag Ijnd up])CiLred to hi[n, with, ai lie suppoMd. 
its promiw of victory &nr1 fpmo. H^ was young iln]n, full of hopsk 
hie heart beattng high vitb the pruapecl of lutnre greatn&u. Btf 
how had oJ] thooc hopes been diiiappoint^ t He h^\ failed rrery- 
whers- Ho was not king even in hif own dominione. Hi$ &ittiJ 
and counaellor wan attac^ked and all but killed, sind no one movoJia 
hifl d«fencF^^ Hod it been a private gonlleainn who had rhua miO^n^ 
twenty knights would huva ^thcred around hioi offering him Iblir 
aworda. CharlcA bud i^ob even bia rvUtinna If they oune to 
■support, it wna ouly iH^riUAC he {pflid them. lie bad l;t*cn obli 
reettore Lo-n^Jt^lno lo thn duu de Bt^ri bi'Ibre he would move a 
in Ms behalf, and his young brother, tb& handsome, cI«vct 
OrluanBi tho buhband of ViUentian Visconti, who wan wianiag 
favour (jf ail by hia courtly mftiioer, bad oven dared of late to 
on his bhitldf amidal the lli^urs-de-lb of Frauce, the gilded 

No ] there waa DotHing to truat to, no ona to depend apcn \ 
yet what had he done to ba thus hated ? He would fuin luve 
iiorated (ha coudition of hii people. If he waa weak he 

nrsAiriTT— nB£ at a has&zd ball. 



natDT^e cmeK ami \\\a aubjecut knew It. WLy Aduutd ha thuH be fbr- 
nlcea ? Whilst Ihiu truvei^mg the fore^, eugagtd^ as didv w^U 
be imoi^ed, in fi gloomy rovmc, a man oj" viUJ^ forocioua aapecl, 
bire-hrtwled *.d<1 bare-l^gei, mahod from behini a tree, oQiJ aeizing 
his bridle eidaimed, ' Suiy. noble king, venture do further ; ihou 
&rt betrayed !' Tim ntri'TtdjknT.E, hearhig the cry, hastened forwards. 
Tbfr fltraager vraj compelled Ui loown hia hold, and ite king rode oq ; 
bat Etill tho mjui followed at a diHWuct^ shouting vrith Iticiuiaed 
energy. ' Thou iirt bctr*T^ !' 

It was nuv midday, and when the kiog emerged from the forest 
it was Ic enter an t snndy [jUin, upon wZiirh the tun poured dova 
with ftlnioat vertical power. Two pagea followad him, one bouring 
his Uace, the other hia be]met> Tho former Icli aalecpi and the l&ncflf 
InoMned from his grupi fell upon th^ Bit.'et ouacjue borne by hJH 
a>m|jaiiicn. The siidd^'n nni^ie and Hoxh gave a shock to the 
king^a Klrendy ehak«n nerves, H« ahiiddered, dr<rw hia flworil^ and 
CJCEUiciuig ^ TniitorE T they would betray me I ' attacked the un- 
larlmkate pagea, and tbe& spurred hia boise agabifit the duke of 
OrlEUi& TJje duke lacaptd, but four mtn ware killed before the 
mihapfiy Chorlea cnuld be ehetked. At length he wbb seized, die- 
umed. oDd laid upon the ground^ rind carried back to Le MaiiB 
in a state of ucconeciousncas. 

On the third day hia aen«ee were restored, but ho Qever entirely -] 
ncorered hid reA«on^ Even in biA best; condition hd wns imbecile, 
aod at times he vaa subject to lita of raving tnadneu. 

The kJQg'fl unhappy condition almoet neccanitated the refluraptioo 
^fthe regency by (he duke of Bur^^uudj. Two of the late miniaters 
'««iat once impriaoped. and Olivier de Clision wa» tried for em- 
Ast^eiDenc, hta ofEce aa constable wEia laht-n frmn him, and he wqh 
^Dl«d ta Bcitt^Eiy. 

la Juduary 1^(93 the klng'a health BufTenMJ a oerioiia reUpse. 
nuaked ball hjih gLVCU at lhe<:ourt ou Ujc oi:caAiD[i of thi; nmrruige 
one of the laJiea of the queen'a hou^'hold. C!hurliB and live of 
courtiers amiijcd themselves hy taking the di«igiiiAe of Huvagea, 
weafipg clwe-fitting drc'tiflca covered with pitch aad tow, fio ob 
RMmble hoir^ The coiirticTa were chained togt^tbtf, bul th^i king 
free. The ball-mom wue lighted by toithea (lamps and chan- 
Eien hang then unknown), urid ordern were given diat the turcb- 
abonid itation themaelres again»--t the wall. The ^^g, 
iiiTjring himaalf in hia di^nise, waa jokinj^ wiih hi* aunt, the young 
■^It UL the due de Berri, when the duke of Orleana, who had apent 
^^_ evening elsuwliere, and bad probably druijt too freely, entered 
Voft t^vm, and peicing s. torch held it cloae lo one of the aavagea, that 
l?^^tDi^ht diacover who he was. The pitch and taw caught Hre, and 
unhappy mfTi were inatontly in Hutne^ and wildty ru^ingabout 
room Toinl/ tried t<j iiee themselveii aa the ilaatea gained upoik 

thL-m. The Uuche^a cf Derri aebed tbe king, covered bira with 
dreaSf and prerenled hirt mnving. He was ihns untouched, but four 
o£ the oouitiere were burnt lo death ; tha titlb^ treeing himfi^^lT at 
Jength Irom the uhaio whicb bound him^ plunged into a Itir^c cifllom 
□r water placed in tbe buttery foe tbe purpow of rina&g Uie dxiuk- 
ing-cupti, Hucl lIiuu e^4ti)i]jed. 

The Icing's reljtpsa Jifier thiH horrible accident waa very violent 
Only Vftlontina of Orleana bad unj power over him; he knew 
her, called her h'vt dvar siaCcr, inaisCcd upon seeing her every ^5, 
and whtm alie did nut comi: ti> hitii would go and «^ ht^. But llu» 
&Adnfttion| Eonthlng thoi^gli it w^s to the king, wha not under«caad 
by Iho people. They atiribnted it to sorcery, and the duke ti 
Bnr^ndy took advamtage of the ontcry tu bam^Ii Yalf^tina &4a 
Cou^t, bhiifl showlnj^ hia enmity io her husband, Loula of OrlceiiA 
the i>zUy man in France who d&red to be hia rival. Thtee ymn 
paawf], during which the king reniained apparently hopelG^ly insane, 
i.ih but ID J^^J6 a lemporary restoration of reason v/&a gmnted binii aed 
^^^ he took advantage of ii in a way which ahowiid that a aeQac ofiiglil 
and a desire to work for the good of hJa people and of tho Chn^dui 
church waa far more prehent to him than in the daya when he hid 
given himself up to frivolity and extravagance. 

Tor twenty yGiwa Christendom had been dUtraoted by the «pM- 
tacle of two rival Pop53 ; ODe holding his court at Kome, the otlitr 
ftt Avignon, An endeavour waa now made byCharlt!H,eupportedbylln) 
Univerwty (if Paria^ tfi induce both the reigning Popes to relinquiih 
theii clainiB Bikd alFow a new election to be made. The Avignon 
Pope, Pedro do Lunia, kuowti na lienedict Xlll,, refuacdf howevcTr to 
accede (0 the eu^eetionf and it w^ uldtoataly resolved by the chim^ 
1:1 Fnmce tiiat the kiogjom hhuiild be wibhd^wn from his RUthoriEjr. 
As be siill remained 6nn a military force va9 «erit a^ri^ him, m 
For upwards of ioui yeara he was kept a clofle priaouer in hi< own 

It wita during thU same tat«rval of reason that a definite pctV 
was, hi IflBtit oout^Iuded with EnglauJ, whea Kicljard H. demoDttf 
the hand of the little princes* Ijuibvlle. then a child of only asm 
yeara of a^o. The betrothal was celobrattid at an interview vhiok 
took place between Charka and lUchard at Calais 

This treaty atforded the nobles of Fraoce an opportunity of 01^ 
dertiikinp what they had long diaired — ij. war against the Tutfca, ^ 
were rap>Jly sprending theinselvvii av&r Europe. Already BflfiVl 
their Eeadcr, lifid eurTourtded Conglunt^nople, and now he thrcalCO^ 
Huuptry, (lod awcro to ^ive his hora« hay on iJje altar of St- Peltf' 
at Home. The diike of Barguiidy obtained the couunaud of 
expt^iiion fcirhta uon^ the duko of NeverH^a young ntaa of I 
LweDt/. Tho artuy £et Jbrth in oil the pomp of luxury. 

Mutdu^ bomedoths, glittered with go\4 and siivor ; the tcuta n-era 
(nf |T«i^ iBtiD, tbe^r^^ivuA pUtc needed fi>r vpkudid etJt^rtaijmn-Qia 
mm t-njirev^ in s«par&ce carridges, aad cJi&ka cif ex^uialte wiiii^ weru 
ftnl frtim ibf Danube, fn be ready vtUen required. Licile wiu heard 
of the rxpedidon tiU ClirLettime pi^ht J396^ WhiJaL PariHwasm 
|}w midst of its rejoiciD^ un ihs ijcuuioa of ihe aacred fdAtivaJ, tk 
kui^lit, hootni nnd Hpiured, mode hiii wnj into the tojaI prenenceat 
tlw HfiU^l dc Su Pnlf oiicl dimwing himself on liiu kciees belcre 
C1isrl««, d«cUred thai he e»me aa a Dionatnger frtitu the duk« of 
Netens ina<3(* a pKaoc«r by »ho Turlc*. The army, with the eacep- 
tkni <'f tf ^,<^itO mtn, had pf^nahiid. The tiGws woa ecarceJy BUrpriaiDg ; 
hoialhig futlr had marked the expedition from ils very commedce- 
BHfkt. The French helteved tli&l tlie Turks would never venture to 
HUOTOlpr tfiem, jtmi Bajiuet toUfi only at hiT leugaes' di]4tnri<^ whea 
tW French ^ctietvI Boucicnut ordered the fun to be <-nt olf cf aoTue 
in biB i^amp who djircd to prophmy the cootruTj, 
TW ditBMer iraii do aoooer known thmi the king Aud iku duke 
'Hurfnndy Htrove to ^ippva&r ih» buIehij hy rioh preauuis — a gold 
tum£tr-hoX, ^oTvt^^an falcon^ [ioen frum KheimR, ttpM^ry froTn 
Attw* repM-iPnTing the vicl<»r»04 of Alexander the Greut, and^ — whnt 
wv ^ tifore important— the 2t>0,000 ducatfl demanded fir the T'»ung 
dnkv's rmnvojn. The aultuQ, on hi^ fHirtr ^nt preKiiU to the king of 
FnAfw. bni they vere n mere mook«ry — aa iron club, a tAmhouf, 
aad aona howi^ the Atrin^ of vhich were formed of human mre«- 
tlMVf aod. th&l nothing niii^t he vaaimg in intoictice, the parting 
w4> of Bojazot to thfl Juk« of Nv^ers were, * Jota^ I know that 
Ab« fttt a fTeat lord m tliLue own country* and the Mil of a ^KUt 
Inri. Thou mAvm one day wish to repair thitiebonoiir hy nt-aem-. 
Wi^ a^raioit me « pcwerful amiy. 1 might nijtks lh«e nwe^r not to 
4o to ; Su( DO. I will eXHft do 'uch oath. Attack mc ua thou wUt. 
B«t ivhat I (BT to thoe I say lo the Chriatians who may follow tJiim^ 
I aat bum iitwaya to R\rhi and atwayn to conquer.* 

Tb«* bilurq ofth*-it TurkJAh t^xpi^dicion wiu a diigmce for the 
•iek'ki^t^lom- The ar\e-f was unirerfoi. Only mavei for the Jeftd 
VVi li^rd tti the chnrchex, only moaraing dreBua aeen in the atret-la. 
AmI amadj bad these natwnrd agns of UiDeutatiun bem put 
^iW vboi again aorrovrul newa won biuught to France. Hiobanl 
IL. tha king'i MMi-^in-Liw. «aa depoied, nod a prtJioner in ib« power 
^^ 4i»k* ff BolinffbK>ka, &ov Henry IV, Wuh Ktcl^ard fell the 
of fliety for Frnnci:- Tho dream of peacv w at an end, 
JM Mac* wa* tho one ihin^r which France ue^td. 

ahm ktng'a miDd wns a^aia diRurdfirtd. and hU attendantA Kad 
fce bia rvac^riy to nteaiu which wvoiirtd atmngly of 
A VQUH^ Tuan nid lo hiivo yarned by hia auslere Ufa 
OTtr lb« QwneiLta of natiuo via ocnt fur fj-om LitngueJoa 

ISO EPTonr FOn tee kino's MoavtRt— AHuaftiiErn-— cjbm. 

Hie knnwlKlgc waa dedued to buve beeu acquired hy the Htiidy of 
a ZDArrsUtiiia book caU&d * SmagoTwl/ the orij^imd of which hod been 
^VQn to Adam. Fot a hundred yean Adam, il n&e said, hod wept 
for tlio duth of Ahd. In hU sorrow God sent him thia book by^tbc 
haud uf an ungel, ]t was lu c:oLjeo1e Iiiidt to nuae him from hiR 
degradntion, to give him power over the jilarR. Such was the 
popular bi-lief ; but th« book uus not sr lUiH^Bsful for the euro of 
the unhappy Cbcries va for the ccnsolatioo of Ad,ua ; atkd two faer- 
mitawerG then Bought out, nho modo a potion of grotiDd pearls, ovot 
whkh L-t^rUdii magical wi^rd^ wi-re ponounctd, anil thia waa to be a 
certjiin f^Mre. but it failed Thu hermits altrihuE.ed the failtiTe lo 
th^ Borcerjes of the duko of OrUsnBr "Q'L ^^'^^ the dake, in roTeo^ 
coalrived t}iat the^ ebould be beheaded, and ih^ bodies qiuriertd 
Uid huiig up at tht- gaten oi PuriFi. 

And ail this limu ibe }>oar king waa qulifi aware of hia terriUi 
tnalndy; and pireouti wers hi^ tfam and entreattea lo be tpu*d 
what he coaaeived to be tho tormeolitig of an evil apjrit. ^ If bt 
irho taueea my naficring ia amotigi^t >ou, I pray hjmi in the bum 
of our Lord, to c«PHe and Let ok die.' 

Tlio henrta of tha people were ripply touch^ by th? mivsy ol 
their king, Ibr in hia later yeart Chorlea, in his ahort interrda dT 
reuoti, vfta aiwaya Btrivin^ to do fioiuo good or remedy sothc eril; 
and ihe l&Lrned &ud popular preacher of the day, Jenn Gerwn, LB 
defiiince of the king's relaticinH, who were ea^rly Awii]Lin|i; his deacfai 
publicly flddressed himReif to hii4 innane novereign with the wish, 
' my kiDg^ mayat thou livu for ever I ' 

Wheo nob too ill CbArlea was taken about to the di£<FicDt 
churches to hear nuuw, or eiae to he preeent at (he reprenentatioa of 
the »ierpd play^ or myaieiiep by ihe ( oitfrateTFLity of llie Foaaieii in 
the Kuo tit. DeniA, playa whioh were ao popular tfiAt the prieaia woiC 
obliged to altar the hourol' veaperti to uniLhle the poople to otuo' 
them- Wlieii he could not p^u out picttiren wtre giv^u him for bif 
amuMimeut, and ili&SK at lefi^lh look l})ti form of carda. AiUT 
the king t>egan tn play wilh them the court took up the idea, vd 
cardu became latihLotmblo. Then the d em find for them gt^Mreagr^ 
that il mode of printing in^r'ad of painting rbcmwaa invented. Gtt^ 
\ver<] indeed kuown before the time of Charleys ^'Ut lliey were liult 
in wsc. It in HiupfiOf«rl thai thvy origjimlly c&mv from ihe esHt. Tbs 
four wiutB repruaeat^ the font elaBsea ol tha people ; huub vtf< 
churL?hraenj or *genE de uhieut ' (ehriirmcn) ; flpndca, or pikfrheidJ^ 
were the tiobles and the military ; diamouda, or 'caireauA,' wluei 
were in face Hquare stcnen or tiles, witl- the wtirkai<;fi ; and olnbfr^ 
really reprtflentingtrelnil or clover — wi-re the p^ainnti ThaFreulh 
had fdifo namea for llia twelve court cardt^, the four kings bciof 
David, Alexaaderf Cft^ft *'^*^ Charles or Charlemagne. 


QUf^ r/. 

This 5»me of Itlo^ nnd qiieenfl vroJl reprcaenied the Ticiaaitudea 
of ite ooiCTeigiia of the time — CljHrlcB i>F France idternuiiDg 
between rvason and insanity; Richani of Eugland dethronwl, and 
mtienph murdered hy hia cousin Bolingbnice ; the German em- 
peror, Weaceslnua, tlmoBt oe mod from druakonneBB ua CttEirlcs yras 
from naCiural iaJlrTiiitir ; the Pope a priBOoerm binpiJiice, not having 
I cwtn ^oud eaougb Sia- his kitchen ; the BulUa Bujjuet captivetkept 
I in an iron a^e by Tnmerlane :he T»n^r ; and the duk^ of Anjcu, 
' who <slJ^ themeelveH kings of Naples, one ufter rmotheri father, 
I am, And i^tsudHon, atrLring ta make good their claims, and aJI jtJike 
I defeated &nd dtagr^ed. 

U would Lave Aeamed that the influence of kin^H vaa Q¥er. Yet 
I CharZen nf Franee still retained the pr^ntigp stmrbed to hiH ponttion, 
' asd the free i^tatefl in the north of Iruiy — Milrm, Fierence, and 
Genoa — called tbemselre* hia cHcnta or dependents. Only in ihia 
vay could Genoa ein^ipe HubjecCion to the tyrauiiical ViscontiT dokea 
of Milan. 

Notvithitnnding the king'fl flcbnoYledged incapacilj no perma- 
Dcvit r^eney had bi^en appointed. The rival dukes of Burgnndy 
and Orleans were rcHpcctivoly atriving for tht! mastery, tnd civil war 
wju an Fvejjt which it might easily lit ^euri could not be fur disLanL 
The death of Philip of Burgundy, indetd, which took plate la 
^' 140-1, mighl havoseemud an nm^n of T*J*c^j hut the enmity Biirvived 
in his son John, fiurnamod ' Srins Pour,' or the Fourleee. 

Philip the Bold had poaseased many great qualities, hut for hia 
boundlmnezLtrnvagaE^izehemiglit hare given jiroafjerityiohiHcounliy; 
bal rbe inn gnilieant- look ing^ awkward, tocitvirn John, the FoarlejSr 
waa jin TuiBcnipiLloiia ruffian on whose conscience lay no check either 
of religion or morality. 

The heortB of the peop1« were at firnt with the handsome and 
courieoua LouIh of Orleaoa. Tfiey i*irdoneiI Jxlfl reckless profligacy 
in eAnsidemtion of hia winning manner»i' But when he hrrrught 
upon th^TD an increase of tuxatfon, thev (upeciAlly the FAriBinns) 
torned aguinat him and aided with the duke of Bur^ndr, for Jean 
Sana Peur, who had tjist pusevHiitn^ inde|reTiden[ of Fiaijoe, could 
k«ep up bib royal sbtte vr[tJjijut reHjrtitig[i>fppr<^ve rneBHLiri!S. Hti 
vas a forvigner aa well as a Frenehman, and he drew hie mnrjey from 
FUndera and his n^cn from Bui^imly. 

And money and men were still ihe great need of the couatry, 
lor war waa once nw>re ibieaTeuing. The little qnc«i of England, 
tiw widow of Kidmrd 11,, hml bwn sent hnr.k lo France by Henry 
IV",, and Tjouia of Orloana took her iind»*r bin proieclion, and de- 
clared hiiOAGlf the enenny o|' England, Philip of Burgundy, on the 
other himd, had uphdd Henry, and hi»^ s^n now took the same part, 
and tbua at every moment war with England might again Ivrak 
oui, aa the revult of the aniflgonism of the Frn^nch print^ea- 





Nothing told nore for tin- Burgnnilian |iiirty than the Barmen 
pKiactii--d by uq Aiigm^IiniiLii niank Ji^amtit rh« '(UUeEi utid tbediikeof 
Or[tfliis,tUoq\ieciilj<^nKpreagniH Tlie preudier iiJ\eighEid aguinBtllic 
pixjlli^cv AnJ i?:c^rav£igfi£Lcc uf tLecouit, o^uini^ti Wanting and fashion, 
iVJTtgf'fl and Im^c rilt^vpH; and wlif^ziufterwardHtinlltd ujjoii lo clelivtT 
n. diecoura^ h^om th^ ting, be told the unfihrtuiinte Cii^irlen UtJit lli« 
tOAOB mined wsr^ no ^oi^d to th« ir^OLiatry, thjtc ttiE- kiu^ )niu9«Lf wit« 
clothed by the blood and ttara of hla people, that tho iluka (he used 
DO olhi^r Qume) naa iziirnfiA. aud that God itvuiild \skboub doubl 
CH1IF^ the kingdom 1^^ ^aien iuto othtr liandn. 

The dukf^ of Orles.nB nt thirty jears o£ n^ vob iadeod ncthitig 
but n boy i& hU devotion to luxuiy and. frivcloiia amuBtnicutd. 
Ilia untlca tad pTcventcd hiin from utisiog in politic*, and noV he 
hud no uvilc lor [htiin. Mouey wna Uit oue iLiiig he ueadod, and 
OfJceii loT ikod obtained the gov«miiif?nc of tTit^ rich provinceorN 
nmndy. Thi« "waa in 140^. The Jkat wa^ told lo tb« ^ii^g ^^ 
of hill itiEorvuIs of toft^n, and exoited hia fiu^luion, Hia ntt^nduit*, 
who were the fritcda cf the duke of Burgundy, aeaurod hi:ii alao 
that the queou aud tbe diike ueglected hiiii wheu he vfutt uiietitiEciont^ 
that his ^rvHUta wi>re not paid, that b^» t'biLdr«n viete l&fl with 
any aiTti. It viOB a\1 loo true. The poor king had boon Itft in 
most diflgraceful condition of dirt *iiid niiwry ; and now, vrLcn 
b«»ine ikwurv of Ji, lie waa t&nWy pi^raimded to rid biuii^tlf of hia 
broiber and trust lo the protectjou of Jean ^ana Peur. 

The people were for the Riom'^at glad of the cbADge. The dnka 
of OrLeiuiB h&d lately L'aust;d a beuvy Ux to be laid upon them — a 
tftJC whiuh the duke of Burgundy had opeHJy di-clared should uerar 
be paid by amy of his own «ubjtrctd, and wbtch liad eauaHl hi 
abniptly to loiivc Pana, 

Tbo lov/ar orders regarded tha ktttflr in eoDAuquunce lu tlieir 
champion, and tho ijucon, ECL'itig (lauec for fear, oicupcd u> Mduni 
acGonip^uied by tlii: dukt) of Odeaiin. 5be had giveu ordun 
the Ur:t!0 D^nphin was to follow her next day, but Joan Sana P 
vho amv(4] in lhe nieancime, prevented this. Ihe child vaa 
lainod in Paria, and in the aba^ntxi of the kin^ woa ctJled Ui pres 
At ft coUELcil held by order of his couain of Biirgundy, 

And Dovr, for the ^pjice of two yeara, France iniglit tie ndd 
he in a urate of oi^il warfare. The two dukea assembled ho«i]* 
forcea and exchange mutuul dsKance, But there vus no ref^lar 
battle, Hud ut length the duke of Btiri ct!ccted an uppnTetit rccon- 
ciUiitioQ between them. The position of iIjo duke of Orienna wu 
by thin timK greatly loweTtd ; he had lost hi* one chief friend, thft 
conaLabifl De ClisHon ; the people v/stv grcvfing weary ol' hia foUy, 
and Ihey deepiflpU the (jueenj %tfith whom he had hpcoma bo oloeftly 
allied OB to excite tlie iu«pioioa iliat her a^cctioue were given to bin 
[abher than to bcr husband. 

I] tOftlffl^l 

CA.W« J'Z 

^ It waA in the autumn of Uie year HOT that Louis of Orleaofl 
fell ill ftl liis ToT^ly rh»(cim de Remits, huilt on the hank* of the 
Mame, and oruTlookirxg the numerous wooded isl^T^ of the river. Il 
yiuf Ji licnc for at^ricus thought, nad the duto of Orleaaa, in npite of 
his frivoth^, Lad rilwavi from time to time given iuJication* of re- 
ligious fediiLfT^ Ht? had befure thin DUidu aotne preparzLtiouH for 
d^rh — written a will full of ChHarmn Bpntimente, and entr^flted ihut 
he tcight go to hie tomb on a bier strevn with nabei^. 

Not tho Jcsq, howe¥flr, bad hfi gone back to bin dmful life when 
iho fear <if death had pAf^ed awaj ; but now he had a strojtg pre- 
■mtiment that he wis ih'mt h is end, imd iciwMichfl this fflftling he ofteo 
▼iciEvd the nftnastQry of the Colesiinfti, to vbirt^ wb<in a ohild, hia 
'giXtvemantfr' had tnlton bim to repeat his prLyora, Ocoahioaally 
he apeoC Bcverol days tether there, Ufcing part m Che pervicea 
both by jELgbt and day^ OQeoight. whilst croH-slzig the dormitory oa 
he went to matins, he Baw»or iJiuught ha now, a. figirre at Death, and 
Qt4t viaicn vaa soon after confirmed by Hnothflr. Hfs imaf^n«d faim- 
•elf in the profieucG of God, abonti to reirdvt tbe fioriti>noi] d£ finaJ 
}iidgm«iiL The prior of the cunTentt to whom be coaiidGd tbe riidoD^ 
beliHvcd ia truth thnl it vts^ a wariuag (rom Ueavea, aud bade bun 
tlunk of bi4 mtil and propare to die. 

But aaother, and In aome T«apect< a more ffurprUIng, visioD 
BMm after presented itBfilf- Jean ^ans Peur cania to visit biiru Hewaa 
Little cjqieoted, for only ju»t before circuniEitancea bad ocourrtd null 
fiiriliet to emhittor their mutuuJ eiimity ; but Jean had been urged 
to tbia Tiatl by tbe duke of Rirrn, and bo came partiy, it might ba, 
to deceive bia nnele, pirtly, probably, ont of malieioufl curiofiity lo 
know hiif oouflin a actiinl condidoti. 

The meeting waa remiufcably friendly, and when Louia of Orleans 
recovered acd remoTed to Paria, the rpconciliation wm bo far com- 
pleted that on tbe SOth of Novi^mber tho duke of BerrJ perminded 
fail two nephews to receive the Eucharist together at the dmrch of 
the Augustinn, after whic^h thoy partook oE a numptuoiu dlnaer 
giTcu by their undo, and parted with mutual enibraceiL 

Th? duke of Orleane wfL4 doubtless T^incere. Ke had shown 
erident dgna of true repentance and amendment. Ho invited his 
OlKim to dine witb him tbe foltowiEig Sunday, little knowing that 
t^ere w&a no other Sunday in store for him on eartli. 

Quti« recently tbeTe wae still lo be mcd in Paj-le, at tbe comer of 
iha old Rue dn Teirple, a light e^^gant tnvner of "the fifbsenth ecn- 
tUTj. iuBtrong conCmac with the ugly houaea which imrrouiided it. 
In tho time of Charlea VI. this lower marked tho encloeure of the 
Hotel Barbette, oocupied by queen luibesu ; for the queen objaclcd lo 
living at the tt^lel 3t. Pol, and liad chosen thiri separate realdence 
that she might amuse her^flf in it according to her own pleoaaiv 





Ouirta VL _ 

Tliu gardeDB were large, and luiglit even be called wlitary, for ihrj 
were nhuc in by hoiiaea whith tipened on the strMt. 

bome weekly pnTiotie to tEic appar^or r^OQaciliutioii botweon ite 
iwo dukea n bcujee verj d^ot iJic H&tel Barbette vw hired bj oDe of 
tlii^ p^rtiBana of cbi; duku oF Burgundy ^^ a kliid of magaziue lor 
tli€ winp» Pom, tt(!^, wliich ci£ jwrsttna Lcinnettfsi wilb tfce 
UniveraJty of Pbtir racpiTed from tlie pTOvmces, and which they hud 
Ibe privilfigfl of aelling wilhouf payiug dut}'. And hithor tlie duke 
of Borguady hrougliL by nigbl a body of hla follower*. 

Tbe bveutug aCk^ iLe diiiLiisr giveu hy llie duke uf Derxi, Louir« 
of Orlt^ns, an wan hip wonl. paid a risii to ibe quetTi nr. iJio Hi'iiel 
Bnrbelte; be BUppad ther*? nnd spent aome timein ^v converE^tian. 
Suddi'iilv a moBuogo wns brought tlukt the king winl^ed tu Bpcak vi(h 
him. The duke, accompanied only by two aquirirB uiounlcd uu oue 
lioraef Euid a few followera on fool with torches, ijiiinediuiely lelt the 
Rou-1 Barbette, the rest of \\'m attendhiii>i remjiinirg behind^ thinks 
ing that thv duk« would sodq return. It wu ftbout (jigbt o'clock, 
early for the oonrt, btil luto for Ihnt retired parr of the town, eepc- 
dally in tkc month of November. Hie duke, drt^ed in a block 
dnnmHk robe, rodi? iH'hind kid people, humtning lu himbelf^ nnd ptay> 
log ivitli bis glove, like a nmn with a light heart {ihe?e are the de- 
tails given by an eyo-witoeafl)-, but oe he reached the Porte Barbettca 
band of armed men rubbed upon him and ttirew hun upon tLoKi^uad. 
Th{!Lr EfadtrHtruckhi[uadeiLdly biow with iLnaAi',uEid hia coaj|jaiLioa9 
t^ien tini^ed the fearful wurk by horribly inuiilutiiighicn. The womui 
ivho by the light of the torcheii \Fatched the^e proceedinga from Jt 
window than wiw a tall man in n red hood^ ivhich half covortd iis 
face, come out Irom the hoUM cK^cupiod by tlie Burgundian piutYi 
and heard him Es.y, ' Put out tli« torcben and go ; he is quiu* dead.' 
Some one gave l)ie body annther blow with a dub ; bnt thert vas 
no movement, only »he duke's yage, who Isy dying by hi* masler'i 
aide, after having in vain trit'd to BJtve him, Lifted himaelf up for a 
momentand cried, ' Ah, my lord and master ! ' And then there wa« 
(ulence in the street, broken only by the tread of the departia( 

The remains of the murdorod ptinee being found early the next 
morning, were carried to a noigbbouring chm'ch. All his reUtioiU 
repaired to the church to sprinkle ihc dead body with conHcnite4 
water. Amongat iheui came the duke f}i BargLindy. who did uot 
hi?ajtiite to Htigmatiae the murder h.^ the most vickeil nod traitorout 
which bad evor been eommilled in Fmoce. Suapicion had ncit yet 
fallen upou him ; ytt it id ^d that, in Dccordadcc with the popular 
BUpctAtitiou, blood Jlowed from tbo corpac on hia approach. 

The funend Look placid al the church of die Cel»'»tine-'*. The pall 
waa borae by the duke of Bi:?rTi, Loui^ of A^jou, king of Sicily, the 

WRftoir ron Loiis of Orleans — escate or jeah aavs rtUB. 195 

date of Riirgnnrlj, nnd tlie duke of Bourbon, a crowd of uoMes, 
knigbb^ and cicizena foliomrig. All, enemies and fn^^nda alikef 
mounied for the young and OLptivatiag piacc cut olf in the midst 
of hjfl career, and "wbeQ lif iieemed JubI upon the polul of lurnin^ 
awBj from his ninf* and folVipa. Tlit tilergj e'jpecitillj regretted him. 
He had nerer neglect^'d the oiilward formn of religion. He hfid kept 
t c«JI in the conrfnt of the CcL'stines, hiLd fneted and watched vith 
the monkfi m Advent and Lent, and bad given tljcm a large BJble, 
bound ID vdluiLj and ilJumiDO-ted, wliidi lioJ bclunged Lu bin faElier, 
Cb&rlea V. And die viill, ^buo uiade known, turned ih» bf^arts of 
all. ^ A worm no mao ; a very sot'm of tnen and the oufcaet 
of the people ; '^ao he ppoke of himwlf^ b^ggirig iliat liia inioyo 
might be carved upon hin toaib i\^ he should lie ia deatb, clothed, in 
the gArb of u C»-kr*tinJan inoiik, ivJtlj a rude Hioae for his pillow 
■nd holding in hU hund an open book inecribod irilh the firnt wordi 
cf the Cree<l of St. Athanaaiua. 

The interest of the PantdiLiiB^ thus [irouacd, kus c:r?DtTed upon 
the question who vrw the duke'* mutdirer. tiUi*piti(ja fell upon a 
gcoUemau of the duke of BurYUndj'b houBehold who Ljid a prWatc 
aijjae for j^nmlcy agnmst Loui^ of Orleann; but wheTi it was BCatf 1 
that the sBaLHsins had fled ia the direction of tho Hireet in whj<:h 
JcAEL Sana Pear livedi and when the provoeC t>1' Paria declared that 
be iruold undrr^ko to diaoDver the murderer if ualv he joij^bt be 
ncmilleJ to H?ar<:h thi? htiLvln of ihe ro^al prmL«>^ the duke of 
Bof^nd^ exhihired ^mptoma of unea^inefa. He drew anide ibe 
^uke of Bcrri and the CTng of Sieilj and sai^i, with a face whito vith 
iear mnd shame, *It waa I. The deril tempted jug.'' The twro 
prinoes dr^w back, and the duke of Bcrri, hurting into te>ura, ex- 
*!fcimed, ' I have loflt my twn nephawa ! ' 

Jean Sana Peur wa.s ov(»rwhi?]rriG*^ for the moment ; but the d^d 
iraB done^ ihe Vril irrepamhle, and heroaoJved toelainiit aaau oct of 
hcri'iBin, lie repaired to the royni council cljumber. The Joorwaa 
clof*ed. Tbt* duke ofBeni gently withheld hjin from entering. The 
council, he naid, would rot receive hJni wiib pli^axnrp, ' Be it as they 
»iU," wkH the proud reply ; only let no one he accuf^ed of the d*alh 
of tbeduke of Orttuna. It vcas I vrho cornDuLnded ir.' And >Imu 
Stan Peur returned to hb houae, mcunled his horae, and rode off* in 
the directitni of FJandets. 

A hmidred knightp, follriwera of the duke of OrK'niiR, purnued : 
but in vtUD- At one o'dock in tbo mcirning Jean hiui reached the 
frontier fortft^fi of Bapaumc and was in anloLy. In memory oi iJa 
Cfcape he gave orders that the church bclt^ should alwaja be mug 
nt thai bour^ and for year:^ art^rwardB the citizens of Bapaume ven* 
■wiksied in the ailen[;*» of the night by what was known afl tb« 
AngeluB of tb« duke of tiurgundy. 



lak'iJig up h]B Tesdence at LzTle, J^n proceeded to jnntify him- 
jwlf ID the ejea of the world. B^ worii of rotiurh^ by flcrmoiiB, by 
Hritinga, be aeot ahrnad liis apology. To the FicmiogB br tnid 
tliit iJie d**ed hnd bepn done m Htlf-dp.ffcncp ; the rliik« of C)r- 
l^tifl vvns iyinp la wait for hirnHeir. And the FlGniingE belitved him. 
In Paria ihp publio cxcitciront wae iocronaod by th<j arrivnl qf tin? 
ducheM Valentina wilh ihofivnwaJ purpone of claiming justice from 
tJiiT king. The dut:b(^s9 euii^red ilie citj with her ^ecotid wn ntid 
ihft young Iftabelle, the widowwl qneen of Rn^ltvnd, who wta only 
fifteen years of age; ann] the ktog of Skily, tfie diik^Hof Beni and 
BoiirboJi, and the constable De Ciormoat went before her. The 
litter WBfl covered with black olotb and dmwn by four white borses, 
aad tlie duchesn and all her euiLe were in the dfcjpje^t muuniing. In 
this Borrowful guise they pn»ied nlowly through the pireetfl of Paris 
on the lOth ef December, 1407^ in o winter eo severe that tho derfc 
who re^EittiTed tha dncisicnK of the parhaneDt of Parifi could Hfl 
write without: ijieldng tlie ink whiclj fio^c in his pen, whit^t a oiouth 
Intvr Hia parHanieDl ceuacd iis r^itLtng etLiirely becituse of ifie cold. 

Descending from b«r litl£T &I tiw H5tel St. Pril, iho duches nf 
Oricana threw herself on herkneoR before the king^ imploriDgjofitlce 
on the murderer. ChcrlcH wtpt wiih her, but he WOB powcr^eafl. 
Advocaleb iipok? for heii pruLf;hern juade CitEierdl omtioTia lEi pniae 
of the murdered prhicy ; but whilst they talk i-d Jtan San» Pfur 
Mted, and prepared to r&mm with a body of men-at-anrB prote*^l- 
iog: hjm, Tho princes of thii royal lamiJy wont to An»iena to arop bim, 
but harecoived thctn vitli f<:tC!iand ^ excellent musici' nud continued 
bis route to f5t, Di^s, where he paid \\U devotions, iind llieo went mo 
toParifl, the people receiving him with Hhnuts of wj-lcomo^ chinking 
would lessen the uxea. £ven the ijueen conatratred ber^elf to r«o«i' 
bioj with civility, and the dulce of Burgundy retired to bia pA 
juid caused tvro loticea— on^ nbnrp, the otJier blunied-^-to be affi 
to the gates aa a sign that be waa mdv eiLiier for war or peace. 

iTeim Sana Peur profe»ied to hare no f«ar, hut he made hii 
BoEdieri camp round biapnloce; aaJ b^ aooihe hie troubled JniKgi- 
mition ordered a atone chamber to bo built, in wbiL:h he might dwell 
rafely. More thnu all he amight to satialy the public mind, and the 
day after hia arrival a Fraiiciitoan miinic, o^ttued Juan Petit, a leamfii 
doctor of the nniuernity of the Sorhonni*, appeared at thf Hot*l St 
Pol, and beibro a large and noble uaaembly ddih^rately endeavourod 
Go prove that aa^awmation vrns not ulwiiya a crime, and that tlie 
ODath of the duke of Orlfuma eH^peciallv was a juatiFiable actt unov 
the murdCTed priare w:ia the tnt my of Und. ' Thanka and pruiffi 
therefore,' he aaid, * werfl due to him whn had rid rhe French people 
l^ a tyrant.' 

The escuDc waa acMplcdj far no one darod lo controvert it. Y\ 

t mp 



the duke of Burgmid/ ought etill Ik&ve &>und eonko diffioul^ !□ re- 

gaiding hiB posiboD but llijii uljuitlj after he wiu RummoTied to 

Li^Sfi Km quell an inEiTHT«tion. Whf^^ iie\Ks came th.'it h^ had gnintd 

■ groat victory' it H:L^bfLm oil thotiglitof oppoang him wjumac and. 

On his T«tum to Paria he rG<;CLVcd a fuller aaEUTbncc c^f hiii 

uwn power nitd the woaknca^ of Ills «di^di(v&. In (.he chun:]i 

of >'otre Diuui: dv Cliartr<:jS ^^ ^li^s etitJiuite of the tihuiVy a 

I jca flblding viun erwte<1, upcin whioh, on an flp[>oiQted day, a throne 

^Hhl plftC(4 Tot the king — Ibe qiiK-eD and tbo princi'S Ettking th^r 

^^BtB iKor him. Th« duko of Biu'^undy^a mlvo^^atc then came 

forward ond demaiidtd ihut the kiug should ceaae Ic rcmiu anj^er 

becnase of the dfliyl which, Jbr tljt gtKid of i.hfl kitigdoni, had been 

cODinutted Hgninst the dute of OrlMirn- Thv fVitition wiw formally 

gTUil«di and tho foniily of the murdered Loui:-, vith the tTiception 

of his wife, who -wjis ill^ entered t}ie i:hurch ; and bein;^ inforojed of 

the pftrdtin vtiuihaaftiJ, wein rtrijUHiil*;^ to agrt-e to it, Jeari Suua Peur 

*diJing himaelf, ' My dwir coiiflins, I pray you tc do bo/ 

The young priccea wept \ the queon, the Duuphin^ and tho royal 
duk<!0 approached tliciTn imd itilLTccdod Ibr tho duhe of Burgundy. 
The king trom iht throne laid^ * hfy v«y dciir eiMi, aod my very 
dear nephow, ngree, 1 pray you, id whfit wi: have done^ oud forgive,^ 
Aad so the young dnk@ of OrleB-uH and hi^i brother repented the 
pretAribed words; and a provtouely-oiratii^ treiLty vras Aignedf by 
which the eecood soti of thG omrdercd prince agreed to marry the 
daugbttr of the murderer, reed viag with her a dowry of l&U^OOO 
francji of gvM. Woll ULJght tho peaci> hiive beeTk called ' la paijc 
fourr^ * (the patohed>iip penoe) ; ^eH might the regkrrflr of tbf^ 
fuliamdnt, when copying it into hiarogUt^, writo on tho margin, 
'Peace, peaces while there U no poicel ^ 

It was hut tLf cjommeneeiueat of cItiI wot. The duke of Bur- 

tmdy entered falo an intimate aUi ah ce with the deapicshlo queen 

iBbena, and by thi» maona gained poaseaEJoo of the peroon of t1;o 

j^Damphio. But Jo 1410 tha young dnko ChEkrlec of Orloana, and 

f^n of hiH fujnily, orgauiqcd a powerful league aguinst the duko of 

Bnrguiidy, kuuvtn as the Iffague of the ATia^tgnaca^ from tht^ir ehief 

ihe cmnte d'ArTiiagna<^, of t^guedoc, whose daughter ha.d imuried 

Charl^a of OrleanB, A body of Armagnaca iidvancod towarda Paris, 

^ troopOr coUeetod chidly frojn tho south, who ehoVTL'd little 

■■"Weaco either for Cod or the king. Tl»ey took the Ireaanrcfl be- 

■fAeiDgco ibe abhey trf St. Dtoia, itoil wen: known to have seized &*^ 

?tent, cut off' his f^ara, and told him to go ^od allow himself to hia 

)^ of a kino*. 

ThiacoEduct told greatly for the advaati^e of the duke of Bur- 
FDtidj, The towns tumcd agaiust tlio Armngnaca, and the ParLAiaaa, 
iRMWng to neither J^arly, formed a kinc3 of i;iiy guard, composed of 



Chay^tt VI. 

[he Jowcet of the people, atid commanded by a buicher, ft sxa^to^ 

aji eseciitiontr. and a akiuiKT called Cabcrche. From the bitet 

[heae lUE^mberB of a rikook goverimieiLt w^re culled CnhoobifiLi. 

Everyone HI isjiectJ'd of being an Armngnne waaatoncokil^pdbj Lhem. 

Tho AruuignncB, bowuver, at leogth got powesaion of tbo ciiy, 

but were in theit turn expelled by !he Biufiundinna. Tbo OrEcana 

priiicea were then jjronoiinced trait^ra, and by a rojal edict banished 

from The bingdnm, and i bus were left without bnj.n- save in foreign &id. 

The English king* hflri never renount'Dd [heir oTnim \n their forTOCT 

AD, territuties in France, find now in 1412 Ilenrj 1 V, engaged toaid the Ar- 

**'^ magnAM with fl largo Ibrce, \V th<j on thtir pnit would htlp him to 

recover bia rightflt aDi] "huiild put into bia handn Lvktiily to^na in ihc 


The neWH of thia alliance ■oon spread In nn ei:ngL^erated form. 
The ArniJigimca, it was aiidj hmi ewom to kiJl the kirig, to bum 
Puri^, aud to divide Franoi"- Tbo duke of Burjjundy spread tbo 
repi>rt. The universiiy, the ciiizenn, the cooinioo people, believed 
nnd repeal*^ it. The poor king wept nnd asked whai he emiM do- 
Then came a terrible period of (ninrchy. The States-Cifueral i*ere 
Biimmonedi but thi^y were timid and did nothing. The univernty 
1114-ids UHeleaa remon^tmncea, whibt clie Cabocbiena again came iclo 
power nnd pillnged, impriaoned, and murdered at tbeir will \ yet net 
ivitbaiit the pre't^nce nf rpforming the jflate. On one occiejon a 
party of the Cftbochiene, headed by an old ttirgeon, Jwin de Troyp*. 
who had II grGa[ gfft of sp* 4?ch, appmred et ihe H6te] St. Pol t.' 
seek an interview wiib the Dauphin. The prinw, by the adviije if 
ibi^ duke of Burgundy^ LrembEiuglyaboweJ hiniselfnta windaw, ami 
ibe aujgean then spoke. * My k)rd/ be Hiid, *yon set- your verj 
Imtnblo flubjcctfl, rho eiiizeua of Pnria, id nmia bofori* you. The^ 
deairo only thtta to prove to yon that thoy are wiUing lo riak ihtir 
Lvts 10 your service. A 11 their regret is thiit you ane aurrouuileJ ^ 
tbosB who leatJ you naitay. The just liatred which we enienuin fiir 
ibpBo men laida iia to demnnd that vengpnnce uhoiihl be taken upon 
ihem, and that they thould be deliveri-d into our faaadfl/ 

Tbe flbontfl of The nioh confirmed the wordg of thc^ Bjicoker, T3i* 
Dauphin replied fimil)', * Getitleuien and my yooil citizen?, reium. 
1 beseech yoii, to your biMni-% nnd do not sliow nn eumTty «o vjokn' 
agninuT thoae v^ho axe my faithfiil flervanta/ ' And,' init^rposed tk 
I cbancolliorf 'if you know that tliere arc traitors about the Daopbili 

I they will be puni^cd. Only nnme them,* * Yoii, first I * w»i tfa* 

I cry. And a paper was pkced in the chEknceJlor'e bandn. 1: con- 

I Eained fifty namt^, hia own being nt the head. 

j The helpless Dauphin, tJiedding bittar tenn, took a en»tt of gt^t^ 

1 from hia wiio^ and mudo the duke of liui^undy swonr thai no hiC* 

I sliould happen to bb aervnnta If ibey vvcre given up. The dukf 


ABkUGVAC TBunrPB — tsheateveh wab with knolanp. 



took (he oatk, but be ceuld oot kcop it. The mob broke open ihe 
^LeA uf iLe pakoe uiid rueheil thrcugh the room^ w^ekio^ lor iboes 
vlioDi i]]^^ culled iraicxirB. The due de Har, the king'A coimn^ 
viilh the lyan^hiD's vhanceMai, and Bevcmloth^penmu, viure carried 
off ta Ibo prison of the Louvro> All, however, did not reach it. 
Tvo of tbc Dauphin'^ attendantA, vrho vratb coitfildered to [ljito 
sicouTj^^gd tbti prince in extuiva^Euit amuflexaeaU, were hilled at 
oac^j aod their bodies ilirown inio ihe Seina 

Such a slate of things could not Iccg coTitinue, The citizaiu 
of Pnrio after a whilfl ^ew weary ol' the Cabochienp, and dcaJrad 
pence at any price. The Arin^kgDac partj deui^ it llkewiBe. 
AlihofEffh Lhiiir hUioDce with Eug^od had lor ibe timi* ialltia 
to ibe groundj in c^nBfquence of ihe di>ath of Henry lY., they 
w«Te still very powerful^ and ihe duke of Burgundy, who eidud 
With the CAbouhienB, wttfl uiuibJtt hdj loti^r lo witbHtaad them. 
Tliej were aJmitltd into Paris, ihe priaoncra b ihe Luuvru wae 
delivered, mid tho dukf of Burgundy haittjly teftPariH, 

The ArmaguacH were now enlirely triumphflnt. The Dauphin 
and the d^ke of Urlanai. Appeared in public wi^iring the suae coloure, 
■od everyone adopted the while scarf, which ww tbo Armafloac 
flymbol, whilat the little chiidmu in t^ie itlteeLa who »ing Burgun-* 
diaa Bongs were sure to bf beaten by therr parents. The daughter of 
JcoD SaOA Fear, who wa^to havemnnied the ton of Louis of OrleaJii, 
WAA Kat bftck lo her parentaj tha unireraity oondemned the diB- 
CDurse of Jean Petit in fcLvour of anamination ; the duke of Bur- 
gundy wae declsEBd a rebel, and it waa propoeed lo couHtcaiUi bia 

The ci^'il wsr w*fl for the time ended, but tbe terrible scourge 
oE a fordgn invumon once mr^re threatened the country, Un the IGth 
"J'rf Aprih I41&, the ycung Uenry V, of Englaud had aanounced to 
^ hU pirlinnieut tbiiL Le Liiteaded to make a desueot on Frunci', and 
tvo embasaea, qutckty following oni4 another, Immediately a£ur- 
*uda made known to that eouniry hie claims- 'He wau,' »o eaid 
lut amhaBaadorBf * kmjz; of France by ri^ht j but be waa willing lo 
iKiut tbv detitb cf tba kin^^ Charles VJ., and in the meautiuie 10 
namr hifl daughter on condition of receiving with her all the pro- 
vmca wJnch had been ceded by the treaty of Rretigny, 

A f^rtrnd embassy, cou&iating of twelve peisonB, with a suite of 
^UO ati^ndanta, cro^aed to England to ^vo a reply to tins demandn 
tbi: Da-upbin accepted the luarriage with bin sieter, and oJTvred djj 
nonnotK dowry and tha proviiiue of LirnoiiAin instead of Nor- 
masdv- For three moutha negotiadous were carri^i on. Then all 
being ready on Henry 'a flide for the contemplated war, the ambaa- 
ndora wc-re iliami^rfcd with con^derable prtaentfl and the oai^nrance 
iJjBi the king uf Englmid was ftbout to Ibllow tbtm. Neither ibe 




SOO ujmura ow t^^qusiE — prxpatutioits for battlk. 

paaBflgfl poc the landing of the Eoffliah waa diaputod, Thcj dij 
bat'ki:d at Hjtrlleur on the t4th o( Augiitil, l-tL&, bI the entrance of 
the Seine. Thp town was h4»iegt^d Art<1 vigomuely defended, but do 
HUccoiirs came. The oitizeDB were obliged Eo jitld. Henry left Hit- 
fieur on the 8th of October, and marched (icrosa the country In ^le 
direction of Calui?; but the iq>jr[t of the French hod by thU lime 
been ihurougliJy roju^ed, and a largi? arm/ was collected u> iriLvrfrfpi 
bia route. It was [yimnLnnd(>d by the nnnHtable D^AlbreL The 
dulcfifl of Orli^HUB, AnJDU, Aitin^oD, and Bourbon eupporled him; 
but the dute of Burpundy held nJoof Thp English wtre in flgrdart 
dlMculby. Tlie furd by which Eduard IIL Imd croraed iLa dorujue 
VBJt gujudvd, b^d they rc^umunEed tbcs rJver un fur an Amipn^, whfre 
ihpy were told of nnDtbor ford fiflioni i]»»h1, but Etill pruotK-n.b]«. 
By thifl lhi?y crosHfld, and a Jiic»«AgD wjid than sent by thi* Freiicb 
pnnco to Henry, accardlr^g^ to the chivalroua cuatomH of tbe lime, 
begging tliQC h& woidd name a day and pluct fur thu battle. Henry 
replied ilkflt be wns marching i^raigbi to Calais, tb^t he sbculd 
enter no tovrn, and therefore should alwoyfi be found in the 

The road to Calaia paused through a narrow plain between 
village* of Aginuourt and Tranjecourt ; on either ^^ide vnh u tlikk 
wood. Ic was n spoi peculiarly unfitted for h mccea^ul battle, as 
there was no fipacQ for tho movomentB of j^ralry. Yet bore ttaa 
eonatnblo D'Aibret dGtermiood to intercept thii advance of th» 

The first flight of the Frermh army, with ita watch-finwaiid banner? 
and 50,000 men rendy for hattlfl, muflthave been startling Co the-miU 
English Ibrce, numbering betweon eleven and twelve thoutaaJ^ ^Uo 
reached the ground near Agincciurt on the cold« roinynightof the £itii 
jf October, Yet tb« light- bcrtrte^l Welsh uion, David Gam, who niAdw 
bin report of the ene-ray In t.hi* king, ordj faid ir it vaunting tone; 
^ There are enough to tK» kilii>d, enough to bu Uilc«n prifloners, aod 
onough to flee.' * It would not have bean amifls,' observad Sir WaltM 
Hungorlbrd» ' to have bod 10,000 more of our brave archere,' ' Niy/ 
eJtdalujed the king i«verely ; 'I wouJd not have one more. It lA 
God who hoA a[)pninted omt number. Our eneniLCfl place their con- 
fidence in thpir umltiludeB, I plaou mine in Him who so otteo give 
victory to Judafl Maucabeufl.' And without delay prof»arationa wen 
made for the morrow's conflict. Tlie bflnners were bditn dowa and 
(oiled up to save ilteiti from the rain. Tbe men-at-aiiue employo^ 
iJiuiiiMelveH in .repairing their armour, the archera in putting neni 
izords to their bows; whilst ebarp etakea were tttuck in the ground 
in front of the English poaition 1o etup the advance of the cavalry- 
Then the Boldiere made ibeJr confeBflozia to iheir priealB, addrescd 
rJitir prayers tn Gf<d, and laid themiselveH down to rem on atAW 





coDecl«d &om tbe ceighhourin^ Tillagca. AJI thin wps done noise- 
If^tiiy- The kiii^ hni commiuidEd *iileiice on pemilty ft>r the knighta 
of the If-flft of iheir tiorss^, Mnd for [h<? men of tlwir right onra. 

Very differejit wm it in the IVeodi ciinip. There the ohief oc- 
cnpolioo waa making knighta. The great lirea whii:li were homing 
in evi^JT}' diivctiuit bhuwcd tu djir uueiny a confused awiltul of sijuiret 
and pBgGB ruuhiug ubuul Khouiing ami uiiling lo uiie uj^olhvr^ Mniiy 
oi tb« gentltmea jmaaed the night in their heavy nrmoiir on horsB- 
b>ck, ia oi^ii-r tlmt it might not ho aodod hy tlic wtt mud in which 
Hie camp woa hidfBtmk. Evcd the hcrse^ seemed ead. Not one, it 
ht aaJd, wua heurd Ur Di^jgb. 

On the morning of the 2>3th of Octobpr, 141 A, Henry of England 
led Jortb hie iroopn to a tM of young green ccm where rhe ground 
yraa len BUturrLtocl vith th<! rairi than i^Jacwhori^. Ucre he etiiCioued 
them in Doe hody — ^e ld.a[:eA io tho centre, the orchera at the pidEa. 
Bui die hmil fl.f<jund ivas in euch u eoiiditjoij tbjit m^itht^r iiniij cured 
to beran ttie aciack. The En^linh king tlien sent another meouige to 
the Frmch. ^ He would g\\v up th« title of king of France ; he 
woiold give back Harhcur j only he u^ed for Guicnne und I'oolhieiif 
narnoge with a Frtuch priuot^^, uud 800,000 crowuH.* The pro- 
po«| WHS reJecLtd. Th& French had ]ookt:d (brwardto n bbtde, and 
I battle they wontd hflvp. 

The two armiea wcro a strange eonb-ost. On the Frenoh nde 
vere three immeuee equnidroii.^T li^^ three furesta of Jtuicea^ reAching 
Ibr bock Loto the diutow difoauee; m ihn frouL wtrre the CQnaLable 
Il'Albr&L and the ruyul princeiij Jinil a crowd of aohlcs with ghticring 
iidaid aimour, eticulchraiiB aud bunuerBf thoir horses evca hnJf hidden 
ty Bleel and goJd. Tht^ English army were taii-dtain^d jmd tikttarcd ; 
nuny of tLe iirchers h&d not even ehoeoi Tiiey wore cAp« of 
Inlher and oaJer, witli u crotj^ag of mm ; and Jkeh-uxebaudbotcbets 
/Ihoging fay their fliclea made tlitm look liktj £;aq>QUleTs. 

The yr^neh hnd arcJicra also^ hut Uiere waj no place for llicnj. 
Tftey wcro men oE low birth, ond tho noblea aad kuighta objected lo 
i^by thdinde, 

Ai the d^ciiUve moment, tlie army of Hanry bring ranged in 
^HT, the comtaau J wiU4 givcEi, ' Now Btnkc I ' and a vhout arose 
^Tii tho English Eoldi^rs^ whdst a. tremendous rSiecharge of arrows 
*«poiircd into the cncniy^s ronka. 

The French trjupd rcioiihicd iramorable, knights and borsea 
J^iparttitly either endinnlerl ijr sinnding dead in their armour. In 
iTBth tho huge battle- horaea, bearing tlie heavy weight of their 
ridcr» and of their own cajmriBODB, hud octunlly stuck Ikat 
muddy ground. Whtn ut itngth they did iqovq it was only 
pluiTge Ibrwaid a few steps and iticu sink Hgaio. In addition to 
ibu the Freiuch were pressed together in a fipace bo nariGW that not 





aboTO two OT* ilitco llioOBacd mpti nni of the jjrfflt amij vol* in • 
petition to ^gbl o^nin^t the 1 ],(K)0 Engli.^hf tvtn if dte honei 
hnj beeu Irce to loovi.'. Two t'reocb HquadroaA, bj gitnt eAbftt 
of tbeir apurs, did at lengtb 8y(X"«nl in moring forward ; hiit thtr 
w«re d^perat«ly aosaiiti^ii by tUi> P.ngliflh art^hera. 1?,ikH> maw 
ihfl chfLt^e, but oot more than Yl^^ reucbed the EngUflh cunp- 
Tbcro a frc*<h dntigfr itwairvfl ibeni- The boreus were «roaitf)o>l bj 
ibe tUtk&A wbicb bad bceii drivc'n ioto iLt ground, nijd H^^iMniBf 
ungovernable ruf*lind biick upon ibe Pr'^ncb raEiks. A borrihl* Kttt 
of coofusion fnllowtd ^^ TrigbEfn'^d bor^a Atamping, pluiuitt 
Ihri^win^ tbeir f-rdtra nncE falling upon ihem, atiHiag :iJid eni^ittf 
tbem, wliifst the mnwea formiaK tbo bulkof tbe Frcncb force luriaf 
Blu^ !□ tbo doep uiud, lubteud of opeuing to let llirm ps^ «cn 
unable in aivi^ KJtbi^r dtetiiai^lvfu or tlieir rouCird comfAniciijk AnJ 
ih^n mum dowu upon ibcui tbi^ Enj^li^li forc^, itoi tJie nrrbens 
but the hcjuTy troops, wiih liatchctB, asiBj clubs, beavy sword*— 4Bd 
ibe fate of tbe luilbrtiuint^ French was decided' 

The ti^i--guaid f]«d ; i*vXy ooe nc^bivruan — the duk^ of BnbiAt 
the brc'iliFfr uf Jeui Shji^ Peur — fdiuwed a spirit of dctrmiW 
bravery, ^hicb might e^m fin if he woitld Inm bnre redeemed b^ 
hia lifo Ibe honour of hii fnmily. He bad rencbed ibe MiM >< 
bfttile laie, not baling even li>und time lo put on his coul oranMnr. 
njid ui dtifHuJC of UiIb lie took hia t^uiuer, cut in tt a huJc;, thraoi^ 
which ho passed hia htnd^ antl ruAhmg fr^rword upon th« CagU 
wai ia a moment billed. 

Tfa« Tioniber of prisoners token by tbe EnglUb, or who vohv* 
tariJy frufi; ihemBcIvta up, tta£ immcunc ; and beJoro it wa» dfcidf^ 
That could b« done vritb tbcin a !a1se reporC nu brought tn ikr 
king that a corps of French were plundering the amp^ and thai dt 
Breicna and CvusconA wen> preparing to renew ib« atbuk, BibTa^ 
RWwd by the priranerB, Ileory gavo a huaty order ihiat eaKh »■» 
fthould kill hiA captive. No <iiie cibtytd. The rauM^oi of iW 
priaoners wa£ the prize vvlk'b the wbole arniy regarded ■« lavft^' 
iheira, and u feeling of mercy ali^n munt have made iheni Bhrinktnff 
nuuvocripg Ebuir eru-ini^ in cold bfooil, Bat Henry wu linn. 1> 
la the onn greet blot in bia iiicne aa a warriorh Two bundrwd vtf 
voro Appointed as exccuticneta, and the mtAeroble, ttnamjed ynat^ 
w?r« cut to pLifora. The \<3fA of ibe Engtuih at Aginooun wai iM 
I,fi00. that of tiie Frant:h 10,000. 

Wh^n rhe battle at leiigth wan over the areberi began lO 
tb« d^ai), nod dri<w i ut from tbe h^^p of oOTpMfl many HnoM 
liring, amon^j^t tbini the diikea of Orleane and DoiuML 
Eogliab toiik The roail t^t Calaiii, wwX cirJcr* werv givea Jiat 
halt was made aome breafl and uine HhouCd b« taken to tbv 
Orl«aii& But iha roport ciiute Uick tliat the duke would «t 

CAPnvnr of lodis of obleans — ForntT, 203 

The king immediately went lo visit him, ' Fair couud,' lie said, 

* how goefl it witli you 7 ' ^ Well, my lord,' waa the ftnawer. 

* Wberefbre, then, will ^ou not eat nor drink T ' * I am fasting/ 
replied the duke- ^ Fair conaini' continued Heory, ^ take not to 
|>ari «hat has happened, Grod hoa given me the vtcCon^, not that 
I am worthy o£ it, but^ aa 1 firmly beUeve, because the French de- 
•enfed cboatisement- If thnt which they tell me ia true, never haa 
there been aets such disorder, licenae. sio, and execrable vice aa ia 
thia day to be aeen in France. If Gad haa at length poured down 
Hia wrath upon auch a people, there is no cause for wonder.' And 
with thia happy assurance that his countrymen were suffering the 
anger of Heaven Charlea of Orleans and hia &ieads weie sent oB 
to Bofriand. 

The captivity of the duke of Orle&na laated (br live^and-twenfy 
ycara. Whilst the English felt there ^Bs any probability of hia being 
placed on the throne of France they reiiiBed to accept a ransom. He 
M«a at first imprisoned at Windsor with his companions, but wan 
aoon aeparated frem them and removed for a time to Pomfret Castle ; 
here he was treated hooourably but Beverely,and being without society 
or amoaement, except that of ^Iconry, the unfortunate but accom- 
pUshed prince found his chief solace in poetry. The most per- 
fect French poetry in the middle ages was written by him. 

The billowing lines to Spring are given as a specimen, the old 
^lelllng being altered so aato make it clear: — 


La Tempfl a IftiaaA hd miuite&D 

De TflDt, dfl froid«iir at d« ptniA, 

£t «'«t r£tD da brodBri«, 
De H^eii riaot ciair «t b«au. 

n'y A heta nl oitean 

Qai en boq jvtpa ne chsrile 9t crie, 
* Le Temps s Uiam sod msntehu 
Dfl rent, de fmidBor et d« p^nifl/ 

Bivi^rar fbotaipe et raiswaa 

Portent no* Iitt^b joLie — ■ 

GootteB d'lLTgent, d'orf^rtwi^ 
Chacnn s'habilu de nouvean ; 
L« Tamps a IiubbA soti maDt«Q, 

A portion of the dube's captivity was alao spent at Groombridge, 
onr Tonbridge, in the house of a Mr. Waller, the ffime gentleman 
■ho had found him lying amongst the slain on the field of Agincourt. 
Groombridge is atilj standing, and it is said that part of the house 
■w built under the direction of Charles of Orleans. The prince 
lln contributed to the repaira of the neighbouring church of Speld- 
hoist, and hU arms may still be seen over ihe porch. 


Oiarla VI. 

The Tictory of Agincourt bad been deciuve fot liie TtngliA^ y^ik 
they were not in a condition to profit bj it. Heniy reCaraed im- 
mediateJy to Eogland, and left France to be ruined by the oonflioti <£ 
her princes. 

Poria, tjie ting^ and the Dauphin wera in the hand« of the oomte 
d'Armagnac, vho bad fAken the title of eoaatable of France, and the 
authority thus aeaumed vaa Btrengthened by the Eungular nu>rt«li^ 
which abotitthia time atrucic down the membera of the royal ftmily. 
In the couree of a few months the duke of Beiri, Louia (^ Anjou, 
titular king of Sicily, and the Dauphin were dead. The D^nphiD 
waa about twenty yeara of age, handeome, indolent, profligate, and 
estravagaDt- His death waa certainly not a great Iobb to hiacountij, 
but it was followed with singular rapidity by that of hia Mcood 
brother, who bad beeo brought up under the gQardiauBhip of the 
duke of Burgundy. Charles, the youngest bod of the unhappy, In- 
eane king, then became Dauphin ; hut he was a child, and, ezoapt 
in name, the comte d'Armagnac was king. Unpriodpled though hs 
waa, Annagnac^s ability made him on acceptable ruler, for Ihepn^ 
don of France was perilous 

The ceesalaon of hoatilides with England waa but tempomyi 
everyone knew that. The English were Tcjoicing in tHumpha n 
proceaaiona. They chaoted thankagivlngH, and talked of onJy wmitnig 
till the spring to take poBaemion of ^eir town of Paria; and the 
common people of England aung in their ballad^^ 

As the kJDg laj moniig on bii bed, 
He thought himsfiU upon a IJnifl — 
Those tnbutca due ftam the Fmicfa kin^ 
TbAt had Dot been paid for bo long a time I 
Fal bl lAl laia, && 

He called imto hii lovely p«a«, 
HiA lav«lj pogfl awa; cam^ he, 
Sajingt ' Yod miut go to the FrAnch kili^^ 
Those tributes thai, am due to me I ' 
Fal lal lal lara, &:c 

Awsj, awnj, wept (kit lo^lj paga, 
Avajp ftMAjy and awaj vent hs, 
Untj] be cams to Ibe kiaj^ af Frutce^ 
Wban be fell dovn oa bis bended knsa. 
F&l lal l&l la^ &c 

Hy master be doth gre«t 7011 well, 
He dolb greet you most beanilr- 
Jf yoD don't »ead bun tboss tributes bomc^ 
Ob, in FrvDcb land you will rood bim smI 
Ffd lal lal Isrs. &c 

In tho nudflt of this proud cxcitfmont cnme (be n^va tliat ihe 
comce d'Armagoac, lidtii by GL'nc«sf vessels, was iiiiackliif Harflear 
hj flcin. Tt was a bnld att«niprT and a\ first aiiot'p^talTiL The l)&ei 
Bent bj Henrj to relievfl Hflrfleur waa repulwed, hiil the oomte 
d'Armaflnnc couJd not follow up this euccta*; ho was (oo much 
occupied hy hi^ private lntcreslB m Pans. Jc&a ?viDB Peut wa^ still 
Aiiving to refrain his p.wer^ A coiiBpiracv was forined lo intniduce 
the Burgui^dianH into the cnpiml. It Vfa.n hpjutod hy n Inn^e ctuidq, 
the archbJBhop'fl brother. Armagnafi di«over<id tlm connpirocy ; 
the coaoaww aeized and dreiwed io hin violet robee, carri'^d in a cart 
dmnigh the city, arid tL«) blockvd up in a niche in a vrikll, a tittle 
bnod ant) wdL«r l;«Lag givea hJm U> prolong bin inTbcry. The 
Anitt|7)ftci gave out thut th? object nf ibe Bumrndiana wilb to kill 
llie kwg and iho EJauphin, and very miuiy aiispecltd pfltaoDH were 
■cfxed And drovnod; and it was fot-biddon to butlio io the Seiner leM 
diO nuiobeni efaould be counted. 

The duke of Bureumdj revpngMl himwlf bj stopping: the Bup- 
|)lie« c*f food fiiT th# Paripian*. Even the king Buffer.*d, and in oti© 
of bia ibterrala of r^ssoo, being- told that iT wns btf^iusg of the 
Bargrmdians hia dinnerp were *« bnd, hr turned to iho conflCdble 
D'Anoagnac aod aaiJ, * Wby don't voii drive a.wuj tljiwe people? * 
They could not be driirpn Jiwiiy, hut neither cnuld ihpy «ifep Paris. 
Al JengUi th* dult© of Burgundy earriiHl off the queen to Tourt, 
dftclaring^ that abe wua r^eut^ aad thai shfl Ibrbndo tbo ptwpic to poy 
lucs^ The prob ibitiim proved a death-blow to the power of the 
caiDte d'AxniHgnac:. The pn]vJii[:ea turned o^iaiit hiiu i Duly Paiis 
vajt nbd^ hia AiiihGtlty, und th« PariaianEi were ruint^t hungry, and 

And in the meantime Henry V. had a^in landed in rSorniandy 
(AugnA 1417), anil had taken Caen and wnii be^tie^ing Rouen. Uiu 
courw v&£ marked by coiiHuminate wiedoni ; all who submitted to 
hiD n^re prot^ted ; nrder ^ns upbc^ld, work and a^cirltiire were 
loitered. Priest* and women were treated wirh reapecl. Churchee 
'ere guarded with reverence. Hia advan<:e mi^ht indeed bo oom- 
lo a kind of tDllitary promf:uad&; and m secure did he r<:el 
le had no hpsitailon in dividing hia Hrmy into fuur bodies^ bo 
hi^ might cndertak^ seveml ai^gf-fl at & time. He had indeol 
Io fear. The comie d Armngnae wan helpleao, and tha duke of 
wafl bis Bccrct friend aad ally. 
re-i;Q6er Paiis and ttfizQ tbe reins of gcTerament was the 
'■ object, Jind it was soon gained- A man nsnied Leclerc, aa 
ioag«T, who«e Mht^T kept thi? k^a of iho Porte St. Germam, 
been ill-treated by the Armagnnca, atols ibe keya of Ibegato 
'hm under hia {other'a pillow, and on an nppointfd ni^ht admitted 
^ Bnrgundiflns into the city; 400 dtizfOB joined them, and 


2f»S PKSTOBATiom ay BtTaaTTVuutrs— Miasacifes of t-ptsowi 
Cnarta VI. 

they proceedi?d to I.)je> p&Ince and took poePGaflior of tlie person 
the ting. TtiH Duuphin, asaiiiled by lie provoptof Paris, Taimi^j 
Bachkel, fled to the fortrod^-i of ttie BiiBtillp, The oonatalde D'Ar- 
inagniic hid himself in th« hnuse of a maaon- Th^n the BurguiidiaoA 
poured jnto the cily, ludtscribabJe terror and miaGry wrro tbe 
consequence. Tlio citironn lived in dread lliat th^ Amiji};nAfa woi^li] 
return to delivsr llioHe of thrir party who were iruprisontd- Xi^'Lr 
flfler night ih<'j wrre wnkened by tbe tocain calling ihem to snnii. 
lift ^^ lengthy on Sunday nigbt lb p rjthof June, 14l8^lbeinob niflbedw 
the prisons, bent upon n masR&cre of tha AmiAgnoc priMon4!r6. Tbe 
OhlteJetj the Temple — all tJiG pri*jn> were viuled. Tbe captiw 
— «ven those iiiipri&.med for iltbt — were xnurdHreJ indiKriminAtelj- 
Tlte rorslahle D'Anniigtmu, tiro preaidnnts of ilie parli,irnpnt, Bpvend 
magifltrntea, nnd even Bome biahopt^ penslxoii in ihia lerrible nijJif'. 
The body of chu comto d'Arm:ignac ronuLintd three daya in the 
palAce, exposed to the derision and the revolting atrociiioa of tbi 
peopte; the i^ihildr^n [ilayed wiili the corpses tjf iJiei dead, which lij 
pil^ one Tiprin ftnother in the atretflfi. 

The Burgimdian party were Ihemselpei alarmed nt the qiiiii 
which thcj Imd roiiwd. They urged the dulco of Burgundy, vh' 
Imd not yet entered Parifl. to come without di'lay- And he cunc. 
nccompJLnied by Lh^ quten Isal^^Li. Tlie people were fidl of joy. 
They eried with nil their might, * Long live the king, the qiicM^ 
the duke, nnd pettei> 1 ' That was tlic one thin;;^ noccledi but p»cc 
came not; neither did proTiiiionfl. The Eofflieh a^iar^ed the ri^* 
Sviue; the Armagnaca wore cIok in the nei^hbourhixxl. A pt^ 
lenee brobe out in Pari^ and the adjacent vilhgea ; 50,000 p«mM 
di*d, Thty Beemed tn have been exhanstpd by previous eiccitamcnl. 
and had no Ptrcogth to rcaiat. Those who had been moat busy U 
the mftasacrea nant at onco in despondency; they refused all It- 
liginuH ennsolulii^n; they would receive no sacrainfinLa. Sev^n (f 
eight hundred ar<* Raid to have died despaitingly, whilst othen w«i 
»cn niomng about the Ftrc*/ts crying out, * Losr for ever I' wH 
then throwing themseli'ea madly head-fopemoj* into a welt 

But the people had not yet learnt ibeir lei<aon. Agun the off 
■ro«e tliAt the Bur^undian uhkefs would be witting in ruimm wnji 
th« Annjignaca who 9\\\\ renmined in their poiv«r, and on a bun>iV 
day of Augufit the prioona wera a Fu>cond tLm« iniFBded by a uA 
with Capeluche, the executions r, nC their bead; they niatje iM 
way intfi the buildings by the roofa und killed priHjnora and gaJiff 
alike. It woH in vnin tliat the dut^e of Bitrgundy ventured t&M» 
into their niidat, begging thpm in wiihdraw ; in vain he shook hflB* 
with Cnpciudie a^ a proof of hii confidence; all he could oblwa«tf 
a priHui-* that the priMnera, if scivcu up to tlit mob» should noi 
murdered, tut carried to (he Clia[,elct; and thicltor tbej wem Ul 

t*(jm£BirE>rr or the uod— eiege of boueh. 


But otlier peraoiu who liaJ madv uo promitw were vaitia^ for them. 
iLnd &]] vren raanBcred. J(«n San* Paur had Btafr«T«d s ^^t 
humiUfttion. The murderoua mob were hia mastera. To t\d himwJf 
of thetD bj foTOC woa impossible; but he BUi:ccodcd by dcceptioD, 

pomnded ihoee who bad diadn^Lshud ihemAelvea uiusi lii ih^ir 
ernei work to laiTP th» cliy, &nd then he ahuL the ^atee upon thetn, 
■nd seuUnocd tbcir ^Esder CapeJuche to deatli. Capeluche wsu by 
DO mmtit A ruffian. He to a ahrcvd, quiet- maantfrcd toon, yrbo 
bftd MT«i a citizen fri:>nx the maoaacf e st iJbf peril of hift tlfc, and 
vho, when he did Vill, piiju^ hiiijaelf upoo doing it pkiKully, "When 
H eanw to hU owrt turn u> die hi> gave <?«refUt mBEruclioiu as to how 
iha Hnttnee wu 10 be carried om. 

Pence ynu tor the uiomecii reatored to Paris, hut oot bo Fnmcc. 
Ifctiry V. wan stth besie^iig Koufd, Jknd the inhabitanta were auETer- 
^0£ tJi« mmt ii^rrihle privatifrnB. 

Th* dales promiiiftl that help ahould be seat, hirt thp help wn* 
oaIj SB KTobaMty; the Duuphiu, who nded wilh the AmugaacE, 
Mat ooo UkewUe. Both pnnct.'s propooed to cede tht provincea 
wbicb 4id iK<t beloiig to theiDAelvast aad the BiiglLah kiug liatmeU to 
ifaaa qtdnlv, and then wiif, ' The king U ioHajie* the TUriplun a 
■itaor; Ifaednkt-of Biirgiiiid.y hftrin power lojidd anythirg;; ^— nnd 
dH M^ ^VM coatuuod. WhcD borasii dogo, cota, und mtA and 
nior becarae the only food of the unhappy cititena of Rouen, 
all who could iLot fight — li^.OOO ptirauna, nieo, woiueii, deiiI rhIU 
Jiwi wgig compeheil lo leavii tlie city. They pri!£eDted them- 
mIv» it ihv Engluh caunp. and wm repulaed. UDfibte to dnd any 
A«ll0, diey ctocMiaped iu tho ditdie« of the fortification a, wher« 
A*7 fmmmd th« roootbfl of wlnler. The childrca who were horo 
Utia period wer« fiiBteaed to ■ cord, dr&wo up into the city, 

On Ovucmaa Day the English, tourhed by the miffiry of th^os 
|Hr uiMrttiiiCi mat tbern food l>y th« ^uuids of twt? prJevta ; un oSor 
if y r u riate o a waa alAO nuido to tho»« vrithia the walta, but they ro- 
ImI lo receiTe aoythiug from the banda of ttieir enemieaH 

Thtf dnke oif Burgundy carried the king with him tj> St. Deni^ 
ttd o44ig*al him to take the oriBatnT^ie ; but no cttbrt for ilte relief 
if Koofo Ibllowsd At l^Dgtli a nietfage from tha beaieijod city 

^ ttlil Ifcai 50.000 perMiQB had died frouj huD^et ; aod then Ibc duke 

^■■■Dwl toouhed. and ftent away the laejiKogn with a renewed 
Madwof aid. But when ihey were gone he turned Lie back on 
.Hn)«>diji and carried off th«* king in tuirther direettOQ. 

^ AdJ ■> Kouett waa oompdlod to yigld, on condiiioD of pnjing 

^KMO fold downs, 

^Bfa2.«^«_o>f Burgundy ouw owlcsfottiW to wmaliBto Haayi. 

He adki'd for an intE?rviev; lUid when 'it vae zrantcfi, he 
hini the youDR princew Katharine, vlio vvue to b« ofTered in mu- 
riiiiji; to thg T^iiiglifib kin^. lieory kqs ntiich pleased nitJi lus pro- 
|hMHpd hrifTi?, hi7i, hd WDnld not diEniniah utiy af litv donindf, and n 
&r forgot hiB ufcuu] courtesy a« lo na^f * Fair couan^ know Uot »* 
will have your ktn^^A dmiglitor, or via vrill aood baLh him and ^UQ 
out ctf the king;dom-' 

The onlj hope for France now vba iu a rec^ondliaUan benroai 
^e Bttrgiindinns and Amijignacg. Ii wait hroiight about bj adervr 
end hanileam^ voman^ Eh« dame de Giac* who was.^nt hj the qoMD 
to ihtt dnkc of Jlitrgnzni^yt 4inil by hor graco. boaut/, and t«Ar» n 
ji.r- aoftencd bis h^LTt that on the lUh uf Jtdy^, 1419, ihc duke, kiMfJ- 
'^^' iog befure the Dauphin, at Melun, «ind in tJke preseoce of a kip 
bodj of the frienrh and relflrioM of the impH^ioaed nnd murdM^ 
Armapnao'J, entered into a treaty with Ibtra of mnnial (r . 
Htnr)', alarmpd at tho new^ btcjimy middonlv tai^cp to coni m !■ 
ptcpoaeJ inarruifc, and sent to ths princeu Kalhoiina a praMot fltf 
jewels whiuh, liowever. ihti Dau|ibii^^» foUowerB intercepted tad 
carrM ntT to their nin^t^r, ilunking thiit what was offered v> d* 
ELRter miiflit w* wvM bt takea to lh«tirother. 

n^e Dauphin was then rtttXy *dxtocn ytjara of age, Uid emnroOBiU 
by evil caunpeHoi'S. some, li-ke Duch^U«l, (ha prontst of Paria, beiiif 
innUned to ju^tiiy any royul nrinie by ihfl ejicuw that ih* p*r«Tn 
against whom il wa*" oommiitp"! wn« a traitor. The** men *fT^ full' 
pemuded thiit it n&a rain to put any eunlideEics in the diikt 
Btirgiindy'a pioriiac. And now, rcgftpctlom of the rwi'iit 
they farmed a wctei plan for hJn dQ«triiciii>[i — whether with % 
out the knowledge uftln^Daupbin, Chark's, !h mii^rtain. A 
wii9 made co the duke lo mtvt the DaiifUiin a iiei^ond dme^ U 
terean, not very tar fronn the foreal of KontmQehl^u, Hi 
nrcr Sctne viu crosatNl by a bridge* and on thiA bridg* a 
woodpn gallery or enclosura waa erected ftir tho inlanfii-n, 
endo^uri; IimiI no furrier to depurate the two parliee, ^hicb « 
comniciL precaution in that diiCrustfiil nge; and tho diike'a 
warned him t}iat be woutd thux hn m danger. Still he 
goinf^; but when thi' time arriT«d he deUyed* and Ti 
Duch^EJol went bi rue«t him. On oeeJug him the Juke 
BtrikiDg Duekiitcl tm the ahoulder, ' Here ia owe whi^ai I may 
and DuchLLtcl humiMl him Ibrwiird, on ihe pret^niv that th« 
wnB vrriitiflia; for him. Tbna h* was hopar»led frwn hia 
rmd ent/^rod t}to ^lery accami^nied only by thcaire d* Na 
whoA« brothi^ri ih^ Capiat dc Bucb, wna 6ghliDg on the Enjrli^*^! 

Ai^oounifL dilTiTT a Jittk- an t^ wliut Lh«n Uiok pliun, Tha 
probttble Blory ia that the DaT:phin'a attendanta b«^n th« (\\ 
repnuwhing ilje duke of BucftUndy fur lui dslaj, whilft 


or JEAv'ajLErs ncn — VAitttr^ac ot UEiJnT Avn EATaxtfi^r, 309 

K^itoa^mI tbE^ D&upliiEi (*?r negligence in the ulTiura oi tJiQ luiigiTom. 
[JodoubtedEj tlu- Dturtlti lioih oE'chn dLike und thfi icire dc \^iv;kineH 
Ubwed immedialely. Dnchiref alwayj InaiBlcd tlint Hg did cot 
jiB^ the dulca, but there oan ba little dunbl tEmt the deed was 
phi&n«d hy bim. 

The minder of Jam Snaa Peur wba not ooXy a great cr!ine> but 
to imineiiae miFfomizic (ur ihv Dauphiir. Unwnzlhy ihough tlip diike 
bud proTvd himadf in hia IrfbtiinOf and low a* bo hud taUen IQ 
public opLDion, tiA eonci 09 bo nos drad lh«re rose up n parij $.t- 
tAcbed to hid narae, And iDdignant at tbe treachery which hiatl proved 
bfaJ to him. 

ft yroR impoffiible for the DaiipMD ta tileiha le&d m the Iting- 
dom, acd a treaty WkTh th« EnL^Iisli vas now the only thing talked 
^. Paria yiolJcl ^canno the inhbhttantf^ vrore starving. The iiaeen 
yielded becniuw, hj the uiaTriflge of Kfltharine and Ileury, if her 
iMicouJd Dot be kiog, Ht Leiittt her dnughter would be queen. Philip, 
&« »on nf Jmn SauH P«*iir, Icnown in hitiTm^ aa Philip the Good, 
yielded becaofle he would fnia rcTettge hi^ father. 

In the month cf November anitmatador^ were denpalclied to the 
fioglisb Liugsod gr^ounly tccejved. ' Am I not of the sumE^blcud 
utbekiQgaf Fnuii^? ^ KLJil Htfnry. * WhEti I become Uie kings 
i-in-lav 1 vill defenri him agikinet aJl men/ 
A trea^ wan entered Jnto which gave him even more Ihtia he 
himaelf inclined to a«k for. tlaviof^theeecret support of Philip 
Burgundy, he deznaaded and receiTed the reTereiou of the lliroue 
Fnnoe; and at the clo^e of ih^ Irpaiy ihe utter dpigradacton ef 
unfoTtimnte Dauphin was annonneed to the world. Thus ran 
worda : * Conoid eriag^ the horrible crimte perpetrated a,gaiiuft 
ice by Chftrie*, the so-caUed Danphb^ we — our etui dje kiug 
mry and aIk out dear #oa Philip of Burg^iiudy — n^ree u> luuke 
[peace with the «&id Chflrleftf except by eommrti consent, and with 
vonbiiiit of the three eEtatea of the kingdom,' 

marringc of Henry and Kalhartna was Holcmnieed at Tr^yee 

(he Snd of JunOt 1420, Mo^iScQiit f&tea were ^v^d on the 

JOB, but Henry did not sulTer himaetf to Iw engaged by ihtinBO 

Ibr?^ that thv r>anphin and the ArmBgnftm wfre fltill hin 

..PS- On the very day of the maniBgei apbe heard the prepara- 

[-which were ranking tor public joujitri, he aaid, openly ; * I pray 

lajesiy the kiug, whuae daughter I havi: trapouMed, and all hie 

it« : and 1 ctimmand my nwri Mrvutila, ihat ibey be ready U^ 

morning to iindertako with me the nJege of the city of J^na, 

[may everyone jouct at bia plon>nire.' And on the next day 

[ngly Kftliarine wne Jcft, whilat hef husband departed to«irry 

against her brother. It proceeded slowly ; ihou^h one pLicc 

h^ t-iken, another reristed ; but Henry, having the king on 



210 rauntr v, at the louvre — conxcrt of cohstasce- 

hifi eid<]» was lecogniaed as having Bupremo power in Prflin:^. rt 
December he runide his entry into Paria, riding bfltween Charlea VL 
and Philip ofBur^undy, who irati in deep luouraiDg, Behind him 
wflH CTrri<i<i, amongst other biinneTSj b lanco with & foi'a tniJ at- 
tached ttj it. Henry vaq a graat fof^-huntar, and tbis ivha hie own 
pereoTial diBtinclion. Ho was well rccinved at Paris; i,he pccpls 
reg)ird«il him a^ a lueaeenger of peoce^ The chief ecclrjdasticacameii 
prtjcHW^ioa tu iceet the two hiiLia:s, and bruugltt ibein ihc aured relicE 
of Uie chiirehoH to kins. Nofra Hnma wra thvn YiHLlf<]« and pmy«n 
weto BH-id at the high iJUt; naii afrerwarda the ting of Prance re- 
tired to hia HoteJ de St, Po^, whilst tba king of Eaglniid GAt«bliahed 
himeelf in tho forticos of tho LoUTre. 

There for Ino years (1421- 1 122) the English monardi cxmmii«| 
irequftntly to hold hia coiirr, and eiereise the power* of royalty. 

At Chnstmae and Whitsuntide he hi^ld iare^A^ and foflfitad pub- 
licly with hip young; (juetn. The Pflriainna flocked to tice thai 
majt^stitf* Hitting at table with crowna ou their henils^ wlillitt ^ound 
them, in gram) army, wire thu Eii^lihh IjiahopB, nobJEs, nnd knighti; 
and tb^ ntarving crovd Ralitifipd their eyra with the upeetocla, bot 
wbea they turoed away tbL'y wero not tho leea hungry; and tbq^ 
said to thcmaclveSf * It was not bo ander our' o^n kiQgs; then iA 
open Labl(! waa kii^it; everyLme sat down wliiv wcmEd -, che sefranv 
diatribiit^d largely V-oth meat and drink/ Yei tbpy could not but 
own that the English nionarcb wne a noble king, tall and handflOiM; 
cold inde^ in manner, yet Murtcoufl to the mcojicst ; and tbty n- 
marked to hia praise that Eio nearer BWoroi that he paid oaly ^ ImpM- 
sible [ * or 'It may be kt 1' lu general ha bold little, but when Le did 
flpenk )\\^ words w«r« »harp and cutting n» a mzor, Moet ^poaiiilT 
tbey marvelled at his CAim tteLf-controL ; whatever might be tlw bv 
ncwfl brought to him, he received it without moving a rniade of htf 
fiicc. Ilia impetuo^ty hod B^iown itaelf at Aginoourt, now ht vaf 
too great to be excitoL 

Even in qufstiaiw ofit ennnecied with military glory, EnglW 
had at thifltimotrinmphed over France. Thi> reajdence of theFopH 
at Avignon had hoca for many y^\n a gront moral support fof the 
French kingn. The Popo had in fact become a kind of Frcoci 
pntriaroh, guided and governed by tbe FrencEi king. Bur thia wv 
now altt?red. At Ibe begiuiing of the reign of Henry V., a counuil 
for the reform nf the churi.'h, and for the eettlemenl of the cbunisO^ 
the rival Popca, had been Hiimtnoned to meat at Conatincoi A.D- Hl4 
PolibidanB doubted much tho utility of the coimcL], but Jean Qer*^ 
the grrat theologian of tlie diiyf perbibted in urging its neceMiiy- 
After long diuuHatona the three rivnl Popea were declared depovd 
and H n&w Pope, Martin V., wna appointed, ntosG r^denM wi* 
tLcucoforih to be not at Arignun, but at Itome. Tbie woa a ^ *«t 


hlov for FnmM, btit il was lie only piodoby wliich thcecanda!* tliat 
hail dr^riuted the church cntiH be br<jiigh( to an end, Ic would 
h&v*» \3»m w«IJ iitdeed if die oouncil of ConBtnai^e liJid coiiiiDed 

IilHlf 10 the tMk of GColi^iiiutiQkl reibnn, and had Tw>t, aocording to 
tb* dkUt«t cf Uie 8^ proceeded to perBMUtion. The d^tb of the 
tw^ nforoMnt, John Hun and Jerome of Pnv*iieT vho were burnt 
I ai ihe eUke a» heretics, itLunt tver be pmufutl/ unaocialed with ilfl 
I Libuunt. Qcnoii, ihough a man of uottil picTj^ wuh Qijunly in^trti- 
iTiHital !□ procuring ihcir condcmnntiOD, yoi. lC ihv aome timei, he bo 
I «iiti»^y tepudiflted th* doptrine of tawful nhaififlirmtion, broach^] hy 
^ Jemi Petit ctn tbe occuJou of the iiturdcr ni (he duko of Orleans, 

Itlvit ODQ ^f hiA main obj^ta ia Urging th« aflaeiiibling uf the CDUucil. 
wiAtlskt luch icachij)^ abouJd Lo sulemiily CDEid(.'iiiiied, ^£ it wua» by 
lb* TTAce of tho chnrch, 

llearj T, hmd vapportHi the eteeiion of Martin V^ and ibo Popu 
Ift Mtaira w cnpected lo fiivour hia CngUoh flaima. Tbc Gcrnuui 
prIlkoeB abo looked to Weary u the orbittr cf tbeir diferences^ luid 
lbs andibi^uptt ofMajenire and Trevee readered b i m bouLuigt'. Bui 
^irVttfa «!Ii« did not prev^ni hifl pmiiion m France froni being cri- 
tmlf for the D&uphin ChnrJee and his parij etitJ held their ground 
ift tW pnninccfl btrycnd the Loire- 

Tlie I\iuphia indeed commnnded bul tittle reapert. Ho woa 

jr indc^lont. he und^^r^ood nuihing of miiitury dlTuir^ and llie 
nmnlcT of J«vn Svin Pour hiul E^t nn inffliu<enbU autin iipou hii 
b«eot>r, [tat he ua« 4 l^ren^hmbn, Fi^hljog i'ct t^rjuice, and &U whti 
■ forvig^ ruJcr wore Bccredy on hie aide. 

Honey U» wu vrautiny to ilj« IiiU^lia}i kicig. V^ea th? war 
laj^tli It Krta iJidLighl tltM iho French inij^hl bo cumptlW |j> pty 
tfc* evp«ttb4 of 11, but albtr lifTeen yeant of midf^nvtrnment and 
<jrij WOT, Fnncv wu an im|uvtfTidir»l ttiat ihe eonqui?njrH wore 
ot'tigo"! lu hdcg oiQCicy iato (he country, rutlicr than lake mouey 
from ik 

jlmry Jidt hJA piwiLJon kcffnly. The siege of Rouen had taken 
Um ft ycttr. Tbi> ai^e i>f Meati:^, which he had now b^^n, vns 
Btjdr Xa yAi<*. bim another year. At nieh a rate of prog^OHo when 
vnald Fmaoe be oonqoered? 

flc vaji en^^ed in the uegQ bf Meaux, seeing his army dwindle 
UDuikd hijn, when Bew> wu biuught him that IiIb wife had bomo 
kin a v<r ai IVIndnor Ciutle. He ifaowed no jay at the nj^wis but 
<rJt aald, 'Heojy of Monmnulh will have a Hbcrt reign and will 

E» ttmnwrod mnch- Heiiry of Windf^ir will reign long and love 
11w ftMcbodio^ was veriAed. Ailer die winter caaipaigu llenty 
Ukiin ill. and the (]uk<^ <\i Bur^ndy, «ho was al>out Lo engane 
LkaUk w^ Eb« DauphiTi'a pariy, mdc t<i him fur htJ|k ' i will 



212 DEATH OF Romr V. Avn of ctrARLES m. 

not fiend - 1 nM go m^'self/ was Ins repljf and ho eot ont, bone on 
n litter; hut hn could travel bul a little wny, fl«til vas oblig;ei1 to re- 
turn lu VLiu:ejiiieft, The pbyfticumi^ LoldlLiiJi that hisf^nil drevQeai^ 
and hti miinmoni^d litn liroiEmn^ ti> Iilp Aide, contmittpd lim little n/)!] 
Co their cnre^ ntid gnve Ihem two wise diin»«j9; nne to keep on 
ftipndJj tonnfl wiiii the duko of Burgundy; the tiihcr, to iIuds^ 
vrhetieror peucc ahouJd be ninde, n[]0[i retaining Nonrmtidy^ 

Thifn Le oi'dered the penitential p:^lrn!i iv bt reod^ and when lie 
PftTFie lo the words ' Build Tbou t)ie vi\Mg of .Tiirupffllani/ hi! es- 
clhiQ»<*d, ^ Oh ! iV God voiild hnve pemiilied mo to lire, iind coai- 
pitto l.lija wur in Fmnro, I would hfiYC conquered tho Huly Land I * 
But it would Hs-m thnt hiB tiOnKieaca wa,'* not pclirely &^aT* for Jip 
addiid, aa i!' to repruve hinw*elf, ' 1 have aot fought fVom vEijn glwj- 
My wars have he ^n wmetionpd by pri^'it'? and hy liontuirahl* men; 
and I hnye not, therefore, JmperilJed ray noul/ Thi'BC wtrc hia loft 
recorded woTda, and shortly allor hi- wtpircd, on thi- I3th of Angu* 
*;» 1422. Hia biMly wbb carried lo Wtfitaiinnter, and his English auh- 
jectfl Ijiraented hiTii vvpn more as a HQint than as a king. 

Charles TL lived hue a iftW mr*nfh4 ulter him^ he died On lh> 
Slat o£ OctohET. Tho uitiacns of Paria vept for their inmnc mo- 
iuirchi as tho EngliaK wept Ibr their vidorioiifl one. la the slrwn 
and At tha wiDdowB people vrenj Been bitturly grieving, ' Ah ] ' thw 
BKclaimed, ' bplovpd prince ! , Never alinll vnr hjive o, Icing bo good. 
War is now our inherimnee- Thou art gonfl to thy reat; wo Jive for 
tribidation and ifrief." 

They toot the reniaina of the utifortunjite Charles to St. Dp«* 
Hifl chamberlain, birt ooufejwor, and a few ciflicerH r.f h'm court, 
attended the fun*-™!, but only one royal prinre, the duke of Bi-dfrtid. 
waa pre^ntf and b^ was a foroignor. CharZeq tir^ no R>nn lifiBf 
who coiild show him honour at hh jaTare. Three were dead, *"'' 
the only one who rc-nmioet? ivna the proacribeil disinhorired Djiiiptiii- 

When tWn body waa let dowu into the vault, the h*4id fiffii?iT> 
broke iheir utavea and threw thi-m into iha grave, and \\tea Bem\ 
the kjn^-at-arme, e:i(claiinedf ' May God have oiQrcy on rlie apui ^ 
the right noMe and ri^ht exi:ellent princf^ CharleSn kmg of Fiant^ 
ni^ith of ibe naiuf>, our uaturnl &ud wvertt^ lord 1 ' A pnuxa fo^' 
lowed, unii he added, ' Loug live Henry, hy the gntce of Gr>d lnP£ 
of France and England, our Hjvereign lord ! ' 

The coodilion of Franco, and capccially Paria, when the dc"^ 
ot Churka VI. took plate ia almost t<io terrible for dewripiiou, l^ 
1421, wa are told thai, the country wafl no depopulated, thnt wnkt* 
ninde their way (inmoU'^red intt the fields to feed upon (ho doiJ 
bodiop which lay thero, nnd at night even entered into Pario, «^ticb 
\vna ulniost des^ted by ilie overtf»?ced eifizeoe. 

Stringe it ia ttjnt auch a period should have been marked by nvw 




□Hi if EUch they nmj be culJcil, In music and ilnncmg; but so 
i. The year of the OHsaJiduiiLioji Ktdhb duko of Orleans b to bi? 
for ihe formation of a corps of fidd^tra^ who paraded the 
s ghMitxcg- lo the flotind of violins the vorioua treatiM of peactf 
I were rondo from lim© Iq time. The prootic* of procUim- 
:aatie« publicly appCATH, howevef, to \mye heea of atill more 
1L date. 

ut & more fltngular BmuwmeDt waa ttnl of the Dance of 
I — * D&ni»e lAacabro' — Ahieb wm ssliibited £l Parie in the 
tery of the InDocQatb only two vciLra alter Charles VJ. di«L 
i» ill Jact, OD a^led re preaeti latum of tlje efilrrtA of Death to 
.er num at vv^ aa^ uf life — childhDud, yotitli, and ti^ — atid 
9, ^Dal siicc&<e. This play no doubt had its origin in tJie 
irios o' reUgiouB drftma?, which were encoumged ob giving 
iCtiou to the igccrant, nnd the fltruggle origiDoJlj waa dcecribed 
ing between Sutan aod the aoul. But now it was death — 
r deaths under the form of a skeleton, whirh wns brought before 
luei^bie people; and whilst faruine and dis«:a» made thi* 
r Id ]t£ nttiet horrible form^ :l iamilior Bpectoclp, it won yet 
lie for thciu to Hnd n momeiiiaty forgeiiiilne*fl of (heir misery 
piciured re|>rtEentatio[i. PuJnliiigj di'Hcrtbiug tlit- Doijce uF 
ore ^e1] to be setm on i\w covered brirl^ over the Reu^H nb 
no. The play itaeif is said to have been introduced into 
Jt from Englaud. 



4J>. 142£-147fl, 

r VI,, a child not a year old — EnglUb by hie father, French 
I moihef-^wflH now iha rnzloiowJerlgpd Rjcceaftor ofhia grand- 
', CSiarles TL Y«t at the very tirn« vhen he vns prodnimed 

the eUuDi of Iho Dnujihin to be Clijia-lofl Vil, was made in 
hapel of the castle of Mehun, near HuiireC3, The Da-uphin 
■lit on mi>urniug on the preceding dny, but n<iw be wua drtHaeU 
irlet — a bign of hope and viotciy. ff>r rven at ihnt time of 
OUA humiliation llk^re were cheering rok«na lor this fuiure. 
^BTty WEL5 hy DO mcBD^ wanting in iofliJenci?. The dnko fif 
1, «howT dnu^fhter he hud married, ^na on his aide. The 

powerful }}aronH ul Languedoe — Llie coLUits uf Clermont and 
b^ him. The dulce cf Miliin fEirniahed hini wit}j 


ii-nliT-Kt ■ I 


1,500 men. The Scnbcli earla of Doui^lfla and BucJiac brought 1 
remforcfliii^nt of fi^OOO. If oo\y ClmrU's Imd poi^sesscd riuflieEent 
eQprgy to make the most; of hia ai]va:ira;r«9, he might have .spn^ 
Franco ^eura of" taisery, nod saved the livea of himdr^da of hU 
penpJC' But hifl c^ccUtnt aLiJitric-^ hia visn mifritLoaj;, his goodue^ 
of heart, wtre aCJ marred by hia indolence nnd Io\h of aiuxifleniBnl 
At the Jige uf C^Vl^llCy^ whtu^ il' at any ljiite> ezcrtjori ahuuld beji 
pleaeure, Chftrl<*a cnnlii do nothing hui inal;p oourtpjuaa jjroniiHH 
and tpcak grateful wordif, Decdj ho wua cot r«nd^ fur, and moauj 
he hud none to ^vej for ha veib ho poor ihut evi?ii hia ahoomaJcer, 
WQ art tuld, li^^llattd to let lilm bavo hifi bufjla^ bi^cauae tlirry von 
tinl i^taid fctr. His ji|i|>iifimi)C(! ^Ijiu wiu agninat him. Though bf 
had a plfiRsont fa*^, he waa emhll in ntature, and remartuible for 
very thin logs. Ha iookod to tho beet adranULgc vhen he won 
a long cloak ; but gGncntlly he was drenecd in a shorL grvtD 
tunli^i ftnd ihti pvuple laughed at hia Email litahi aud very la^ 

ThQ Enghfth styled him in derUion the king of l3oiJr^ 
bconufio it vtob there ho had fixed hia reudence^ But they wan 
not wise in their riiliculo, ior thu king c^f Bourgea waa a PreutlinuUi 
vrltilBt the kirtg of Frauce va^ an EngliahmBn ; and ihe vust udTju- 
tiige of nationality they had ytit to leflra to their eoat. For tb» 
present, however^ ail eeomed ti> favour the fulfiiiaent of tho arraa^ 
ment by which Iknry VI. of EfjgJnnd had been placed on th# 
Frfnch throne. He was, indetd, an infunt ; but the dever and Jirii- 
miiidi-d John, duhe of Bedford, his uncle, was pre|ioftti to goTfirr 
in his name m rpgput. PariSj and ihe provincts cortb of iJif 
Loire, acaknoirledged hia authort ty , sud the support of the ull-pt^wer- 
fill Philip of Burgnudy, however doubtful it might once hove b«n, 
Vfod, as it appeared) MGUfed by the loarnoge of Bedfurd to one ^ 
Philip's HiBttTa 
A.n, lo 1423 and 1424 two battles were fought, in both of vbirl] 
jJU tho friendfl of Charkfl wore defoated, nnd hie bravo Scotch iJli"* 
OBpecially suffbrt'd ^ but doapcrato though hia condition muA ibtfi 
haire eeemed, the gerui of discord had already been sown in itu 
English court, and it wa aoon to produce ita fiifal And IneTitalilir 

Tho duka of Buig;undT, who ivna also count of FkndfiiB, b*3 
endeavoured to enlarge and aecure lij^ dominioDA by the mairljee ^^ 
his aictly couBin, the duko of Brabant, uith Jatiueline, rounW* 
of Hainault and Holland, two pj-ovinces closely adjoining Flnnden 

The dnko of Brabant wafl not hJcely either to iivo long ; «nd If 
he should die without childreuT tlio dukn of Burgundy would be ha 

[t waa a selfiahi ill-^viaed marriage, and Jatjuelme, vho -va» 


trta rU. 

higU-spirilwi and unprincipled, finding the yoke irtolorsble, left lier 
mclauchoJyi icitirrjQ hn^^bibiid utid cr^jsbcd ovt^r to En^I.uid- She 
tlkeu oblmut^d &oin the depoard Pope, Podro de Luua. u decree 
annidling Kit nuimu^e, and fi>ialimiJi preaeiiUKl lii'ni«Jf m the dufee 
of Glouueirttfr, b. jcnngw hrotlier of the Jtegent Bedford, nod pro- 
posed Kq Income hifi wife. GLouoevter vcoepted her, aod^ oS itgune, 
the duko of Burgundy interfoFoJ^ and encouraged the diike of 
Bj&baut Co re?uBt «udi ati uul^iwful repudiiLtion, 

Auij at the mme liine Im himstdr and ihe duki; ol* (^liouc^cuLtr 
defied each other t^ aiorlti] cambal. It ws« a mere bravado ; hut 
tiiie duk& of Burgrmdy eooo aft^rwaniA toot poesi^on of the toWQ 
of MoD^ where the coiiatesa Jaqiiolinc woa reading, and ihca ahut 
her up ill Gheai untU the qncf^tiau of her inaninge yboidd bu 
decid^^l by the true Pope, Marcin Y, The counteaa mnuiL^ed to 
flHspei but the Po|)i! aDnuIled her mnrria^e with Gloucester, wbo 
aoon to<jk oDOlher wife, and the haughty counteaH at IcDj^Ch tbuad 
henelf obligod eo for to humbla Ktirneli' as to recoguiae Piiilip of 
Btu^nndy as the lawEuI heir \o BiBbanL, and engiigij uot k> marry 
Again vjthout bin pecmUHLcic. 

The*e ereDts bud two important consoqUBDCOs. They diverted 
^ atteotiDii ol' the duke of Burgundy from the war with ChGrlee^ 
Auil dietiatcd hia mtereaEe liom those of the R^ent Bedford and ^e 

The cauHe of the French uiftDRn^b must uadpr puch ofrcunj- 
ABDcefl have gained ground but for the w«ukaea£ of hia chaTaetm-, 
more especially aa hi? waa not withi>r]t a alireivd and wUe cc'iinflellor 
in the per»u uf hie luothi^t-in-kiWi YoJ^udti, the ^viJ^Acd dudivaeof 
Anjoii. y obuide, a1 U!r ibe death of her hiiriband, Louia IL (bO called 
becftUK of hia clfiimi^ to the kingdom of N:L[>leH), wai recogniwd va 
tho h*^ of tha liouae t>f Anjou, and ehe eodeavoured to keep up its 
infliieDCC by nuirryLUL; her Jniigbter Marie to thti king of France) 
ukI her sou Een^ to the heireriH uf Lorrai^ie* She v^a ji selJiab, 
intriguing woman, whose chief object wks to kt-t^p the Erigtish from 
invading her own lerritonee. But aha wns -vtixy useful lo Cbarlea, 
more especially iu roeom mending him to appoint the brave and 
derer count di^ RichainDut, the bruther of the duke of Britbiuy, to 
be coaetable of FraDor^ unJ by thia meana gain over the dijhe to 
Lis sde. RichemQiit, however, socrn renderetl himself obnoTiioUH 
to hiafuaater by the alernneaa of his character, Charles ivas governed 
by fikvourilea. Two oE tbenif the eiris de Giac and the eire de 
Bcaulieu, who had interfertd with Richcmont'a plans, were, by the 
cuutt^ble'a order»t arrcMtvd Aud condemned to death without furm of 
law. It was a crut^l art. Bui De Giac n-t Itwit deserved his ^te^ 
tor he bad poiaom^d hia wito, KiobomoELt then provided Churlea 
Wttk anothor favouritui nnoied La Tn^mouillef and the fi»t uaa 



viiidi the youth mide of KU influeace wna to perau^ile liii 

Tho (lufurLuuiLti: Cliarlt^a uuw foiiud liimaelf »& LdpluHB nh ever. 
His pjrtj' at«nifcl Li»r:uriLliTy ciiviili^Ll, nnrT the En^H^h si^tzing Qie 
oprjorlunsty fur h detennintd move which ujight end the conEe^ 
afl!^'mbitd nbnut tsii nr twvivo Ihoueand mi^n, and Uid fici^q lo 
A.IL OrlcH(ia,thc key to the nouthem provmctst 14^8). Tho citij:j3ns were 
jj*^ all ou tlitd HiiJi: L>f CharJi.'ti, Orleaaji luul been the geueruL rtTuge tvt 
the Armngiiac party ^ftiul now they agreeii to bum the sub urba rather 
thfin uUow Ihvm to remniu a^ a «Jielter ibr tJia Xnghsh. Thi<v tiixed 
bhem^lvfis bcnvilyi tlicy oaat cannon^ ihcy coJIccted a garrison o( 
^^^ AolJi^r? from vai'loua luition!, and placed thcni under the c^^tnuiauil 
^^B ol' Duiiui^ tbe ille^juiutitc broihor of ilie iuipiiituuiid dukt oi 
^^K Ur1«uh9, and ^ilTi heroic chi^^rliilnesi prepared theinaalv^s Co endiuft^ 
^^P tb« privatione of a siege. 4H 

^^^ Fumiritf waa rot, boweveri their greatost danger, for tho EnpU^^* 
had cut bffln able entirely tu Hurruund llie city^, and pniYiaiuBJi 
found adrnituirce with lolerahle en^p. On on<? clay 900 pipi wert 
broitji^ht into tltc tuvn. Aia for ihe EnglEah bulleca^ tb« ukizon^ oolj 
Ifiiiglii^d at th^ni, for 3cn.i'ciUy mtjouQ was killed^ and tlio pectple 
dtclwerl ital they hjid known a bulli-t cany off a xDan's shoe wiii- 
out injuriiLg bis toot Thi^r owu cauDOD^ ou tho otlierhaiid, vturlteJ 
wotKlcri rirftfji]('r. tmmoa w<?re given totb^m. One cnHtby a clever 
gunner o£ Lorraine, and Ldowee aa * Master Jobn,' vas tho caii^f! 
of apccicd alarm to tho enemy; \u djaohar;:^ wan fiktul. ^Vnd aoU 
worae wua it when, from time \f} tin^e, * Maf*i*r John * wus allowed 
to feign drtitb. and wan tJtkeii nway for a little while, only to rr- 
irppear quite wteTp^i^tddly when theKngliiih wore l^Ht pr^pare^ fur 

Exi^haDgeA of i^niplimGnta w<<re nol ivaDticg between tlie twO 
cwnpa. ViolinB were thu Cialiion of the day, and KJma were sent Vt 
the Snglisli to diminiAh their weariness during the long wijilCT. 
whilbt I^unoi? forwarded tothu earl of SuQolk a fur coat in ex^ban^ 
^r a plnTx; oJ' tigs. But thot whtcb mOBt escitiid the prtde of ibtf 
Orleauifti ^aa tlm Jealli of tbe Eijgliflh general, lord SaUnburj. He 
WH8 iriHpeetiitg dko uuall toweru autaide the town, wbi^u hid i»[iduci(ir 
pointed to tbe city of OrJeans and said, ^ My lord, you see yonr 
town," The oarl looked. At that moment a bullet struck Lim in tb» 
eve end carriL-d nway part of hia hi^ad. The- hullcti it waft said, vri^ 
fired by the gunner'a son whilst bia father waa poua lo tbjjniT, 
Th^re Wi*re other escilenieni* rdjio of n spedally military rharhcter- 
SortieB^ bkimiiah^s lot the prot^ctiicn of ooavoya of proviuoodt even 
duoln for the amu&etJiout of both eid^e — ivto GiBflcona ogbinst two 
EiL^linhmexi, tbe Gafiiuaa having thiv advanta^'e ; a fight between the 
pnget of tbe two anuiefi, whsa thv Eaglish pugea biid tha victoij^ 

uiii ft propQioJ of dx FroQcbmon to bnve a jim^t \rit\i tLo English, 
iQ offer wHch, however, v« Tioi accepiei 

Tiie siege wu earned un alcwlj but ^ureljr. Once BU:ia'fii'4f'iil1y 
completed^ the icuth of Fntnoe wnulrf W at the mercy erf ilie Englij-h. 
The dac de Bourbon^ amuoros to aid his coustryratn, sent ^ liody cf 
troopa under tbo oommaad of hie dd^rt toUj the comte de ClertDnai, 
to attack a convoy of proriaon!? for the Eitglii^. whidi had be«ii 
iJtdpaitchal imia ^ar'n by t]iti iIuIel' of BedforJ- U non^fit^d of 300 
waggons, filled vith mtmiiioTiFi nf v&r nnd proviftionn, m<<re€Bpf^OTnllv 
ItefTiDga for the approaclittig wq^oii of Lent, As the nnroy drew 
near the tovro, BoMicrs and curbs adviLDciii^ in file, ttic Gannon leader 
La Hire, nho vju vriditht FreDdt }Arty, urged <ui immedinte nttack. 
bai the young eoiute di- Cltmioui fircftrrtil nuiLing till all hi& irctip^ 
bad «Gin? up. Jn llje ttioantiiD? Hii? En^ii^^h took rht iklArrtu ^ 
John Fnlffljifi", tlitir commander, made- a halt, und cr-JItiriing the 
vji^ODs Jnadc a circle round llicfn vith poiiiled htiikvo. The 
Froit^ pruKiitly advanced iiiipetuou^y, but thtj Engliah sv^tjd finfl, 
■sd then, se«ng ihjtt the rvnk^ of llieir c^fjnires wera hrolcen by the 
Tiol*iice of thtir cnnet, rallied ^rjrih friim iliwr enclo?nuw behind rh^ 
■talces and ratirBly dispcraed ihfiia. Thi' eitiacDfi of Orlama called 
thu tuifortunate conflict ' tho h&ttlc of the herrmgs.^ for the btillef^ 
had pierced die hurelf, aiid ihc ground ibu mtjro nti^im with 
Kernngi thou vith dead bodifa. 

The defeat, slight though it ua&, ^nttrety dificciuf^ged tho 
IfcOttc^cd. Mfvny pcrwiDH hitherto diatinguiflhel an lawlere forsDi.k 
ite div- By the I8tlj of Ftbruuty tlie cointe de Clotiikout, ttje 
admiral nf Fnincp, the ehunceElur, and die bLahop uf OrlnLua had 
depbrt^df oamnDg th^ cilisena, however^ thai Kh^y would BOun 
retttm with rciDforcemEaitB. Duauirf alone proticrrod hia courage. 

Fueling th&L it vould he better to fall into French than English 
buda, hu wnt br the duke of Bur^ULidy. oAering to yield the city if 
tben^eDi Bediord would iht-a retire. Thu dukeweot immediately 
laPmt to lay the propoailion htfore the regpiit, who r^plii'd dKly 
'^t he shuulJ bo Kirrv to havQ beatou the bush only that t\ui 
^oke of Burgundy might have Ehe birds.' Aud tiie duke, mucli 
YmjDded by tkie ananer, imiDcdhLtely withdrew &11 hia fun:» £iom 

Tlie bopea of Ih^ hud^g^d citizens weri^ thus at their lowest ebfa, 

*W aid vaa i^at of a tiaturo which, if ic CJinnot ho caiisd ntrictly 

LMfartdous, munt certainly be rcgaided ns one of the most monif'ijbt 

Hkrpthdticin B of Pruvldtiice fur the relief of a kiiifdouj that hm 

ernr been roucbi^fed to mun. 
[ h waa at Kbe beginuiug of Mureh 14Z9 that Ghu-lcH VII., thtn 
i^iding at Chiiion, oKtmhlcd hia btlla court for the purpose of 
ring ood ialerrc^Lifig a joung peasant girl, Jivume d^Arc, & 



218 JEASMB D'AftO— TirrEtVIEW 

ChatUi, VIL _ 

niLi.iye of tbi; villHrri! of Damieiriy, w!io citme with a stninge t&te oP 
miracoloufi vUioits, which she 3r:ited hiul ennvim:^ her that it vu 
her miflfiion to savo hor c^>iintry, and oapoflially to deliTer Orl«Aas. 

ChAtlea VBA fuUy infonn^^d as to the chamctor and prcter^tcou 
of ihft girl Slie Imd left Tier hijnie under llie prottutjoii of ui 
nncle, opaniy stnting \\&v incsntiniiH. Plaving gajn&l over to a belief 
in her ififlpimlion the sire de Buudricourr, :* Fttiich conimnnder in 
her own neighbourhood, aho had been conducted by hira to the duke 
ol' Lormine, nnd b^ the duke decprvtch^^d uader a ^ard of aoldjoji 
tu Chinon, ihal the king iniyhi judgi,' of her fiincciily or of hl£-._ 
import UT^. ^y 

It was evemug — fifty torches illuTtiinod the hall, and more thfl^ 
304J oourtiera wr^ro gathor^^d round their ^ovcraign, jlLI dcairouH lo sco 
one who inuQt be, su they ihiju^ht, either a iiorcere» or iiiBpimJ, 
> A young girl wua introduced ; Bht vils Appm^'Utly about eighteen, 
mlher laH, with a fkoe nttractive hut nf no rpuiarkahle batulj, 
SimpLo and modoi^t in numner, though wearing the drc«fl of a boj, 
nhe entered the liall hucihlj, and without tho a1ight4>^t hnlta&iaa 
kndt down btsfoie the king, wbo, to teat her povrt^r^ hnd placsd 
)iiiii5«lf amongst hift courti^ri), so an not to he diAtingiiiahed fraa 
them, Charles m vaia eudcavnured to persuade her that ahe hid 
zoiiitiikGn him, In a voice ^in^larly evrcct and |teDetratiag nke 
raid, * Guutle Dauphin' — bt had not yet heen i:ro«iied acxior^flg 
to the cutitoruKTy ^^reuionlL'S, and aim would nol ^icknowJedgQ lioi 
an king — ' the King of flfiaveii hns sent me to \eW yon that you ibill 
bo conaeorated and urowned tit Ithoimfl, and bJjoU bo the viceroy 
the King of Heaven, who iu the King of Prance,' 

Char[e:^ gteatly struck hy her iimnneri took her o&ide, imd 
Borne miniitefl' private ccDT^rmtion rptum*^ to hia couniera, 91^^ 
that he helieved in h<^r. She hud lold him things known oniv V 
hunj^elf and God. His convietion could not, however, at oaH ba 
^ared by oLhera, and It wjlb proposed fJiat ri, curefu^ inveaUgiLtriB 
of JpLuine d* Arc's claim^^ ahould be ntiidtr. under the diri^oion nf J* 
archbinhop of Rheim&. Td this prelate Jtnnne gave hur hitfurj 
vith eTideitt truthfulness. She wa? the daughter of an hontit 
peaaant, and had been brought up religiously, hat without rfgnUr 
education. She could aew and spin, but she cotild neither read B*f 
write. The villagB of Dotiiri-uiy wus surround wl by tlie fonsu of 
the VosgCT, and the legflnda of the forest hud donblleM early ttimil- 
latrii rin imaginative and devotional tompetainent^ which found if* 
vent in religious woraliip and actfl of charity, Jeanne wan a wfa- 
Htam Bltendunt upon -dl ihc nerviceaijf ibe diurcb, and unwenrivdin 
ht]t care of the fdflk and auffprjn^, Tlie raisericn canaed by the civil 
vurA reached evi>n to her B(>cluded hcime. Fugitives arrived vX tbv 
village, tind Jeaime aaaieted in recovering them. Sh« gave up hat 




(nvn b«d, ULd went tcrself to alecp in the banip Once wljeo a troop 

erf bri^^da pvml through Domrera/ her par^nta fled with Lh«ir 

funiljf vx\ renimecl ooJ/ lo ftnr] Ui« villagi* BockecL mid llie church 

btlRiL llim Jeanne ^rot by pcraaaal experieoce tJie hirrors cf 

wmf. Shfiiliougbt of the womeu who hod in the old dajs b»eiL u)- 

■tfinnealAl in nTing; lotneL from ita enemie?' !£, &a ererjoTie nid, 

Urt luin of tiiti kiQgdom had been the voTk of a womaiii the un- 

QBCar^ ]aab«ui, who hnd ci4ri«Tte<! her own aju^ mi^Iic it not he 

po*Bible that ztft vhTvadon ohnuld hIhi came frtini & ^oman ? The 

fu^gMlina haunted her. Whilst t«nding her father's CAllle in cfae 

faraM* J^ftone had Jiill Icidiirc For the iaduigean of drcunu U 

[mvihilLty of nricj^ hvr tf«<un;Tj, uud at Jeogth her vague 

took a inoflt rvDiHTkahte atjd ileTmiLt; fono. 

The frilloTiDg i» her own Hixi>imi of iho direct oHgin of h^ 

: — CJn a flertoitt fummor dny — a fjuluig day — otimon, boinp 

in Lv frtlwr's ptrden quite cloae to the church, bhe a&w a dnaxfiii^ 

.B|)it Aud heard a voice pAy> ' Jeanne, be a good and wise child, uid 

Go diurch-' Shft WAA frighieuod, but oritlieraaw uor hcud 

But a eeoond time aho heard the vru<re, and uw the diUEElmg 
ligla; Mild m the mid«t of tlic light were ligurcaof ncblfi gentleneo 
wl kntgb;^ aiid one who had >h ioga miid to her \ ' JeiLtiDe, go to th« 
«i4 of the king of Fnuice, and ihnn »halt rentore to him his kingdom.* 
fi^ inJlttd, trembling : ' Sir, 1 niu only a ponr girl ; J can ceith^ 
liieft AOl«* Dor lead t^ldien.' Tho toicq replied t ' Thno f^mlt e-h 
to H. d« Bandncx>Lirti the capr^m a( Vaucouleurs* and be will [Jkke 
tlio* to the kiiig, ^nt CacUarine upd Saint Mai^^et nil] aid ifai-e.' 
A miT HmfgtD than hidw Id her niind, mnrt^ ^peciiHy wh4?D. 
IhtIb^ eixnmiinic&ted her wiahee lo her father, be fwnrc that rttther 
i1m« allow hfT to go amongst ths rudo soldien he wouid drown h«t 
wili) bte omQ haAdSh Htrr uacle wa*^ ho werer, after a titne «?&- 
fttlod Iv a bdief in her miinion, and under hia proLccti«D abe waa 
allowad to d^parl, after baling nnbntttd her fnendl, ttpedaUj^, M 
i^aaEd, W d«or hitle coiDpaoinii Mnngt-iTe^ whom aha rwomm«cdcd 
lolba pftitaction of God, Ajfor hvr ^tiatoat friend andcompaiuon, 
AaAdMtta^ Um oqq wbont ibe loved the bad, the thoogbt it bctier to 
^ witboot apomg her> 

And BOW ahe itixd before the Dobt^^flt of h^ counLiynitD, who 
^■va Ui dacida how iax th«y might n'^rept her as an inspired le«d«r, 
«ria}ael baraa au enthueiaitio impoator. 

* J— finr/ aaid agmre Douiinicnnf ' ^ou deoiarc»t that God Willi 
lo dalJTQr the people of France He doc^n not need oaldien.' 

' AK* npiwd Jeanne. c]iuetly, ■ the wldiejn will (ight^ and (jod 
^fl Mfw ebtf Ttatorj/ 
^^^ft%y| BB,' enqnirad a mtcai^ profeBor o£ theology at tho 



Otarffi VII. 

■verEJty of PoiliePB — who Bpoke the eauotrv dialeot of Limouain— -' in 
vhat [jutguiif^e did the b^arcjilj voltx atidreaatliee? ' 

'III a bi3|;t^r liii];[;;uagti tliuzi tliini*/ lint^wscGd rTeaDaCf ali&rply. 

* DoBt tliou believe in Gix] 7 ' exi'luiniEd tlte i^gry pru£es»DT- 
' God wilU not tLat ve sbould believo tbj vorda unleM tbou ehow 

Jeanuti replied : ' I am not <;ome to work aigna and mirE«u]c»> 
My tiifzii vi\\l bellie ralfiinjt uftbeMe^u cl" OrlbUiu. Give ms soldi 
and let tliam he {cv or numy I will go thither^' 

The eiiimine™ continuecl iheir eii<juirio3 eeveraJ days, till 
length, apparently impatient of tlic de]ay cJiuited bj tKiei oidJen 
caution. Jeanne cidaimed : * LialGii— tliete in nurm in Gijd a Book 
than youra. 1 know u^t A Cram B, Lut 1 auaui mi God's piLTi \o 
roifio the fde^Q of Orlennn^ and to \iavG rhe Ilauphtn conHK^nted Nt 
RheimHH First, however, I mual Avrilo to thu Knglieh^ and Hiun- 
njon th(]m to rotiro. Huve yoa {apcr and ink? WritUf I viS 

l^vcn her jiidgea d^ired n[jt diBohey h^^ ^^'^ & snmmotiA tA ga 
bnck ro Englund was writtOD to xhe Eogliah leudt^r. At Ust niu 
tte dedBion. The miFsLon of Jcanno wna Teal. Her scrncOB mi^ 
without fear be accepted. 

She n-ua ibcn treiiDed v/itli hU bouour. It was a sin^tarsfbi 
when Jeantia for thi- firnt timo oppesiri^d iu public, in her wbiM 
armour, riJLog her splendid blac^ war-horFiCi and wtth a pnge hitt- 
ing before ber a white ^tand^ird cmtroidortd with the liliea of Fian>' 
At Ler fiid* hung a Binidl liattiliet., and a i*word which had been LilfHi 
at her own re^neBt, fmni the altiir ol' S.ilnt Citherine-d^FitrbuiPi 
but which sha wor€ odE)' na a token of war. * I nlll not,' she vi 
'moJco nac of mj ewofd to kill anyone, 1 love it; but I lore nj 
iftandard forty timet aa well" 

WhilaL iheae events werepaeaingiii the FEvnch camp^ theposii* 
of th** EnglJEidk before Orlennnwafl iarfrom flatiqloelorj. The wjntff 
had weakened them, i^i Burgundians hiid forsikeu ihem, und tb^ 
loaders, ioEtcad of cLo^iy JnvQBtiDg the town, had aLowed tbeu >> 
he djii{>cr^d in iwUtcd bodiira, which Jiiid iiu cujaoiunication wil^ 
FSch utlier. If thti Freni^h hud ouLy bteii uuJtifd the tj»^ oiigl)li 
without difficulty, have been rni^ ; but a fitrcti iiidependea06*iW 
tlie crving evil of Uio eiiptoinfl of the Freneh army. Brave ihe/ 
were, aad not without a ctrtain en pcreti lions religion ; but among* 
llitnj werti to bu found rome oE the most determined *nd fcrodoua 
men who ^ver exiflt^d. One, GiJIe^ de Retb, U ^aid to hav« bi-^n dia 
orj^iial of Blue Beard, 

Thfi jippGuiimcu of Jeouno amongst auoh men va» liko & ti^co 
from heaven. It touched the yet glimaLeringapork of a. better nttar^ 
Thu Gascon chlcf^ La llire, who had been ncctistomed u> 

^ to ""ifft to I 

{iti\fi \mv^r for God'it h«1p v^hen he vrem forth E/i pillage and kill, 
Qfr« rli*<kf!4 bii pro^e oathfl, iind swore — virb J«ftnne'a pcnniB- 
wMi — onlj bjhia fltick- Tho captains tbrtocik their prolligtLte hnbiu 
tnd wnt Ut ccuEestaoTi ; antl as thr: lumT Joumeyed «Ufiig lUe iHUika 
of til* lAore, on its vay lo Orlmius, Jeannt; ciiiaed an nli&i to he 
vrorted under the blue tky, juid in ibf midA of ihv tunny pufur^ 
of T^Ufvine, Bcd tbere th« «DthDaiiLEtEc ealdi^ra devoted ttien)U>lv« 
lo h«r KrvIcpCf iind vowed to ioILow bcr wirhciaoevcr abe vrouiit ietA 

To (^(snft or to JeruMilem t wbnt uattervd it I And tbe hopa 
of S enmde ia liea of a ctvil war ■««inii to bare floated in Jeflnne'a 
mhid i for in tbe letter wbicb ibc H-nt to ilie Englifll) gcotnkla abo 
gr>ciomJy propOAcd to tticm tc unitv witli the Frcach, and undoTtake 
wi4li tbem the dcliTirnum of tbe Holy Sepulchr^^. 

Aa ttia Prrorh forces ajtpmDcbu] OrlraiD^, Duuoi* came lo wel- 
OOOM their maiden li>ad(>r. ArrriDgemeniH were mode that ihe «boLild 
«nlpr ifao city witb a onrroy of proviAioao, vbiljrt tbe r«t of tA\a 
n^opaabruJd proceed to Blois, and about cigbt o^dock in (be pran- 
la$ of the 29lb of April, in tbc midiit of a denaa crc^d^ Jennnc rodo 
■lawly up iha ftirwi, Ai>«akiiig gt-Dily to iha peiipla wbc pre»ed 
MOBcd, aiudoQi «iven tj^ touch har bors«. AlUr visiting ili^chiirob, 
■ba prooeadad to Ihi boiiJ« or the treuurcr of the t\iikv uf Urleana, 
with whoM wife juid dmigblrr rht vtus to make her alWe. 

The temr of tlie Eci^riah nbf:it ch?y beard tliat ihe Maid — the 

aa cbf>y r^giind^d brr-- w^unt'iually witbjn tlirt wn]i« of tbo 

eiiy WM Hrtrvme. The IvadpTa, ind»d, gave wav to tho 

frow abuar, and be^t'Tvri^i] npun ber epilhcla bo dc^mJinf that 

tlipy oune to Jannoe^a eaJT ahe *vepl blr-lerlj ; bm tlie conjijioa 

coDvicjccd ihat a higher tlmu t^artlil; povnTr naa h^bttng 

Bit th«m. from that momant ioat th^ir ronfideiir*'. 

But tiM RngJisb wvn not Jouae'H only enemicft. The eom- 

of the pTonch troops vbo bad b«en Aont lo Dbtip, aiid aficr- 

d^ proitact^ by J«BDne and a bndy of prievU, tiiLi^rifd dir city, 

vhy no mnme dirpoacd to vubiait to hei auchority, or to xhara 

ir ^ry with n woman. 

Jauina vaa a horo in couragiiand in ai^tJoD^ but a tvonunRiilMn 

. and on ihv liTve accuiiori, when an attack wiu made 

tfdv^ *n English tnrt, flbevbcd l^nm on the €«LJ of bntttf* over 

^ms whu had died witb^iui tJie lavt ctlfirp of nligion, snil took MM 

«f th" Kogliib priHon<Ti under herown proteotian, ti* ncv^ tbom fKiia 

(lit frtrwiiy of her fnh>Tiii*. The taking of tha fort waa the 

^tt ii oa aiwi , and i1 wm* «oon foJlowed by imott><T, in sflticb .IiHinna 

Uw GaaccmljA Uirp Kcre, by tboir Lrniverv, mnmly iiiatrunmnijil. 

Oolj than remained tbo Airt tt( the ToiiriLvile^. wbidi wu tha 

poKtinn that t^js Engljih bdd. It wu at fint pi 


outUj, vn. 

attack it on the tLth of May, but tbc French J^isrs Lold a cecrci 
councU, Hiiii J^aiice was told tEiat tijey had refiQlred on delay. Pro- 
bn-bJj thc-ir wMi only was H> deceive her* and preveut her frum btniig 

C**eTiL Jea-une^ Jiware ijf their Jnaincerity, merely said: * Teu 
ve been ivt yoiir council and 1 have been at mine,' And tummg 
lo her cLaploia Jihc ikddEd : *■ Come to me to-monow at dnybrcokk 
and do not learc me; I nljall liave miicb to do- Blood mil fkw 
fmn my hodj, 1 ftliBll be wounded ahnve the brrast/ 

Tlii? unn WM ming over the Lmr© on the following raomTng 
when th? French forces embarked in their boation the river to attack 
the Toumcllfis. The ED^Ush defended the fort vni inn tly, nod the as- 
DQjlBurf4 lMt(;r(>d, when Jean dij jumped into the dilch, wi^ed a Zndder, 
hod pliuxd it agaJrat the vralL At that En^itanL an arrow Elnick her 
between ihe ahuiilder and the liEart. She whs Taid upon the grui 
and her armout Cokcu <iW. At ths first eight of the d{?ep wound 
Jeanne vcpt and lamented, Bot suddenly aha atartad up, artit 
ttway her htieiiJanU. ordered w>uieoi] lu be laid upon the woaadt 
and aeenaing herself of ninfu) woaknes«, own^ hem^lf willing 1u 
fubmit entirely to the Will of G<h1, The fight continued during the 
dn^T hut withont any apparent advantage. The standard of thi 
Maid of Orleaua, ho dreaded by the enemy, wna held by a BBff|i» 
soldier; and fTeaniie. ^euiirjjglng luui, raid : ' Wbeu tLe HtandAid 
Icuth*'*! the Willi you will be able to outer.' It did touch the will, 
and the French^ excited tc deFperat;oni rui^hed forward and ecatifd 
the fortrew aa though thoy had naccndod by steps. The people d 
Orleaue, who Imd been walching iha fight from the other aide of tbf 
lioire, now hastened acjops tlie rivE-r, and valiantly piipported tLeiJ 
frietida ; and when nxght cnme, the fort of tlie Toumellea wiw Iham 
The (ate of the Toumellca decided that of Ork'atiB, The n^il 
day, which waa Sunday, May filh, l-iSi), the wholo of the BogliA 
army woe in retrtmti under the conuujtnd of Tjdbot iind Safluik. 
Proudly nnd In good order they uiarched awny, and Jeanne forbade 
th:il they sliould be purnued ; but belore ihey wtrre quite oat w 
sight »^t caused an altar to be eret^Ced in (hi> plain and mass lo b' 
eaid, and in the vwy presence of the enemy the people rendctw 
thookii to God fur Hia aid. 

The eflect of the deliverance of Orleanfl wrw prod:gioiifl. A 
Rjpematiiral power woa everywhere recognised. Soma ai^ 
JeanneV influenco woa Trcm ihe Evil-one; but iho generally owo'd 
tJiat it wae from God, and thnt Charles Yll. \amA the claim of rig'>l 
to HiH fijvour- 

And now it won needful tJiFkt the king tihonld aeiEa the fortnnitA 
moment and proceed to Kheima to bo crowned, 'the En^hifb hxd 
made one fatfll mifltake; they hod ^ela^ed the coroofttioD of 1^ 
j<>ung lieury YI., ajid dm ilrat ctuwned would aimly niiMlr 


klog^ Beaides, it would b« a grand thing for Chnrles VlL to laake 
hia royal prrgrt^ tjjttfiigb Eu^lis^i Fruisct, aud ihue to lake posKS- 
fion ci^it $o HRid Jeinne; oik! Lhniif^h bef udvif^ to aanie #iwnied 
foUy, it was aftor somu he^rution jidi^pUd. The advouco v/aa oaa 
of difBcult^, bam^ &cqucQtly iutorropicd by tho EngLioh. At 
Trujca die gates of the city were cEoacJ, m preparaliou Ibr & lu^ge. 
But Jeanuv led ihu cr<Kt|>* to ibt us^rkulti ^nd th« enemy, eebed with 
A Rtidden panic, threvr down ibeir ai-ma. 

Thifl WM on the Gib of July, and on the 15th the lOyal forces 
cacerW Rhtima. 
I The pwjpl« oame to oiecLthair king, joynudly chantifjg hymos. 

*0h, good snd pioua ptopW exdaimed Jeanfle, ^il" f mn t^i die^ 
I I woold &iD bt buried here T ' 

The arcbbiflhopT wbo Letird tha ip^ecbi a&id ; 'Do jou ih^o 
' tliinlL you ore about to die ? ' 

* I kiiow notf^ vra& the iLOhWer. ' It will be ab God pleaseB. Ytt 
I wotild wiAh ihitt it may be R'm will Thut 1 ^ibould go back to my 
brothem uid sifitari. Th^y would be- bo liappy to see tile. But bt 
leut 1 havt dot^o ubat our Lord cummiuidi^d mc to do,' aud looking 
up to Hi^vcB ^E rttumed thanka to Almighrv God, 

And at Lh^t mumeat, Bays an nld clirLuider, * All vho bbvt her 
bdi^Ted mr>r« tlikn evpr tbnt her mr^jflion waj) from (lod.' 

Sunday, ibe 17 th, wan fixifd loi" tho oyrooatioD, and on that mom- 
iag, before going; to the cathedral, Jeanne dicljklod a letter to the 
diike of Burgucdy. recalling n^>diing of tli« paat* otnly proyiug 
that on both nidta ^r^vtaeai might be granted, tu became gocxl 
■fid loyal ChriRtiuniL 

The cereojony ofcoronatjon waa perlbrrned by the arcbbiflhop of 
KheiiPBs l^ie Maid of Ortcann Hloudiog by hh aide with her rtUmdard 
ill lier Laad, Ch^lu^i wnA .uu^ijiti^d with tJie conK^mttd oil of St. 
Remi, jjid aucordirt^ Lu thv ani:t<^nt ritual wiia lilbtd upon his throne 
by the «^clt!HiaAUcal p^cre, anil aflvrHarda waited upon by the Iny 
bvbicfi- At the moment of hia coronaliou JnoQDC knolt and oaid, db 
aLc embraced his kne^ and wcpT, ' Oh, contlc king, God^a will han 
been aijcou^ph&btid [ I]« ordain^ Lli^t I eljould cause tbe Hiegc oi 
Orlcwia to be miaed^ and [hat I HboiiH bring you to Rhcims to be 
cnmnied, thus ahowing tbnt yon are llii^ true king, and that U* you 
the kjiif^om of Fmtico boJongd bv ri^tkt,' 

Yes, Jomnc hud been permitieil to accoraplipJi the Will of God. 
Sb« l»d fulfilled ber uiiaflioii; no'l fn^iii tbat timt' a prt^nti meiit of 
ber own fete ««mii to bjire brorp> ed over her. Even from tlie 
bdgioziang, indeed, she had rjuI r 'Mukeuaeof id^dow, for I shall bve 
littjc taoro llian a year-' And tho fiiljilmoEjt of thd foreboding waa 
drawing near. The rEgcnt Bedforl Hiid the duke of Burgundy were 
^Eaia iiieada. Vi^roiu prrjmiiiT.HiUMi wre makiag ibr die defence 




224 iu:ruL£S ci the >u£NCJI — mjxttz usiEU rnisoNEB. 

of PiLi'iH, 1rul CliarEi^a iViia smik la Indulciice. Voiiilj Ji'uime filrore 
to roiiw ItTm, jind when «h@ JikilfKl^ kIi^ vaJetlcAik herRolf to urge 
the Fr^Dcti gi^neruliA Eo actioo. Puria wiiareachc-d Itret. The urm^ 
of Cliorlca wna rcpiiL^Lil in an aituck on tha Porte SL lionur^, and 
CbaricB Ifi'i liis amiv back to ito furlher aide of the Loire. Jejinne's 
lit^rC SLiA. The kin|i, iuilti^d, beiitowtiJ Luuoura upun ber, and 
graulQii lel^re of nohilliy lo her liimily and ihdr deaeendnntR, ojiA 
0XGm|it«<i Uer \illiiae from XnxtM. Uut whftt wm tbia coiupurtad 
the delivoniDCO of t'ranoe from tbe Englieh yoke ! 

The wioter came, &ad upibiiig vmn dane or coald be done. 
iV^ the £[inng o£ 1480 Jtiuniiu Hgula renewed ibe wrtr, rind ^pjwarB Ei) 
Imve eK^rci»Le(] civil ns WtlJ iis miliCary aufJiDriiy. la na t^ogn^^ 
iDHnt loughl near Lagay, iho cuptorM a jerocioua brigukd, and 
delivGi'^ii him up lo excciitiou. The man richly d^'pcrrcd his fiiU, 
but ilie Burgujidiaii (jnrtj wtjiti itici-iiaed) aud wheu ibe lu-ur of 
revenge cHUia iliey hxhcW 11 to tbe fulL By this time J<auEje seonu 
to huve lust aouiewhut of \h& wtiiDunly ttfiderneBa that btul uiada 
hor eliriuk from thij uight of blood- But hor Bimplicity vat. un- 
cbuDgc^^t BDil abo never looked upou hBrBcLfoa an^ht but rho humhb 
peiMaiil giilj whuat iutlueucja was deriTcd eoldy from Guil- She 
[irstended to no power nf loreiGllmg events, and whi'U !ieki>d to 
cj:>os^ctnt,o crot«e4 uiid t-'bupltit^ by touching LheiUj she Inughod, mid 
aaid to duiiQ MflTgurot, the woman in whotic house s}j<: lodged 
at Bourgea, * Toucli t}jcia yourmilTf they will he jusL db good.* 

But the hiundiiy aijil purity whidi Btrengtheued her general 
flueiiceoDlyiDcreAAcdthi- malice nf her eiiemi4.«, both t^ecrei and jlitow 
Treiichery waa tke one thing vbich Jeanne dreaded. As (bt spring 
advanced ehe occompjuiiod thu Freocb army (o Compi^gne, whidl 
yfue iuinjeJiJtt«ly bc^eged by Philip of Bun-nmly; a^d ila site ntol 
on u i^rickiu diLy to reiifilve tlie ELicliuriHt in the uburcb oj^ ^i. Jnt^oai 
sb& leuQtd Rjdly aguinst a pillAr, and eald to the a^^nitiiiH! trrovd; 
^ My good IrieudB aad my dear children, I tell ycii i^rt^lv that tbW 
IS oue who bna ould ti>c to tlie enttny, 1 ma betrayed, tuid sotB 
I stall l>c delivered otct ic i^eath, Piny God far rae, I beBtrct yoti 
for 1 shall uu luugtr b« nbh to serve my king, nor the uubh^ kingi^ 
uf France.' 

Tbs following day, tlie SSrd of Al&y, she nude a vigoronA fortii 
at the head of a body of troopa. Tho Burgvndians were rotfly 
BUptriiir ill nuuibera, and tlie Mali and her eoldiers vrtre driTtfi 
Lack ; but fJlk drawbridj^e bad bi^u raised, and the ^te^ were cIokJ 
againut thcDi. Jeanne deti.'Jid«d litrsolf bTJivt^ly^ but uhen further 
resitianeo vaa flcon lo be UMt-leBs. skiv dulivewd up her Bword to John 
of LuxcDibourjz^ a vnaeal of the dnke nf Burgundy. 

Tbf! Euglihli were bent upou obtaining posaebBmii cif 
&> eoru^^ vein they agaiiut her, ibat u pool woman 

(i£ her peret'Q' 
um h&d ba te i 


C» F7I, 

auTDC &liTe hy them merelj fi:^r ^jtag tliat »he thought hi^ a gooii 
romAn, and regarded h^r as a 4[>reer»9. They now n^nt a m^s^Bge 
n tbe nome of lhf» vicnr of th« Iriqujfiitiarx at Kome, di>nuui<lii]^ 
thot Jomiic ahoulil hv dclivtm^d iaU> tbcir hands. Xbu vicar of the 
[sqciiaition itaa, indeed, u auan of no LollueaceH but hia ia^tigaupr 
>afl cardituil Beaufort, bishop of Windieeier, Betlfurcl'i^ bnjf^hi^r, a 
prelate whose haired it was w«1l known would be deadly. 

For the mm of ten th'^usand francs Jeanne w&e sold to the duke 
>f Bcdfordf arid early in Ihc month of November eht was takca to 
BoneD) pla<^ed in an iron cnire, And heaviiy cIijud^. 

A Irml bf^fore th^ pccleeiaatJLz:^ Lribuua! nould be the 4nre<^ way 
>f efffecling her ruin, and Pierre Cauchcn, hishnp of Bi^uvais, in 
irboie diocese fih« had hi^ea tnktn j^rittoneT, undsrUJok the ^iquiiy aa 
ID Jennne'fi prehensions, h^ chanictcrr nod conduot. He wns lu^stcd 
liy fifty doctors of the Sorbcmiie, and the riaa of the inquisiitor- 
^ero] for France. 

For tiJite^n djja the trial wu? ffirriefl on. The nccutodonB chiefly 
pel&t^lo Je^uine'BBUppDEed ttorcerj^ and to certain heretieal opiniona 
■hich \t woB faid aho eatcrtainod^ and also to the hex Uiat bIjc hod 
^euicied ihe dr^ao of a hoy^ Ths Maid hentoJf inslfitcd upop the 
reality rif the visdoaa azid voters which had urged her lo linr miuiiQii ; 
tiot her examinera i^ontrived tn find twdve ariif^lta of aocuaation 
ivhich w^re ndd to be proved, and ^a w;ta threatened wilii death by 
Src unlejw uhe would confers and retrac^t. In accordanct with thii 
lociaon. on an appointed day, the caiduud biahopof Winohefat<^r, iwo 
[udgn, and iwenty-lhrtv awH-asara, took tlitir pla^JOB on ft pLiCforrn 
prected in tha ^urch-yard of St. Ouen ; whilst: on an oppisitd 
^nlfbim stood Jeanne, in her cnAloznory tnan^e drcA^ and around hir 
Lhc tOTtDrcF^ the aotAriea to receive her conft^eieiion, and a prcnchcr 
irlio wu to adincnisli her. In ih^ dJaUnce vas to be &ei!D the ti^se- 
i^otion^r with his ciut, ready to carry her ofT as mon as ohe should 
he a>bd«ii>n«d, 

Tbi; praa«her — tho moet fansoufi of hia day-^Wiiliam Erard, 
bdgan hui apeceh, ' noble house of France/ be aud, ^ hitherto the 
protector ol the ikith, how hnat thou be«n thua deceived by a h&ratSo 
Uid KhismntJc! It U to thee, Jeannp, thai I jLddreaR myB^lf, and 1 
l«ll tbeie that thy king h m heretic nn^ o vchismatio^' 

■ Sir/ I'SuJaimcd Jeanne, forgetting hor danger and inti-rnipting 
luni, *oa my faith, with all reverence, 1 oay and bwcht thntt he ia 
the ino^t noble of nil Chriatuuii^, that ht is tha one wIlo Iovaa beat 
llie fiiJth and the church. H« is not what you wy," 

* Stlene^ her m^t^LQtly ! ' cried tha biAhop of Boativaio, who wsia 
jRaent, Andalongesainination then bt-go-n, mingled with n-rgLimi^ntfi 
*id thrmU^ Jeanne >raA at length induoed lo sign « njEractaCion 
^ her Buppoaed errora. A pen waa ploc^-d in her hnadjt, but she 


CharJa VTI. 

could not write, nnii Willi a umilp flhra drew n rircle. The Becrrtiry 
lock her hdtid and cauaod ter to make » CTOfla. 

Th« QCQienco of graca was Tcry scvoro. ^ J^nnCf in our mercy 
aad moderation yrc condemn you to p&ffl tho rest of jour iJaja b 
prbon, therd lo vreep fur juur aiitHt tating the brawl c>f grief ud 
drinking the wacpr of ungnif^-' 

JeajinE, obedient to her ji]j.1g09, had before Ibu given up her boj'l 
drcsftf but there Bcemfi no doubt tbat wheu fihe w;ia dent back U) 
prifioQ her eaemiea secrellj compelled ber to resume it, and iha 
charged it upon her as u kee ; and irlieii in addition nbe aitnotiaded 
thflt a Toicp from be!iT(!n had tald her thnt &1ie 0ll[^iiti not tci bm 
Abjured to save hsr life, her fal<? wcs e^rtoin. She wna declared 1 
teLips^d horoticf and delivered ever to the civil authority to ncvvt 
the terrible punrsbrncnt of donlh hj burning* 

Tl:ie bi»liop of BeiLuvais Aenl o. confessor tti (Lunouncc the MD' 
tence. Jennne burnt forth in horror : ' AIbs ! muKt I be treawd 
10 cruelly? Must my body be reduced to nehsa? T would nttSff 
have been bcbeiuinl seven timea, than to he thus burnt,* 

Stilt she buoj'ed hereelf np with tho belief that aonic one wotdJ 
intfirpdse. She trusted in ibe Iving And in the ' g^»i>il peuplv of 
France.' But Charles mode not the slijihlMt eflopt for her. Swiiyt^ 
by tiie inilueoue of La Tr^tnotiiUe, and of the arehbiabop of Kheims, 
vho vn-1 Jeacne^adoa^llj enemy, he eet aside every Bcntimentc^ ^^ 
Tosity and bumanjly, and left the uuhnppy girl Ut her fate. 

When on tlie futJii day Jeatine'a lusi liope liad IbraakEU hcTt bdJ 
(die waa about ro be faa^ned to the &tnbe in the old market -place of 
Rouen, the Hmple npirit of fervent piety whieh hod marked hPtr 
corlicat ytars again wjppoflcd her. She kncJt in prayer, invnkini 
Go J, the Virgin, and the Baln1a»ajiking pardon <nf her fell ow-crcatti'^ 
and bestowing it; imd e.inip»;lly nhe entrenled tho prieaiH id Wf\ 
each one of them, a mam for her wul. Even the bishop of Beaiirw 
Ehod tesra, and the cardinal liLshop of Wiucbe^er lamentwi; bin 
neilhcr prdalc nor roble nufled a voice or an arm to save her. 

The crowd looked on liorror-Alm^k, atiil and Hilent. JeMDe 
sa ehe beheld them tielalmed, ' Ali T Kuii^, Koueu 1 1 lear ihU 
thou wilt have much to huffer Ironi my death/ 

Tbey put a paper mifrc on her head on vrhlah was iPTi»t*» 
' HeretiCf RdapBcd, Apostate, Idolater.' And tbcn aba ** 
fastened \q the stake. At tlie moment when t}ic llamcn toiichpii ^^ 
Hhe utt&rod one cry of aEouy^ iiul re<"overing herself inscuit)/, lijj 
called upon God and Hia nngeU and GTckimed, ' Yev, ^ va 
were from God I My voiecA havo not deceived me.' Toea 
head eiank upcn ber breast, and her loat word wn9 ^ Jeaua 1 * 

Tcj] tbouBand men wept. The eAecutJOueir that uigbt wi!ait 
terror to his confbflHor, acknovrl^lging bis gnorous dn, and 

Paris. He had been brouEtt there in D 
1th of winter, ahout \he time thai Jeann** d'Arc wna made 
!h« littlt^ English monRrr^h wan now bin^ yean old, a chiJd 
pJtb] who Beflmod already markod for au^crmg. TIiougL 
SUice, he yei knew Httleof those from whom he deriTeJ 
b the French ihroiic IIIb grand id otlier, Inabi^iUf Wh» lit 
I Hotf I Si. Pol^ but he hjiri no mi^reoarae with her ; only 
be wna taken bj the bii^iop of Wmob«at«r through tha 
lecte, iho carriole slopped h«forc the patucc, and the pole, 
'U Eie locked up at the wiudu^a^ savr thv ligurc of a ludj 
ere, and waa told Ihflt it wan Iub gniudiuobtier. Tliey 
[di other for a few momenta, nnil rhen the young king 
, tup in BalutfltioiiT ^J^d the aged Wbtimi mode a bumble 
9 him an ijcr km^, and liimijig awiy, burst luto tears, 
rdutpofiitlon wDB gentle ; in a piivate stAtioo he might have 
) bat be WAS wholly unlit for govi^nimenc, and his ednr^- 
The stern earl of Warwick weakiined even the lilile 
fK]f-reIiu.nce vrhich he naturally potj^&ssed. His life waa 
biuailutioti, which began even with hia corunatton, 
bnia] waa oco^rdiug to the English caatuniB- It wiu 
I bif^op of Winchtidttir ivho placed LhB crowu of Frauds 
lot bia litlla oephew. No prince of the blood royal of 
I ppcacnt, and <)uecn Jualwau does not appear to have 
d, aUhoogh eho wod afttrwarda sJlowod a solemn and 
■ iuterview with ber ^audchild. Ab for Khtliarine. frum 
jy derived his cbiim, Rhe wnn iri Walefl, imving already 
iwife of 0*en Tudor, a Welah gnntlf^man. The gteat 
Porip bad &ci atleatJOD shown them oo the oooaaton. 

^.las".^ — -**T*^-.iitti - j_ 


they »<hE)uld Einvo Imi airrr done fbr tlitm at tht^ nmrrk^e tiT ■ gitlA' 
mnitb. The ilUfeelioc soon b<?(^h]7iQ bo mnrked tbjil it W'ts thi^ii^r, 
advisable tliat Hcary should be tnkonto Rnuoa, Tboro he WABluJp:cd 
in tbo ceadt; not ikr Jrom the prjKin of tho Maitt of Odcona, and 
soon afrerwards bu w^ cairii^'l Wck to Englnnd. 

Tbp feeble lie tbst aTTooht^i tbp duke nl Rurpundy lo the Euglifil 
pHrtj- was by thU lirnfl thofoughly wcakeneJ. The duJip hiid Jeorni 
to eetLTDate at its trite raluo tbe appareat fnoniMiip of* the Ti^eut 
Bedford tmd Win bn^jther Glouc&fiffT, Me bud iu. bb poeseaMon b^odI 
letters iu HhiL']! the earl of GlciUcfsti^r mformidi] the n^eDt thu 
efibrts were heia^ made to brinjf buck Philip of Burgimdy ic cbe 
purt^ of Cbarlei. Ha propose^l, tJiGrelbre, thnt Philip bHouLcI ht 
orrosted Bcdfc>rd'6 roplj- wna tliot it would bo hector to Iibyc )dfa 
killed at ibc jon^^Ea in Pari^ A tob^tequeiit letter ulat^ tbat tbc 
(■ppurEunit^ for tl^is bad fuiled* but th%t he nij^hr be luktin uid 
carried off on biBJoumoj. With Hucb b eorreapondence in his hand^ 
it u-na DAtutnl thnt Philip ebriuld fiwl the moment an-ivel lor bmk- 
ing off hra alliance with the English. Tte duchess of Bedford, wio 
'.i^. Vdfl hid niiiter, died about thts time (I43S), and tkere^nt, then fociv 
jears old, without giring any nodce tu ihe duke nf Biirgiuidy, fllmnA 
iuimedintely married ftpretry young girt oEacv^enteenj ihw daugbtierol 
tho comte de St. Pol. Tha duke'i indignution on IhiB ocoieioo 
plainly showed that aa opert rupture was at baud. Oixe diflicdrr 
in the way of reconclli&tii^ci with Cbitrlea was the duk^^'fl ]if<rAirul 
etmiity to tbd fjuaily iif Aiijou, who were thrt king'fl near rrl.iliinw: 
hut tjiia obttlacle vaa removed by the chivAlroua and kind-htiLneil 
Kfu^t ^^unt of Anjou, who, harin^ tuught a^iimt the Btirguaiisi 
party und been taken priaoncr, flmiiBod himself in hi* captivilj br 
paiatiDg pictures for diurijhca ; nnd when Fhilip of Burgundy arui' 
to eee hiiE^ prespntpd him with a lifci-nesfl of Jean Sana Vent. U 
wu impoaiibLe after tbi^ to b» his etiemy, and th^^ duk« revtored Bonf 
to liberty under certain utipulationn. 

An^ if the duke of Burgundy would ban hare bad eome ttfitk- 
inent of alTuim whith eliould liii tliii country of the Englijdi, tuuv 
more were the wisept coiinhj-llorB of Charles impatient for the fiiti« 
end. The only pennon who waa inelined to put obstneles m 
way was the unworfhy ffl^rmrilo, La Trdmnuille^ nnd Charlni 
compelled to conflent lo bis arrcat nnd iniprisomnenl. The 
de Kitbeiujnt wEin now ni th<^ h*itd of tl»e kiu^'s founeil, 
Length it was Hefiuitply ugreerl with the duke of Buigundy 
a generiLl eonj^reiu of Eitropooi] princett should bo conireaod A 
] A-iP, Arras to mneidcr the po-'^blc condilii>nB of neace (1435). 
I '"* It was a grand aMenil>lj, To it camo the tcdeiiiaatical ambJ- 

1 AJidoTS lr<:ir[i titv enuncil of Basle, wbi^h waa then Hitting- thospjl' 

L of the Pope, tlie emperor, the kings of Cattile, ArogCD, KipH, 

□mark, ai\A vnt'iom ot1ti-r powers. EnglfiTi'l wus reprt^Eoutt^ bj 
cftrduml hiahop of Wmchf^tc-r. TEia qUQeCion lo lio lirat de- 
ed wa* tiifl-t of the rivjil claima of ChorlcH Yll. <■£ France and 
ary YI. of England, but \ipoii ibia ptiiut die demandn of tite 
eliHi were held fi Uh perfecnjy J Matin jisslMif, for they ineixL^ that 
u-ies nhould leave Henrj in uadi^'^arbed po^iseBsiou of tbp king- 
□. Thrt KtigUvh cuinmiBsiontrs d«}4irtod imhutieliodf nnd iha 
■ndii of Cborlea tbea toraed to tbe duke oJ' Burgundr, demanding 
oj^Li support. The duke teaiutWd. ' IIU liDDijur/ lie said, * w.ta 
«(ak(u Ht had mgred the cn-aDy of Troyen, and iliiin had ac- 
jwiedged Hflnrj V. ol England to be the fl«cc<>jiwfr of Charlee VJ.; 
t WBa hi; not aCao bound to revanj^atbo murder of hid Inthcr 7' A 
g conniltiitioii follo-wcd, in wbich^ in ordtr to leavo crorjone free 
nj whuL Le ihoui^ht, iJie pnrtieii ^hoee rjghis and diuiiTtJ were 
cussed were called Darmsajid Alm4<ut^ruB. The ccncIiiHion ftfinlly 
ived flE wax tbat tbo tmntjr ol Troy^a was invalirl, because it dou- 
led agreemcQta which CharJos VI. had no puwer to Timke. The 
u oi Burgundy wtui only too willing to accept this intcfpretatioci, 
I die di^th of tho regL'at Bt^ifurdr whicb took plaue ut Ituiitm 
lift the diKciis.4ioi]fl uc Arras werti ^ill going od^ i^vma liri&lly to 
rft decided iiim. Hi? enga^eaicuU bad been toada to the regent 
^aoiiAlly (such wuB lLq rujiBODLDi;^ of tha fij^t;) by tha deatb of 
dford; therefore ht- wua rden^wd from ihem, nnd only cue <IilH- 
Ijf that of hiei fatlmr'it uiiirder, n^inairied. Bviatw Uit duke ciE 
^jfundy would be salii^vd iipcin this cuartcr CharEtB was called 
la to own thsit nt the time oC tlie murder be w4b young and 
tor&TitT and ill-odvioed, aud t^ jiroimHe that he vrould cow vae all 
igi^ica to diecov^r and punish tlie alfciidera, lla ulao undertook 
fimnd an expiatiiry diapel aritl ii inoriasttry «t MtrnteTfau. anJ Ui 
let a ftone crops upon the bridge. Tha ceremony of recDiici- 
tJOD Uxrk place publicly in a ehuroh at Arras. The daan of 
ri>t oa the part of the king, ibrew himself at tbe Ject of duke 
lUij^-oad cj'Ekvifd furgivtiuesA fl^r tlie rciurdtr of JedJi Sjuji Peur: 
j life duke raided and embr^iced hiin, TUid decl&red lliaTi frum 
mcefirth there eboulil never bo war kxHweeii king Chiirh?} and 
lunlf. T\te diiko of bourbon nnd the consUxbie De JCichuinont, 
d several other French and Burgnndina noblcB alao ^av^ore pence. 

Tbe geneial reLoittilitttion vas completed by the marriage of 
C duke of Biirguncty^A niece, Murie de Bourbon, with tlie sou of 
nii of Anjou. Ri;ri<> had, na was before Atau^n E>een released 
m captivity oc cecEniu ooEiditionOt yhea ht> prefionted the duke of 
iTguudy vritb the luu^dsouie portrait of Jc&a Sacs Pctir \ but fiad- 
f Lliat he could put keep the coudition^ ho had voluutanly returned 
pH4>n, Now Philip of Burgundy again releaseHlhim, and remitted 
Kfftioxi of hia raDUOoi Ju JiiTour d£ & mairiAge which, by cicely 


Ckarlci VII, 

tmiting the three great brancheB of the rojal &milj to mA otber, 
ud to the kingf rendered the full restoration of Ghftrlea to hu leghl- 
m*te position almost a certainty. 

It ia remarkable that at the very time irhen the hope* of tlw 
king were thua raised, hifl mother, Taabeau of BaTArio, dwd ii 
neglect and obscurity at PariH, Her ecEtishness, profligacy, ud 
utter disregard of parental duty^ had awakened QoiTeml coatempt 
She was buried at h>t. Deiita without atiy show of rt^al bonouti; 
uid when a mooument was aflerwitrdH erected over her, the sculptor, 
inatead of placing at her feet, according to the faahion of the tim^ 
the figure of a dc^, eubfttitutod that of a wolf. 

The peace of Artaa waa a death-blow to the English. In da 

K^ spring of the following year, 1436, their forces left Paris amidst the 

1- D. ^outs and taunts of the populace ; and the following year, NoTfliaba 

^^^ 1437, king Charles made his triumphal eritry. He had not Tistad 

his capital wnce — nineteen year* before— he had been carried off br 

his mother and the Armagnac princes, when Jean Sana Penr tool 

posaeaajon of it. He was received enthuaioatically, but waaunaU«kif 

to remaio there, for a dreadful epidemic broke out, and the stnad 

were so deserted that wolves again made their appearance, a«d 

fourteen peraona are aaid to have been devoured by them in «■> 


Civil war had indeed left Jatal effects everywhere. In tke 
provinces the soldiera, unused to labour, became brigtada. Tb^ 
eftlled thi>maelves '^corcheura/ or Hoyers, and were under tb 
command of leaders such as La Hire and SantraiJIei, who hid 
diatmguiahed themselves at the siege of Orleans. The coulibk 
De RichemODt ^^aged a fairly auccesaful war againat them, bol 
they were not entirely subdued until the king, roused, it is wA, 
by the remonatrancc of his favourite, Agnes Sorel, a woman of 
talent as well aa beauty, convoked the States-Generftl at Oi^aM 
t.s>. in 1439, and published, with iheir concurrence, an ordinw* 
by which it was declared high treason for any noblenaan to all' 
soldiera on his own account, whilat at the same time it was dscr^ 
to eatablish a permanent army^ the ofScers being Dominated bf ^ 
king. This increase of Toyai power awakened discontent amoug^ 
noblea, and several of them leagued with the ^ ^rcheura ' to r^ 
it. A new form of insurrection waa the result It was called th 
Praguerie, in reference to a religioua war at that time carrying « 
in Germany, between the Hussites, or Iteformera of Bohemi% tf* 
the Ilooian Catholics. Louis, the Dauphin, the dukea of fiomt* 
and Alen^n, and the loyal Dunois joined it; but the V% 
supported by f he duke of Burgundy and the conatablo De BicbadA 
was Boon able to make head against it. 
i^ In 1440 the duke of Orleans was released ftom his loof 0ift>'4 

Honry VT. In 1444 a truoe tor twotJty-tvo 
mdudcd, iiad in the hope of ufiectlng the mucb- 
peoce hy a uiLLiriage. it was ogre^ that Mar^crilv, iha 
od bwmnful dnngbJ^r of Rpd^ nf Anjoii^ and iiiece of the 
■ FrftTioe, should bwome the hrid« of Ueory VJ. of England, 
iria^ woB BolviDnided ut Nancy, efirly m Jdl-i^ but the 
la brokejit find war reoewetl and carried en to tlie diaod- 
cf the BoglJr^b t'dl t1tfr jgh 14bO. Then, whea ihe bmvB 
barl of ShrBWHl>iJryf who, uL thf! itge uf i?ightj, tomniJindt^rl 
lisb forcpfi, VDSf Ufith faid bod, mortally wounded in a battJe 
loDf tho loBt hope of r^'Uining the Fri^Qc^h pofsscasinca on tha 
t WOA over. BitEtrlmd bL-en the warfare Tor 120 years; now 
pg aavti ChJula atid Guinea naa loat. It oiueC have b&iu a 
I foi" English pride, but looting beck afrer the ejrperience of 
to 400 yean, there ia probably do oct who would, in the 
ioy, hc»it*t« loown tlimt the rofltoratioii 4jf the provinces ooce 
r coveted winlld be EOt only an injustice to Fraace, but a 
DTK to Eoj^londf futailiog or h must an iaescijiguialuible 
)etwe^D (he two nationB. 

; aame year, H&a, wah marked by nuother event of the 
Importance to Europe, tho tuking of Uoaaumtmople by the 

Latin Empire, vhlch had becin eatabiished by Brtldwin de 
p in 1904^ lasti-'d nl>out fifty yeare, Tt was then uprooted, 
Greek princee vtrre reinGtated- Tha lluCem Kmpire woa. 
, faet fiklliag to df^cay* tuid ite aorereijCtTis pnnTcd wholly tmablo 
Iftud the conatBJLt attocka of tlie TarkH, who w^re advaiiciDg 
I enst intc EuroptL Ay di^j^^es the empire lost almoat 




Frnnre teing frv*:d from the Englinli rulo» it might hare beeo 
hoped that Llie aid aiiJ stormy life of Cluirli^B VIL w-ruld have been 
mATbtci by pcacie ai its ckiw, bat eo i[ wai^ not destined tj> be i for 
thfl conduct of the Dfiupbia, Louid, brought the king greater 
thui te couJd have espurienced oren in ibe deapcmto atnjgg, 
the civil wuTA. 

Singiiljtrly prt[!ocioiiB, tavirgaRVer, it wDuId Heian, kcown chilJ- 
hood or youth, the reRtlesa» kMn-«igli t^d , selfish Dauphin had ftca 
the Dgc c^f fouTt^on placed himeelf in appaaiCion to bU iatber^ J-i 
dstaen he wauld fnin bai'i? jnmod vjth riin^c who dcuin-d to doLhrood 
Charlefl; and though lie w;i9 forgiven und had considerable acattered 
doumins adaigned Ijjid, bia unibldoua apiritwos still di^JcttisQed. H« 
dwired tbfl powfssion of 8omp fargc prnTtnoe, nuch an Normandy. Gai- 
eane, ot Langnedoc WjfJi either of thehC noder bfi aulhorityb* 
would hnve Jbiind no diE£ciilty in saizing more. He luigbt, pcrhftp^ 
hftve succeeded, but for tLc influence of Agnen Sorel and Pierre d« 
Brc^f^, tbs king's uiuibter. Supported by them, Charles rGfUaed lui 
d&mfinds, nnd Louia then retired to his own territory of Dauphigny, 
ivhere he kivpt np a kindof conrr, Er«E|U4>DtM by his faLhcr^s enGiailiL 
Hiw young wifo, MaTgoret^ daughter of Jamea I. of Scotland, h«art- 
brolttin from his ill'treatmeut, died of an illness which ndi^bt hate 
been cured, but the remedied for which she rejected, aayin^, * Fjb 
upon life! ^p-iakofitno n^or*.' Lou is then mnrr led n prince* rf 
Savo7, io direct oppoaiticn to (he Atisihea of Charles, and maintaiiLeJ 
ft grent shov of intimacy with the duko of Burgiuidj, the avonei 
rivul of theFreach monarchy und at length he leii Frrtace allogetLff 
luid lock lip hid reaideiif^e ut Bruru^tk. 

Th*" court of Burgundy was at tins time the cenirp of the chi- 
valry and luxury of ChriHtcndom, The ioBtitntJon of the Oiii«- d 
the Golden Fleece nttrnctcd the bravest knights To PhtUp*s <Mtp, 
and the rowt beautiful -woTuen to Km court ; and his fC-CtBi were w 
K scale of esiravsgarit, ihough uncouth, magnificence which in ihf 
present day spppfira almost fabiiloiii. lint thpse hrilliftnt sei^ne^hld 
a aeriouB nide : the great nobles of Chrla^endom vhsited the dnkf ^ 
BiJtfifUiidy'fl court for pZeaaute, but they remained for buainov, 
who hiid \iay private enmity a;7aiii«t the king of France Ikfid 
repair to BruiiaelH It Had encoutageiueuL in their rebtlljou.i Ion 
and ftt the hcfld of thp discontpnipd ncihlps wns the Dauphin, 

When CbarleB hem^ o! his fhght und hi^ reception a\ tba 
of Burgundy, he rLjmnrked, * The duke is hurbouring a fox yfhp 
eat up hia pcnllry ;^ hut Philip hi inaelf apparently bad nu Auch 
He 4ud bin duchpja Ireated tbi? Dauphin nlmoHt aa if he Wfin 
whilst LouiH, on the other hand, exhibited himself in the cha 
of the raoEl forSonij Ibrenken, pitiable prince in the worldr 
brought team into the eyes of hi^ Iktenere u he spoke oC (he 
eutlonu he had t-ndiuvd. 




Tic duke oHered to ptit oveiybiiicj- at hia dUpoEo] — Uimseli^ Itb 
fabj«cta, kis ireafliire. onlj' lie wiut not prepan^d to fumiah iba 
Dnuphin vricli an sniiv Avhk'h would m^blL- him io recurn itt B^nncn 
And make hi« faLtor pnaoDCT' AiFain were Dot osy^t in o-^aditioa 
Ibr Biuh b fltcp. Ho wud himBolr old, hici <loiaiiii(JiiB were not ^uito 
Mcure, Tbe duchy cf Burgundy woa mndo up c£ tuo uiJiTij ptLtta 
to be o^ly governnL TJju Burgunduma wcm Firnch by origin, 
«nd ipokf Frcncli, but in other pnn-s of the dulre^s territory there 
HHvre It }«ut twenty or tliirty iilfervrLt iiiJef^ta^a c^irctunfitiuLce vhioh 
in itwlf inrolT^ perpetiyd riok of cuEuiidiTrttaodm^ ntid fcude. 
Tlk« great comnicrcial t:^tie^ uf GLvnt »nd Bruges, morcoTtr, were 
alvsja <JD the verge uf iikauiT^ijUuQ, wluJst in other ]jar\A variety in 
gorennnflot bnaigbt eonflii^ilng EaterentB ia dnily life. Lii^e whs 
«Bbj«cl ic Ita buhop. Nflinur vna cntJr^ly feudiil in ita nUs, the 
«Sun cf Luxembourg wcrft nibcod up wiUi those of the Gcraoui 
and becvecQ Luxembourg and Brab«Db there wu a biqaII 
jrj ifbow sympiiUiiua wert: eatiivlj FivdcL, 
The Dauphin, rentdiiig iit llie lanirt of Pliilip jia a TiigitiTp, nan 
pT^ctitflj ED the poairioTL wliii^h could baat onable him to G«< Uic 
weak potuU iu its ajjforoiit ^catncdA. Ho couJd obeeric nnd thiid(. 
H# wailed patiently i^t Geauppc* neAr BruaMlOr living with diffii^ulty 
tlic pention jjraated him ty the dule, nnd vhcii he wanted 
tatjaty, pledging hJa vfif&'s dowry and borrawiug from tbv 
Ha wv triendly with eroryoiK^ and his ouly buciaew woo to bg 
llaaMDt ooEDpaaioo, to ku^b and make others lauph, Beiug 
^ m^oiable reader, he seut for \ih Whrury from Dauphigay, 
ind it is probable that hp wa» cne of the fint poMOfton of 
Um tinat«d bcwka whieh bc^n to be circulate ui thm periad* 
B«t nis taile iru very diSereol from that of Philip of Burgundy, 
vbQ ibilight«d in Ibe longi cliivalroiu romances of ihe time. The 
Daapliia liked l&Lea which were fur from pure, and was a ulcttr 
^fwUttr of anecdotM of th<] ranie chanKU^, and by meaiui of wbich 
iftt ootUd throw ridicule upon hh nthGT precibe^ though bruve and 
c«wu the corate dt LT-jardaiB. The BtiSoeod cf thn Buiyuu- 
otnut w&a wearLBOme lo hmi. Hia dty. ishrewd mind foutid no 
la tbe par^, aud cuuld lidntire nothiug and uo one ui the 
aXMpt, p«rha[j^ liie new duke of MtUin, Frani;t6co Moru, 
h^ laiaJr raiaed himwir from being* a l«ider of una of tlie 
baMJ of hired aaJdifiTH catJod ^ condottteri,' wbtch v«ra 
tapjgjvd til file ware of the perioJ, to tJje lordship of one of lh« 
UMi in Itoly^ l^tirecn Sforu and tha Datiptiii thare trm 
ija a clfse undentanJing, but fi>r anyuiie bLTiidea Louis mi^hl 
fncmlehip, but he certninl^ did not f»] it; aad duTing bu 
the odIj two oltjecla which he loeDU to hav« 



bad at heart were to drive his father to deepftir and to undarmiiu 
the power of the prince who whb aheltflrmg him. 

The fint object vaa qoiddy accompHohed. The eoaTictdon ti 
hia Bon^a baieneea crushed Charlee to the dust. Tormented bj die 
idea that the Dauphin was conHpiiing agunat hia life, he aaak into • 
Btate of imbecility, which was almoat ineaoity. At length bo ab«^ 
Intely refus^ to take any DouHflhment, and^ after a total abstiDence 

k.j>. of sevea davflf hedied on the 22nd of Joiy, 1461, at the age of 

^*«^ fifty-eight. 



i.D. 1461-1498. 

The noblee of France wept at the fuQeraJ of CharlsB VIL, and not with- 
oiit cause, Hia timeral was in a certain sense their own^ for it 
betokened the extinction of their feudal power. The shout of ' Tita 
le roi r raised over the coffin of the dead monarch found Titda 
response from tbem. Dunois, who had lived through auarchy and 
civil WOT, and could fully appreciate the blessingH of on uudiatuitied 
government, only murmured in a low voice, ' Let eveiyone look oaC 
for himself.^ 

The French nobles took the advice and hasteued to meet their 
new sovereign, who, on the tidinga of his father's death, at onca 
prepared to leave Flanders. The dute of Burgundy made a great 
show of bis protection. 'I intend,' he naid, * to take the kingV> 
Kbeims for his coronatioc with 100,000 men in my train.' Zh* 
speech was reported to liouis, who enquired drily of the dra de 
Croye, the duke'a confidant, *Why does my &ir uncle wish to 
take with him so large a force? Am I not king? What u bo 
afraid of7 ' And the duke was persuaded to dismisa the larger por- 
tion of hia followers. 

The journey was not one of mere pomp. Louis XI., fcaB 
the first moment of hia accession, showed himaelf resolved to (shibit 
his independent authority. Concessions were granted to the (owii% 
chfljiges roade in the local governments without consultation tf 
advice from any person. Up to this period be had lived without 
trust in any human being, and without trust he was prepared to 
reigD. Hjs chief source of anxiety arose from the Burgundian Doblc^ 
They had been hia intimate comjianions ; he had talked with <ja», 
fetlowed the cho^ with another, and been entertained by all ge&B~ 
rously. Now they would expect rewarda, which Louia waa by no 
means prepared to give. But he kept hia own counsel, and the only 


didtuxViAJic^ on t]i« jourac^ arofC ftoci tLc muItitLidc of couipUiaeTi- 
larj addrtaaea which everywiiere greeU*d him. But they were cut 
ahnrt; mme of hia li^e ftabje<;Tfl were told not to Approach ; upon 
others he turned hiA book : And those who hiid prepared a Jammed 
hanrngue van directed to ho hriof Tho hiebop of Lulqux lartdo 
ft loD^ fipeech upon the neceaaity of lusemng the U^rcVi and the 
crafty Loui^ hi^^ed tbe pret^ite tc put Kin speetdi into wnliJii^, iJiat 
be might be able to refrGnh his ni^mor^ with it when he had ItUnre, 

ile wae atlLl lUQan in hU outdare] appearaocc, and tha coronatioa 
4t fihcimB was the triuoipb oftbo duke of Bunt;undj mtber than of 
the kin^ of Fmnct!. Tho duke, on hia Bplondid borHe» In the midot 
of hia arch^ra and pagea* looked like an emperor. The king, aliEib- 
bilj dreawd, went hefore him its ifmerplj lo unroanfie hia roming. 
It would have seemed indeed ds if th^ whole object of the ceremonml 
yna lo coTiCzast the power oJ~ the two BciTvrci^nB, As the procesmon 
entered Rheims, all ejea were attracted by tlie BuTBundian kniehla— 
TDGvi and horsea alike covered vfith Telvet. gold^ and precioua awnea. 
I The batia^r of the duke ^OGi^d over 14(t init^ilio^ni charioM, b«nr- 
1 ing gold and ailvcr pbte, money to be thmwD lo tho people, and 
even choice winta for the ftaat; wbilet behind were tne nniowUa 
defltined for the cr^ronatioa banquet — the small aheep of Ardcouea 
and iha fst bulii>ck^ of Flaodtra, 

Tlie kJng, on the otbpr linnd, appwir^ aa a nDau belongjog to 
■nother world, humbje, peoiteat^ and rigidty devout- AftJ?r mid- 
nigbt on the eve of the coronation he hoard matios and commimi- 
catied' In the DLorucn;^ ht: waa tnrly ia the choir of the church — 
■wiiiung ibe arrival of the procon^ion with the sacmd anointing oiL 
Aa it drew near, he hiiBl«ned forward and threw him^lf on hii 
knees, and whi-n tlio bishop of f^non would have raised him. bo still 
contmued kneeling. The same show of humility ccntiuued during 
the day. 

The ceremony of anointing being pHrformml, tho king ascended 
hia tlnone, and the duke of Burgundy, as first p*wr of tha realm, 
roao, held up the crown that ail might pse it, and theUr aE^r a hmg 
pause, gently rested it upon the king'a bead, and exclaimed, ' Vive 
le roi. Muuljole St. Deiuii I ^ ami a renponsiya nhoiit ruao from the 
luiem bled crowd. At the baciijtiut ihti king appcianid WL-arJny hid 
cr^wn, but it was too large ; hi?qni«t[y took it off^and Inid 11 by hts 
nde, whilst, leaving theprinea^ niraost without notii**, he talked freely 
with pne of hia att*indiuit3, Philippe Pol, a ahrewd, cltrver man who 
stood behind hUUiair. lie wa^ohTigtdt huvfevoi, at It^ugth togiveLia 
attention eb^ewhere, fiirugreat noiau wui4 heurdT ^^^*^ tiiere entered the 
bacQUi^E ball utiody oFmferi heating ornflmi^DEa and cupaofgold^ which 
were thopreseata tnadc to thetiagl>7thodnkeofBiirgujidy in honour 
oJ' t^e joyous oacasion. Philip was indeed full o£ courtesy on thifl 


Lou .M XI. 

day, ]{q liave fell himiifir ikc real master fif tlie kingdom^ onl 
il wDulJ inuttcr lidlf! to liim tQ pay outnurd liouiu^e Uf liis lioce 
lord. Even in ParL% wIirfc hu hud cicir; imtdu hla ^LjipKAt^ncti Tur 
Dine-and'tw^nty jeora^ the ciEizeJia id tlie eld qtinrter of the <dl^ 
where bis poiaco stood had ntjver fbrgott4^ hitn, oiid on bis entnuoe 
he bud beeii thua accoalcd by a bulcher, * Oh, Ircc- hearted, jiMv 
duke of Buxgiiady. netconie to th« city of Porift ! Long ia It UDce 
you wtre here, nn^J miinh has your pTeeence been deeired/ And 
DOW the duke underwok to do jUAttce luid to cotir«T Ikvours, and 
monka, bc^ora, ludiee who had lost their lortiiiieB, olcrgy ivhoae 
churches wer« out of repair, all Hi^^ked to hmi vtih petitji^nb, At 
the g^toB of his paluce, the Ilottl d'ArtoLa. 1U iDcrtu^iB his popularity. 
an opt^u tflbJH was kepl^ and tliroG knights were aEwayi^ in attendalicf! 
to exhibit tho innioiia Gideon tapeetrv snd the gorgeous vdvet 
fumiturc. But netill moro opoa djq^lay waa nooded by tbo doke, 
and it 'vma propoecd lo liold a toumamcDt, fit whi<:Ii there wafl no 
doubt he would win aJL heerL'4. Ou the luoraiijg appointed, bis ova 
faorrtes not bojng tf^ndy at [be prK^ihe time, he mounts ths h^i^kney 
of hiH Siiec*-, tlitf ducbes of Orli^juis, and t^^kinp; her h«hmd hiiQ, aud 
flachig one of her jounf cttunduotfii t, bcfiiiurii] ft'itl of fifteen. \x- 
fure hiia, lie trolled through the sUeeis to the lista, wliilnt all the 
peopli; crttNl, ' Look at tlm kind prince, a (jrinoe whom jiDyuDC 
might wish to H^rve I Happy ur^^ tl^cji^ whom he Iov^h ! Ah, he 
tB cot liko our king, who weara ao old grey ooat and a roeary, ind 
iiatca nothinf^ but joy.' 

But lliey were wrong, fur the king in the grey coal hnd hla own 
special Wlil^ plewjuri; on thnt day ; and wben tbe comte de CharoUia 
and Adofphtu of Clev^ s.nJ nil ihi> gr&i.i Flemish noblec fa«d 
jouated nobly, thei^ came forward a rough man-at-arms, dressed in 
goat-ekin, bat well mouuteJt >vhOf being paid especially by Looltt 
ruflltnl Lut« the IieLh ajid oveftlLrfiw the whale aet of uubli^^ lo the 
\n\CTiite Rjirififnction of the king, who was looking at them from be- 
Iliad n curtain. 

lio would not publicly appi^ikr, though the tournament yns held 
at the tery ^ica of hi:* reaidi^nce, the IJOtel dea Touruelles. A vial, 
droiiry, bdf-funiialjed dwi^lliug it was, \hilv (itttd for ll^tei. And 
the king's whim was to Mvq there aa if in camp, with tho few fler- 
vcinl^ }lo hod brought Irom FlBudaid In the ^rsy c&p^ and mMitU^ 
daBhcB which ho ooohnntd to wmr aa he had done when an exO«d 
prince* he looked a.i if always prcpiiring foi a journey, and anyuot 
who hiLil wen him aa he Kit in Jiis gloomy palncp, i^cbemirjg und 
planning, might havo taken him for a Hjiirit condemned unwiing^ 
t^ hiiunt the home of his anci^ators. 

Only in the evening he went out, with a man naititft! Biacb^ 
who Imd formerly bstiu Ufieful to him eu a tpy ovor hia fadier, 
who aloue had admittance to him at bH bour^ 


BisiThe WEB especinlly nMeasaiy now; Louis wqb plaaning to 
in Ir^-m Phifip of Burgundy ibe fortrpsses oq the 8onime, hj 
aich tlifl Jukn coutd ovutawc FraDte. and by mnltiag frieuJi* villi 
D EoglisJi in Cnlftis, admit m ror<?ij!:n ^niHmy into ihp conniry ; and 
wbe was nTways kept nenr tlie comta de Cbflrolais to inducQ }iim 

ent^r into the Bcheme, and pfrsuude ihe old duke to meet ihe 
ahe* of [he French kinfT' Louin wan biraself app,ireiitlif devoted 

Ihe coinl4.i. whom be caresHed, afl tlie deoT&<t oC lilx fcJendH. He 
■ove also lo win o^er to hia side the wre de Croye, the duke of Btir- 
indy's fiivQTiriio minwrpr, ofTering him peosionB, landa^ olScea, nuy 
dererytbing which mi|;^bt lompt him to dcBcrt hiamnstcr^B iabm-cAts 
r those of Pranco, The duke, after a ume, look his li'avu o£ 
irio, but be departed far from oatiafi^d, Loitia alWr all hud only 
xilc«d bim. HeWl b&9tow<>d upon him thankn und honour^ but 
tbinc else. PtmiiTwion had been given him to name twenty-font 
uaaoilon for the- parliament, but not cmo 1:00k his eoat. A frco 
iSg of mercLaodiae h^d been granted to BurgundT^ but lUe parZuL- 
iM refiiaed to rt^inLer the edict. When the daku wns out of 
iris ihegiTvemor of the Ba^iiille hurried after him, and offered him 
, tbo king's pun Iha keys of the fortreaa ; but it vraa r. Ultlt roo 
*ibr rach a mark of coolideucc The magnificent duke hat^^ in 
jX, gamed noiLing from hii visit to Rheima nnd Faria hut external 

And new, being left freo, Lotria proceed to Onrry nut hi^ 
refally- meditated plan for concflnimting all authority in the 
nda of the sovsreign. He bcgrm by dtpriving tho noblea of a 
iffiloge granted by Charlea VJL of giving away Tacaiil benefires. 
« enactniectf called the Pragmatic Sanctdon, vns coiieidertd the 
sat MJ^^iard of the French, nr Gflllli^an Church, aa it prevpnted the 
Fpoa from bestowing the vaoant of&ceh on th«ir own lri<^Jida. fiut 
^uia professed to bo extremely prandfl.LJB^ at it. Ilo oren doubted 
lethar bis lather'fl Bulviiitou uould he aecure whilal h romaiuixi un- 
xaleir He iu&ifittHl that a puticilical abeolution abotjid he pro- 
imced over Churl^a itt St. Denii before he could nilTtiit hiin»ielf 
be tfittfified ; and when, at hi^ rvqueat, the Pope dettpatched a butt 
Dliabicg the Pragmatic Santlion, Louis aoized it, read it dovnutly, 
iQir^. kiB^ it, and declared that it ahould be kept For ever in a 
klen l)OX'. It was deerring of fiui:b nppri^eiation no doubt, for from 
snceforth Loniii intended to t;ike eccEeaosTical olIieeB into liis own 
ada, and hy bettowing them on bra mipportera to pay them for tmy 
Ticra he might require. 

Having tbtiA Btrtnglticned bta autbonty at boine« Louia turned 
I aiteniion to aJTaira ahrujid. The &|>hj]i^h kiiii^dom of Araguit 
B fit tlial tirae threatened with civil war. Its sovereign, John 11., 
i robbad Lia eldest ton Oirloa, prince of Viioa, of thu iubentance 

of Nuvarrt-, wlilcli had d^aceDd^d Id lijni from his motLcr. Joliir 
subji'Cts — pspfciidJy ihe CntalaiiH— espoused the caiwe of Cnrlo^ 
vhoBc tjUenU ntid Tirtuoa b^id greatly endenred him lo th^m. The^ 
roM in iimurrcntioiLf rLod wWti the pniico was tuken ptisonor and 
di^, not witliout fiUflpicLon cpf poi-wiit tljty applied to Louis fbr 
BLipportf dccLiriug that Dod CarLoe ou his dvulh-b^ L&d begged 
him to undertake bh^r lieftLiice. Louj^ could not rFl^i^fi ^lurh a pioiu 
l&gucj, but before lie ventai-ed to eugkge openly aguDst the kiug of 
Amguti, it WJW needful to guard aRainsl any inttrlbronco from Li* 
great ffiuJal borooa. Tke jmreet mode of preventiD^ tlii^ Kaa to 
sxcitu dilutes all mn^ at tliem. The duke of BritUmy waa madi? hli 
1ieuli?njuit for eight niGntlis in the proviacfin bplvreen the S^inp and 
the Loire» or in other words^ iix Oie half of >'ormandy. But the 

comtc do CborolBid had a aluim upon Normnndj^ for Louia bod. 
preteuded to givt the wliole of tlie provirice to him. Of 


tlteTefore^ tht; dukta of Burg:uudy aud EriLUiny were ready 
quarrel, nnd Louia hud do cuu^e to fear their tmicing nguinst lam. 
In tho fiame way he awok*! eomily bfitwcc>n Iho hoUBoa of Bourbon 
nad Aujou, taking Guienou from tJie duke of fiourboa and ^viag 
it, with Lunguedcc, to tha brother of Kene cf Anjiiu. The power 
wuB only nominal, for the king had ijiktn aan to pla™ his cum 
frienda in poaitioDB of trust in the provioceb; but the arrangenmit 
Berved its piirpuae. The two dukee had enouj^b to do in settlinp 
their own allaira without troubling themaelvea about hia ; and vhco 
ftil ihis was done, Louif* waa ablt to prepa^i! for the buiineaa he wot 
undertAking in the south bjfioleninly-^religiouQlyarccrding to bii no- 
tions of rehgion — making ofloringe to eainta and churchea. eapecUlly 
tmdcrtabing a pil^^nmoge to Brittany, ThcsBc Breton pilgHmagos had S 
ainjjulur uttractiou for him oa well aa for hia aubjecio. The atadoni 
situjited fur the mo^T pTLTt on the hurdera of Fraute, ^ave liim »□ op- 
ponunjty of wandering abont nrd spying out everything which vu 
going OD. On thiR oecjiaon tbs king expressed bimfiolf peftieulafiy 
curious to Tiiut the ahrine of hifi patron Su Saviovirof KedoQ,wbo he 
declared had protected him in hia adversity, lie Bet out alonej dc^ 
Airing not to be trouble^l in hia devotiona, and by the sound of A 
trumpet it waa procljtiTned that no one whh to follow him on pfl.ia of 
deuth. H& cho^ lo travel aa a poor man, fci such ho bud b«CD id 
tlko^o bygono da^e, und ^cith only live nttend&ntBk like himwlf 
poorly i;kd. He Imd a gn^ird, indeed* but i'at beliiud. and cannon 
and cuhfina imdt^r the cojuoiund of a ^:;ooiI nffieer; but the prvpi' 
rations for wir movwi on peai?f?ab!y^ noi^elesflly, giving no cau« fct 
alarm. From licdon Louie went lo Kantcs, and the iriphteced duke 
of Brittany thought he inien<icd to carry oW from ttat pla<« th« 
ncH dowager ducUeu of Britinny and m^rry her ; bul ho paoeed on 

CtsiCT or B(iD5aJLi.aif awo cerdaqne — tcwns oir the sohhe. 299 

to RocbeJJo, Toon, Bayance, alwaye aa be vent ninoing ihe regard 

of ihe ciCueoDS by confirminp old privili^ea, granting new om^ and 

bciJig ooaKid^red the c^^^'^^'i^^^ fritDd of everyone nf inlbi'Lor 

J e glU B. Aa ihta Icio^ <jf FrancfL drtw neont !◦ Spain, lije king cif 

Amgon roolr a new vifw of hi? pcintrDn. Lmiij* hjut nevar openly 

i;irB4i hia mippoit to lh& robt-Uroc ; he v/^s not bound to these 

I f^Tritin*. and he might e^en turn to the other adc if aiillicii^aE in- 

I dnccmeot verc oOertd. WhiUt atJJ on tbe rojtd to the KJnth a 

^ mpitiAdoii had been opeiwd by hioi niib the kiu|^ of Atu^od'h son- 

J ID-law, the oofnte de Fobc, and if the border pravincen of Kous^ilton 

' aod Cvrdagno wore pledged to him. ^itli thur revenuM aa u^uritTt 

I ii ma Dcarij ceFUiin that be would fpve up the Calalaiia and aid 

John of AtagOD with a bo<h~ of Frencli lanced. 

The king uf Ariigun het^itJiLi^ to rnnlie tbU ccsbIou, but be was 
tt few periloUA a poHiLicin finally to rfluw bi» coa»i?Dl : and Loais 
H4iioid bii Dtepo, ncit hnvinp- fought a Bingi« battle, i;el enHobvd by 
a ptawnt bold tiptm two iiupoitont provinf^ts, and with tbe j^o^ipeot 
M p«rvi0acDiL J making tbeui bia own. Thii was in the Bcci'Oi] 
£ JW «f bin rdga. Jl€2. And now he propojied tu cnrry uul that 
felt wiA of hia heart, tli« pnup^Jion of the tovna i>n the Somme, 

rtiil^p cJ Buj-^uiiily wfu by thia time ill u well as oJd, m^nog 
much frotD gcut and a^hmz^ but much n^ore from bis tyranta — Louia 
ILl* tnd iba comte de CharohkiB. The comic, who hod a prond^ 
vtoleac temper, waa coDHtsudy quarrelling with tbe Frtncb lii:ig 
qpv qocMifina of jiiri>idJot]nn conoected with the border townit; 
md IMOT disturbance* made (be duke miivnibla. Hii Mibjeci^ were 
Mtfoaly JciaBci, for eyery freab lilntwa nuide them trembLe Ibr h;fl 
\i0k, and with hini wauldi they well knew, depart all that haJ6ccured 
•a t}ina a peaoeable exiaience. 

Tba Croje &milj- were especially anKioD^. The ootnte de 
f**— ^^ deie««d th«m, and Oiey knew it. In their feiir and 
mliim tb«7 b«^an to eellvct artmL, aud take poeuefieion of foniHc4 
bImb; and Louia, who kntw everything that waa going on in 
Whaitn, by hia Kcret JiidchiQaiioQe urged tbem forward- Then, 
vW« ikav bad gone n far thai tbetr jhMitioii became periliiuSr he 
ataAavd tdni«elf wiUing to iii|>|iort thorn if only they would hilccokI 
m ttMaihing from the dake oi Btxrgundj the cuaod of tbe towns on 

lli« uie da Cr^i>e had no iilt<.'matiT«. To k»e ibe favoiu of 
Low waa tt> bWflmt> tlie victim of the enmity of the oonile da 
QVRilaM. H« eadeAVoiired to persuade the old duke that it vnu 
Av bia intern* to ^ve up what Loui« de^irad to have. Phihp eculd 
toot be made to beliovu, bat hv c«uld be pereuaded to act; and, 
^mq/a^^A mt Irugtii by wearinaao of ibe mbject, he ngued li>e 
^nMBMoC T>i with one hope of «Acajie : Louia wai tu i^ive 4lX),i>0C> 



irtMW JCI. 

crowa« ii>4 die pnoe of t'ht cttios; and how vns aa hrgB a sum to 
obtained 7 

But be did not undcr^taiiil the man wilh vrliom he Kad t4>Jea[< 
B)' borrowing, (^ptnuiling^ btgging, jtnd plundering, Louis raited 
the motiGj, nnJ, lo the grear. diaappDiiitiin?nt o( Phtlip nf Ritrgnndj, 
it wag ready on tho nppoinled day; and Iho dtike n^ he reccivftd it 
tumud roprcQchiuLly to hie tavourito and eaid, * Oroy^j Crtiye, do man 
can p*r¥e two iiiflaltra/ 

Luui4 woH iiovr b^mnJDg to ftel htmaelf really pnwi;rliU. He 
ruled BnTpindy by the rire de Croye, be wua the indcniite ally of 
Sforra m I'JiJy, he waa can^'ing on cruiEing nejrotiatioaB witli Ibe 
8wiaBt aad ia Eaglaad he v/hb tbe ackncwJc<tgcd friend of tbij dU- 
poweriul carl of Warwick, ^vbo, in thi: civil war between tliC hcm«» 
cf York aad LoauiLfter, uiadcaiid uamaile kiagb at bia plizasuf^. At 
home he govi^rnpd by sowing d liietiHion, wliiltit at the aaniG limo be 
gathered around him the Aoaa of th« great notlra, prurosaiug to edu- 
cjlEv and treat tbom a^ hie diildr«n. The heir of the houH af 
Aibrct, iho GbLldren Qi the cauat of ALrn^ant ihs young couat cf 
FoL\, \\'hoin ba lizid mude bin brnthfr-ia-law, uud iLe little dute tif 
Orl^^uifi, nhr»m ha int»ndi?d Bbriu[d one day he biii xon-in-lnir, w«rt 
u!l brought up at hiR court, Xt-Tor bad any king eo maay obildren 
round bim. It uKCn^d aa if, like the kind ihtbor of a Liiailj, he 
could ni^t da without them. And it woa true he cruki not, for tbqj 
wen: bosCn^^ for tb? good conduct of tbcir relatloas, Univerdd 
diATni?£ woA in faet the guiding principle of the kJng^a aotioiis ; ih* 
only personri in whom he plucod any conSdenee w^rc new mon— man 
whom he bvl himeclf raiaad, and boitiq whom he had liral ruiiiMl 
and tbeii r«-tsLjibIished, lie tesjjected nooe except diua? who wfln 
slroDg tnaiigh tii do bltn injury. But Ijoiii^ ha<l oae tnt-my wboa 
he did not even eadeatoiu' to tnnke hi^ friend — the comta de Du- 
rolaifl, UricvouRly aagored by the conduct of Louia, and pflpedillj 
by the ccB^on of the fowna on the SommGf tbe oi:>mtQ looked npoai 
Louia as hi» deadly riyai, and their mutual ill-will ahawed itwlf in 
perpetual puivocations and retaliations destined lo piwluce IIaI 
reaultn, mnrt' especially to Burgundy, By hiH own subjecte Loui( 
vae nnivoroally dreaded and hatod, Hia Mcrot and appareritly iov- 
eiaiible power was cru^ag every class in tbo kingdom. Old <s»- 
touia were overthfown, old privilegea dlaregardtd ; the clergy w«re 
Tobbpd of th^ir revcDues, the citi^^ira nnd merobiintH kbund char 
traiBo interfered with. Yet no oae dared rebel, for the king'i flf>ie* 
wero ubiquitotid, and hia rapid, roBtloeSf Boarching oven EUM^oied Co 
diacDrer wh[it ynt* pnaaing ia tlio world, in the kiagdom, in eaeb 
mau'fl brt^asL. Tbe crowning act of tynany in the sight of ^ 
nobles w&4 tluit or forbiitdiDg them Ic purnue the junuMmeni df ibe 
chaae. Even at bis acceeaion Louia had Bhomi hifl lateniioufl 




tLla point. The dre do Montmorcncj hariajr on one occaiiLOD tbe 
Uonoui of reviving tliB Ling iitltiFv caatEti, ELrnoiged ii Iiud ling expe- 
dition ioi hlaif and with tEmt tiek collected togBlht^r al] kirdfl of 
implomPintB for the c}ia?¥_ When Louis arriired he ordered them tO 
be coJlocled logi?lh4't infi li-.up and burnt, Tbis van but oriQ apcd- 
m«n of a delibtrat^ determination &t length carried into effect. But 
lo forbid thi: chase was to Ujq uoblen an uiipardcubMe injury. It 
dr^tve them xa denptinirion, and in clieir dMptraiion t1>e^ pondered 
not only npoti their own grievflncfv, but upon thoAe of the nation; 
jj-tL aud [JiQ r-jfiiilt in tha year 14^5 woh a league whiuh wa« to ehftka 
the power of ibc hated Louia to its ceiilre. 

At ihe hedd of this lejgue, kuowit at* the League of the Public 
Good, v^ the comre tie ChnTolalSj who etiLertd Lnio a strict 
aiiwicfl witli the duke of Brinnnj, the two princea being aoon 
joiiMd bj ibe duki:^ crf Bourbon^ l^ormJDC, ^VJei^^vrn, and NeDionra. 
The duJce of Briitauy had long been at open enmitj with Luui&, for 
he wftfl in fact an indep.ndpni Mivereign, nniy bound to France by 
the feudal tie of hoTTifij^, and tho king~3 ^icSenvonr to inrerlere in 
atreral inalancdfl in the aftaira of the duchy wa regarded tts a dire 

The resourcn uf Luuin were wedk. Ha could rct:kt<u indeed 
upon aid from Franci;&co Sforaa, who offered to send him a body of 
aoQpa unider the comm>.nd of hi^ sou Galeazx'>; but of t^ie twenty- 
ibVT provjncsa int« which Franco was dividedT only fourte^ roolly 
bdfniffed to tha kinj;, and tbeae c<>uld not be depended Qpon. 

The £rbt aovd. in euuh a cnsii wad to know everytliiag and to 
know it i^niclcly, nnd Louiii Ana no noonet aware of the combinution 
of the nobles than be e&tnhliahed poi^ at every font len^noB. with 
rcbyfi of horwa, vhicb, on puin of dfaCh, wtrc bo be used only for 
the kingU service j and then, aflcr entieaTouriDg to juAtlfy hiA acts 
by xnakjng ejcphkoaiioDB t<j the ci ilea aud pnjvlnceji which tliuught 
th«y hud cAiisca of contplaiQt ^tgamnt him, he eonvcJred an aaaembly 
of ^c princoB, and, in a speech vhich he intended «hotild be touch- 
ing, spoke to them orhiHOxLedf mii^erabk^ Lifef>crarv h'\i acccasionaDd 
the bunieu of goremnient which new rented upon hinj ; remiuded 
th«m O'f the inrrtBse of the Frenth territory by the addition of 
RotiGBilloci and Cerdngne and the Mwnn on tiie Somme, and called 
apoci them to bear witness Eo the incenant labour by which he 
niuntained jic^ce in hia dominions 

Tlie priiioeE applnudcJ. ' Nu floverBignt' they said, ' bad ever 
nokert mare honestfy and U|jeTily.* Sumc were evun affected to ienn. 
Did Keo<^,of AnJoUfAlo^d up and declared that th^y were one ard all 
drroted to the king, and he ^poke for himaeLl in all anoerity ; but 
tlkc tevt ef the ptincca, notwibhatanding tbcLr teoro, had in their 




pOBSC^on the trcnty which bound thonn to tlic ccmte dc CbAToWaT 
ami thej wert fiillj' dctt'numad tg citrrj it oul. 

Ttie duke oi Britmny now Mpnt to the king nn pmbaBsy headed by 
hifl special fevonrite. Laiiie carewatd th(> favourite^ nnd th^tiffht he 
had ;2;aiai:d him lo his sidfi ; hue wkon ho departed he ibuod ihat the 
&mbuieador had carried aivay ^th him the duke of Berri, the kiug^a 
brother, a youth of eighteen ; and ancm afti^rwarda there app.*aitd h 
mfttiifeitfl from the yniiTig prince, Btalinf that his brikther governed « 
badly t}mt the kingdom would be lost if ha (the duke t>f B^rri) did 
not take mouHUrOB to sutq it. 

The t>pej] declnraiiori of war won Follciwed, and the poniion of 
Hffaii:fl wuf CGrtainly awkward for tbi^ king. His chief hope of tuc- 
c&ss ]jiy in raptdJcy. If hf cotild atiaclc hia enemies si^pnrntely before 
they conld unite^ he might hope to oTerpowor ihem. HIb prepan- 
ticnfl were admirable. Hie army wna emnlJ, not above tweho of 
thirteen hundred, tut everyone tnew his place and his duty; aad 
ihfi armngfrmeFita were snr^h that lahourerA, fthnplteep^ra, and clexvy 
pnrsu^ their ununl nvroationn ».« tHKiIy ee in a time of pwice, Hii 
danger was treachery ; aonie of hia aobleB ^till profesaed to adh^e to 
liini, hut they niJEhT; ar. any momen! formke him. 

The caatte da Charolaia advanced into France with a hirpe nnttj', 
everywVre proclaiming thftt he wna coming for the gcod of the 
kmgdoTiir and aft tbo lieutiinant t>f the duke ot Bern. Paria woa 
biH deetination^ but Louiii wm bsnC upon takm;; poaeeseioti o£ ihs 
capiuil before be could reacb it. Following out the plan dfoepunli 
fitlackfl, be liad already defeated the fon^ee nf Mjuie of tfie otber 
prinepA in the provinces ; but rtftl vicioty would dpppnd upon Ai 
overthrow of the Bui^^nndiane and tlie ndh^ifiioTi of Ptiria to hi« cuufr 
Proudly^ and with an amount of carcIefiB defiance vividly d^ 
Bcrilwd by Philip de Cominea, the French chrouider, wbo via in 
the BuT^uudiiin army at the time, the forces of the vomtf? de Cliin^ 
lain advanced till they rencli»?el the miburhH of St, Dcnie. TbPf 
wiehed to frightca PariH, and by meaaH of their artiUfiTT lb*f 
made a Rreat noLse, hoping to induce the Pandnn!* at once <B 
send them the keya of the ciEy ; but the only result wafi n cobfDi- 
enre at the gate cif St. Denis, vrhzcJi ended in Ibe rongb rojeetifln I7 
the kiog^e marf^hal of thair demand- 
Then th« BurgnndianEi bej^ to think that it was posdbte thef 
had made a miatahc ; they had come far from borne, and }juJ ^own 
their courage by venturiiig aa far aa Paria; novr, sa no one appmd 
with whom 10 fight, it might l>t> as w<^ll lo return. 

The comte de St. Pol. however, who had urged on tha war appa- 
rently in tho hope tliat ho might one day bo conotablo of FruicAi 
persuaded them to hnli in the nci*;bbourliood of Paris, and at Mml- 
I'b^ry thty awaited the Firrival of the king'* army. 

On the LGtb of July Louia with hia fbrcea appeared aarly m ihe 


moiuing. He expoiited BUpporl from his troops in Paris, uiid for 
four hoiuB hi; wtiiu^d uq a Ijillf BlaciimlLg himstilf m uq o\d Lower 
from which he coulJ over^ouk ihe surronnding county. No Teta- 
ibrceraenLa Jippeared. McH*eng^rB were Heat to PnriB, but they only 
broughl b»cJc iho reply thni the city couJd not be leiL 'Ihcy had 
gone through tlje ^treeu crying *jut that the king vr*s ia danger, iind 
ihtr citizens abut thdr docr& Loiigtir delay wa£ impu&?ihk'. The 
kmg fldvunced and nverthrew the comte de St. f oh and the comle d© 
CburoJaia tHaa advuiaf-d, and not only cumpGlIed the king to retreat 
to iha height, but even paased him, and fouud hjiti^ll: at Jengdi half 
>Ieigii0 bayoad MonlJ u^ry, Mith only a very ievi JltUuntis. There 
ho w»»ittaclcedr vroujideJ. nrcl with dimculcj- rts^Ufd hy one of his 
knightfi- The ptuuiioD ofbcrh pnnci-H was f^tiigular The Icitig was 
eUU at Montl'h^ry with oniy hta pujird, and thu t&mba do CharuJnia 
wm in the pluin beyond, and ecjuully without jjreC^i;tii,>a- The two 
vmien had Jtid, uiid h'liiuh ^iia lht;vJc;[or? Tht comie intidd thg 
Aow nfvii^tory, and when hin ecanrj^red trropa re-a<«emb1ed, be took 
pOMeBBjon ol the tii?ld of battle uud, iitcording to ancient titJi^e, 
eauAed a bolJ to bo rung jind prockmaiiL>ii to be nmde that, if uny 
peraoD derorod bj fight with him, he v/aa ready to meet him. The 
king made oo ahow, but he hnaieued wJcIj hi« few folbwem tu Pjuii 
aod wss admitted 04 ft)ver<?ign. Then c&me uxt^us^ firoL^staLJODH, 
from d)o»« who had LeaiUiled to aid him. AU ware receiT^d gra- 
cimAlj ; Louia supped with one of hia faithful fricndSf muny of the 
chief dtizens and ihdr wjved being prtKJLt, atxtl al the Aupper ha 
uanawd tba evenis oF the day — Ijow he liad lieefi the first to aitack, 
and hair h« bud ^AJriE-d th^ v]<:&.iry, Tli^ Parlaians, on their part, 
vera liiU of oongrntuIabonE, tmd, tho batde being over, they wero 
ddigbtod lo guther the apoils. Thirty thouund* aaya an old chro- 
ucler, vrent ovi to colleut what they could Iroui Lhe cheats, truDkot 
tod boxw vbich were lei) in ihe cucnpH. 

It wu M>on knownt however, thuL ibe battle of Montl'h^ry had 
been by no means decLaive. Tho eomte dc ChorolaiB waa Btill outaido 
FariH waiting fi^rliiaalliea. They came elowly, one by one, and with 
them came diaunluu and diKUBfiion, vrhildt ihe ooiute stood apart, 
Sileni and at«rn, &cArce\y fmiiling ev^n when he waa told that tha 
doktt of Bern and Brittany were bo delicMte that they wore Bilk 
ooicnaaei made to imitate iron, 

Bui affkifa could not remain aiationary. The ting, alier collect- 
tag BDil traiabg all the futcoa he coidd gather, lelL Fiui^ for Nor- 
tttaody, and the PariHian» tlieo determined Ut negotiate a peace for 
Uianmelvcs with the prioues. A deputation wod eent to tht» duko of 
Bern, iJic nominal kuder of tlie kui^ue, who waa at the tiia- 
Hau de Beakile. The duke received the niembera sealed. At hia 
«(de iictod the comts de Cl^arolai^^ thmoia, old and gouty, wu oho 

L^miM XL 

present^ and by titn the t«rm9 of oegolintjon ^ere very aouQ da- 
oirii'd- If tbe PariRians tJid nnt oppn tJiPir gates to ibe pHnoea m 
Siimlfl^ (it w&« th«k Fri^j), ch^y mighT expect a geoeral Hssnult da 

Oa Siiturdaj, a.t an eiirlj hour, tli«% wan a ^''i^iil^ meeting &t the 
Ilolel lie ViJIe. The Irighteiied dtlKene t]jo;jglit it ivnuld be viw 
tt> yii-i\i\j but the king's rroops werH at tbnr momeot Jindpr review in 
the pWa da luGr^ve. What wns to b(- di>ue ^dth thorn f TheciQ' 
£Cii» grew thoughduL. Tli^^y B«nt a mcsaago to the princcfl) cAjin^ 
thai they couJd not act vitlioiit the king, to which Duuots replied 
tb^t PariH would be □tlni:k.<'cl itifi TH'\t day. But the morrow cauii\ 
Mud, i[U4t«nd nf the army of thi^ lea^p fighting' their my into P>riA» 
th« king'a troopB tbuglit their vr&y ouL Thty made a sortie uid 
brotif^ht bjtck aixtiy hor^ca. 

On the 2^th uf Aiigust tin- kiui^ himaelf rfi(umi?d with oivn 
tJOops aud provisiotiH. He Lad taken good i:iire fr*im his firirt amTil 
that there shoiJd bo no famine in Paris : bread, wizms, meut^ every- 
thing WDR abmidaut, oven eel pie^ whioh WL>re cncd iibout C54 
streets, U whh the ieaiegorH who were likt-ly to die of hunger. The 
cral^y Louia kuew this, aud trustLnJ U> limine aud dlmioicjii la do for 
hin^ what he uu» nnnble to do for hiiriBf^if. To row dlviaiim nmongsi 
hiA enemies waa, id iiict, hiA one objt'Ct. ^ And to know how ta 60 
thia is/ Bay5 Philip de ComincB^ ' b great gift when God bcvtowi it 
upon a prince/ 

His ogenld had long been busy in FtAniera, exciting tha ciciw 
of Li^ge to revolt, And f>n th« 30th of Augurs they t^ke onrinie 
insurrection, and tha eomte do Charolaia, finding that home aflii'* 
reqiUTfid hie prcocaoef accepted the idea orpcTOcc. But the demand 
oflhe prinDBB were eaorbitant, Nommndj for the duke of Bvrtii 
Piairdy, inclnding the towns cin thn Somme, for tlie oouita dc Chaw 
lain ; two eountiea for the dnk9 of Brirtajiy, the constabtd's cwordfnr 
the comte de bt Pnh For the public good, nothing, except 4 eonscil 
to cnqqice Inlo and reJbrm nbu^A. 

LouJH beAEtntedf but hii^ auhjf^cte wtjre iLgainsti him. The Partfif 
made >4J[)|^ B.nd bullada which wem circuhited Lhrough the ci^', Hi* 
ev&o §ent to the priocea. Th«y dislniflt^d tlie ting, and dridu}^ ^ 
undisciplined Normandy troops whom bo had brought into ?lft& 
If rt coolJicl bclwecu the Boldk'ia and the citieeua were to take pW 
the king^A cause would be ruined. 

No time won tc be lo>^, ftnd Lonis demanded an intpniew wili 
rhe eomte de Charobia. They met at Contiana. * The ^o^B*' 
vtWh Ibr a duke/ eaid Louia. 'Woll, they shall have one/ 
with one etrokc of the pen ho yifldeil to hie young brothtf 
riJieat provirn* of bia kingdum- Fverything ela? followed 
when the treaty was concluded, Louis waa lo slL outward a 

tOft-MAatDT neOAl?(AT> RtSCONfTILAVaE or COUTE t>E CQAK0LA13. 2i5 

hftnd aod foot Lo tbp will r>f liia nobles. Wbeth^ tbe Agree- 
would IjMt might woll l>e dnubtfMl, btit ihe ci^mtQ da CLarolftU 
VBA aMffunglj voU aHticfied, u be proiiiQcodHl iJie amiablo^ ftmiUEu; 
Ici^ bsfbre aL Kia noblM and bia Army, mid nddieaamg iheai mid, 
' GeDllcmtn, joii and I ttn devoted lo ihe tervico oi die king, our 
Anr«r«a^ lord, and are rendy co serve bim ht all dm^ and in oU 

Fnoce WRS luiir practically a kingdom witb tifo bt^f ; onei 
Ij01U« XI., r^lj^ed At P&ru; iLo otbefi bhedukc of Berri, «1 R<meED. 
ttttob ft flUiLc] of UiiitKs wsvH intolerable, &nd i£ die people felt it to be 
M^ OBBcfa TDore did ihr HovereigiL 

Qa the ?5tb of rVoTembcT, «ut WMika aiua pttce lud b«CSI 
MBod, LuoK, who was ihcn nruiking a pilgrimogv tc Notre Dame do 
CteiJ. rc^v«d UEn« Utteni from his LrDtber, wlitcb he ehoweU to 
ilw duk* of Bourbon. ' A«e,' he uid, ' m^ liroUjer i^^niiot get oil 
wkik my coniia of BritlJiny, I miiar go to hi« awisunce. ud uko 
^mak Vty dvchy of N<?nnnady,' Kit bad a Bur excua^ if be had 
bMft aiflideDtlj ccnad«ntioua to need one, for the oe^^uon of Uic 
dnckf bad bcea pronooiuz^d by tfie parliameab of PaHfi aa illofal 
rbrrinent of Uie kingdom; moraurer, wbich was d'iubtle« 
In ibe piiq>ose tn hU pj*'ft, the taak was not likflly t-j prove 
ilk 'Die comie de Cbutdoii and the duk«i of Britluiy and 
BinriiMi «^are tht: peraona moftt Likely U> opporc il, And Louia had 
of dcMimg with each* The conite nfu ofxupied wiJi Li^)ie 
tlinliimn to be indi-pendeat und^ \in prince hishop. Secret 
gi*«n to lb« inntnvcliOD eiTcctiially prev«ie«d bim 
Wnm UklvHenng in the aflain of Normandy. Aa for th« duktt of 
BdHflBj, it Ovi^rd only to offer bim a mounivn of gold — IiIU.lHHJ 
giU crmrna— Biid lie ivub certain tiot to moTci u fingor £or NorniandT ; 
vUm iW diiko of Bijurhon, Wmg prumiaed tbe governm^nc t>i me 
vb^crf th« BDiith of Franc^t became perlectty frilling to aid in tak-ing 
%9m t^r dnke of Bcrri the territory vrb;cb, b^y treaty^ bad jiitT b«cn 
prm ban, Tovu kfter tcrwa in Nornuindy, on aomo p£i:tcxt vr 
r, aim carnc to iuiploiv tha king'a prL>tcction. Eadi waa wol- 
Idndly, and prouciiun was aerorded. Louia wru, by d^rwm, 
the whoL* prf>vi)ic«. The comta de Chnfolaia wro(e Ui thm 
gmk^ m frvour of Munvieur («u«h vraa the title p{ tbo Icing'i 
'), Aod Louis wrot« back aa jii-jitly |o cutrcat die c^itv U> 
fstjr DpDii hia oitn ivbrlLiuriH imlijvctb. Tbu c^iiiiv icuIJ do i^o 
Il«feir« aaoihitr month wut ovar ibe bitsine« was cum]ilcted. 
tud Tolantarily pia^ed Jlwlf titider llie pruteoLioii td 
Hs<i^«UT wft* » fii>ziLtve m BriltHnVr 

kle ClAroluLB iraa indi^iAiit, and wrote to ■'TTp'^lltllUfi 
ItfMr fntm Loiua io reply ofltrrud bim i'lcardy. which, bj 
ila bad dr«ady. As regarded Nurmucdy, 'the 


Limii ^7- 

«fiid the Icing, ' v/pA not legal, and he h^d tli&rafore tried to negotialA 
with h'lQ brother for its reakirntion. II' the conTtirtraoe was broken 
0& it yina not hia iault. He wiu groitty griered-^ But, grieved ot 
±.D- noL, he cnltfred Raimn an the 7th of Februarj, 14[>6| lukd Jrum t}mE 
^'"' time Nonriaady beoame An ki&lieTiAble poHaea^ori af the crowu of 

'I'o have rctnhcn NonDOnd)' bo cunamgly wn? cvon Id ibia o^e of 
cuBning b JioUblu deed. No ona woa more niDitili^ at [t th^a ihp 
duke of BritiUny, ODd^ m concert with the t^mte Jq CharoLuA, he 
bagan tci plan revenge by forming an alllanoe nith KngfiLnd. There 
wcrOi boweveTf HenoUfi difficultioB in the way, Tba wurs of Uiv 
Bosea hod by thiQ time d^^^vn to a clo^f abd Edward IV., lIid had 
of the bornw of York, waa aeated on the tlirone of Englunil. The 
ear! of Warwick, who bad mainly ciincrihuieil to this eT«it» via ooi 
only o friend and ally of Fmnee, but slIbci govemoT nf Calais, a town 
whieli might be tcniied tho gaLi^ of ndmisoioD ta France. Nc ii^ 
tarigues with the house of Lunoaslcr (x^uld briag an Eagli^i armf 
iotu the country bd long &» ihc Yorkiets >vQre in jxiwcr, Aod it 
was with the rjintiwtriaiui ooly that tJie BuretindiaEH hari hitheftct 
been connected^ Philip of fiurgundy's wife being tho dnughier ei 
John of Gaunt. 

There vere now^ bowerer, reaoona Ibr a change in ll]« Bn^ 
gimdian jiolicy. The duobesu of Bur^ndy hiitvd Louis even man 
thtm she hated Edward, and aha Baci'iliced ihe leaser hatred lo ihe 
greaCar. To obtain the help of England eh& ugread \o a mamige 
betw&en Margaret^ tho young siatcr of iho Engtiah king, with the 
Gointa de Cltatclaia. 

Wben the uevrs of tJiia JELtend^ marrLiigQ reached tb« can of 
Louie he immediately prepared f^r war. It waa & qupsfion ijf lift 
or death for him. Bnrgundv, Brituiny, and Engiand wonld fonn i 
coalitii^n against which it would be irnpo&iiblc to atand, ualenahecouli 
be Bure of ihe support o£ the dilTi^rem. branuhea of the rwyal fiunily 
and of the powertul St Pol, now consLibla of Friince, The latter wa 
by far the tnrtst doubtiiil. The prinops of the blood royal^ Bourbwit 
Atijou, and Orleans, were tikelj, Iratn iritereotcd motives, to Teraain 
faithful to the bead of the fikmily^ But the conatAble St. Pol, thoi^ 
now holding vGlco xiader ibe French mDuarcb, had been trom child' 
hood the immedium iViHEid of the comle da Charolaiq ; bia propprtj 
and hia chUdren were in Burgundy^ nnd he was moreover p^rGonatlj 
allied with the hoase of York, for the queen of England, filisabeth 
Woodville, waa his liicca. Only one circumstanoe was in Javoui rf 
LouiiL The (xiiiHUble Bt. Pol was in Feve with the young and bcsi^ 
tifa] «i«ter of the dnlce of Bonrbon. But although be whs a handniPi 
man, royal in mien, eplondid in dreas and hiibits, he waa a wido«« 
of fifty, and the young lady would luive preferred him oa « &Uk«Mi^ 



]a«. Support lor his ^t wan ncc-dod, the coratc de Charolikia 
obowed hini&cir Id no way tii^r to g'ive it ; perlmpb be ihouglit thai 
ihe ccnidabJe whs rifling in tlit world loo rspidly ; bui at tbe very 
mcmcpt wli«a St. Pol wu brooding over the tniETortune of hia ag«, 
the kinj^ mnJc adnuiCBfl to hinij coming open-armed, eagor to opnier 
bentHt^i, and ofT^rmg him one oj^ his own miiccfl» ft princess of Stivoyi 
prDHLiHDg. in odditJuTi, that his eon and daughter Uioold *iao lat^i- 
tDsrry with the Savoj ^inily^ 

The conatable'* nmhjtion vss wnrked upon and hia support 
securod, Louie had^ h&weverj Igbb reaBon tbau he imaginod to fear 
a wur Ttilh England- The coiute de CbaroLuB, it is true, after fomt 
hesita'iou, agreed fo tbe ioarriflge with Margarei of Yark, but the 
Mri of Warwick nnd th*! Engliah wern nnt, therefiire, prspured to 
■tipport Burgundy ic a French war; and before tJie marriage wm 
celebnted, tbe i^iu-iof W^trwick hLmeoJf vi^tod ir'rancQ with the in- 
Untion of soothiag Loui& 

Tbe kiijg received hiia at Renea* the clergj of the citj in thmr 
gorgeous rot>e« going out to meet him with frcHA and banner. Wftr- 
vick took up bi« abode in a moiieMery, nht-^re the king alao lodged 
iaan adjoiQing apartiat'Dt. Krcin this waatoo niuoh of a Bcpamtion, 
aod Louifi caused the wall betireen the two rooms to he pkrc^, w 
that ihey mjgbl be able to o^nverse by night as well as hy day. 
IFanrict wba also rwtived into mofli intiniate intercouTBC with the 
queen and princefleeB; and tbo king made a p^int of taking liim 
ood hia ftujtc throuj^h the town and requesting them to viwit the 
doth and velvet storeA, frum which the EDgliali took vrbat Lhe/likedr 
and the king paid Ibr tl. 

No money seemed thrown awny which at that moment might 
Bccure the IrioDdHhip of Engbjid, and hm Lb cooac<juon(3e po-ace vith 
Burgundy. Louii^ hud contiuiied hia accret eufiport of the iaaurgenta 
at Li^ and tlie arljoining town of Dlnfliiti i%nd now both tovraa 
had been beaieptd and mken, and DinanL had been burnt ; and whilst 
iha duke of Burgundy was tiiJI of dire wmth with the king of 
France for hia ititriguea, th» unhappy dtjjjena ware execrating the 
name of the iidic monarch who, to aujt hia own purpoHO, hfld urged 
ibem to a rerolt, which he Lad nt> inteutJou of openly upkotdiog at 
ihifl iiuRaii.>4£aL'Cory juncture for France. 

Philip the Gi>od, duke of Burgundy, died on the 15th of Jane, 
^ 1467) and Charlea the Bold^ comC^ de Charoi-Ja^ injcoecded to hia 
title and dominioni?. 

Charlea ibe Bold had already shown tlotaeEf deacrviTig ibe 

epiihec applied to hiin, but hia power had hitJii^Tto beutt restricted, 

and his charactiT had been only part^aUy understtiod. That h« 

would be a soviireigQ whose anhjectfl wonU have much to do and 

iich to sufier was expe«kd. Strung oi baib, with powerful uruu 



juid long bandis a rude joiuler able tn or^rthmw any opponent wbo 
inlg:hc VEitiluro uj ftit^aunLrr Imn^ li!s pVi;>nr.-;LE #nr^^ HisplA^fd 
iUflU' in hin movements^ whilsl the vi^nr of his will roiild he rwd 
in tho EpnrklB of the oJtar blae eje, ^hii^h frejj in flirikjng contnul 
with liLB olivo <KiiDpli:siin and iIit hcHTj miuw^B r>l* bis hjiri. H« 
WM a man likelj to wciuy out the world Inrjg ljefi>re hit ^n?w w«jj 
hiinsi'lf. Tlie Fli'iiiLugs^ the Duti*h, [<Pkd all hi« mihj«oU of Getitijiii 
ori|jiB, Avere full of hopp on (he rtccBsioii of their joung eoum. tie 
fijjuko Iheir language, he hnd borrowed llieir moimy, ho lived Trith 
ihom and like theTji, on rho djkes and bj ihc b^a. They thoti^l 
ihejf Hiideralood him. tmt they were not prppitred lo find him n nuin 
of hiHiiieaa, cJirafiil ofmone)'. u shrewd t:nlcul?itflr. Yetsucb Charlei 
the BoH was. He took hia fiithor'.^ privare ireonLre mto hit 
own handei but culy that it tai^ht be naie. The open table kept 
by llic good duke, where the Dobioa and officers nto and drank with 
their Jure], wii*i enehiLEij^i^ fbr one whii:h mi^hLi bare better flTiii«d a 
mornatery. The officCTS of ihe Rurgiindian oouri were divided flod 
placed at different habien, and when the repnat war ended thev filed 
out befonj their lord m order, eo that hs might note who tvofi nbMDl, 
Slid diniiniBh their pAj accordingly. 

Nc^ nvin vi^A uiorQ iiidu4tr]oii» than the nev dukp, fn ihe mcn- 
rng holding eouneiU, in \\i& evening workin;CF with hia efJieerti. Til* 
iho king of France^ ho hnd it nl heart to chjin^- bin poeitioD frtm.% 
feudal to an abwlutc e^^Teri^ifin^, Gud ia Ihr^ he wae likely U> rcmdtr 
h in J H'lf unpopular nmona; hia lonin i hut he woe nubia and ehinl- 
TOiis, the heajJ ol" ihe Order of thw Golden FIpppp ; and thfiw whon 
Louis XT, hfttl thought to wii hy hrihvfl cow turned to CLaTln d 
3urL^mdy oa their niLLurfll and rip^htfnl leoder- 

A new LeBftuc for llio Public Gtiod be^jin to betalked of, itndAe 
aid of the Engliab kiug wna couHdentlj (jspect^d. Loujb* prrfecll.i 
WEfll necjnaintpd with all Thai: Wiis going en, had rewHiTW lo sn tt- 
p*dieril for whieh hia enemisa were not prepared- They wislied t> 
jowBB ICngland; ho determined to roitBC Franco, The St&te^-Gerirr^ 
A.D. were convoked la the mtnlh ct' April Hfi8, arid the utiertioii w<» 
put to theuj, were they wiUizig cimt FrjiTice «hould lose Normrunh'' 
There ■waa full evidence ihnt negniintionp hnd be^n fnterM iuinvKli 
Edward of Engliind, by which, if he joined the duke of Burgimdj 
ontl tiio mcmbera of the League \'vr the Public Good^ atvoral towW 
iu Noimaady rtere to be yielded to him, 

The 3tttt«a-Geueml were horr^Jr-stnirk. Thul a VHSj-al of VrvM 
•ho(]ld be found willing to givs the EnghiJi n fresh fooling in th* 
country was increiUble, All pr^i^nt, prmees and noMoe, roe* nf 
in anpporl of the king. So grenc, indeed, wqh the g<>ncral entbii»i«*Oi 
thut at Pari» a Itrtirnnnient of children wan held iu pri^panttion fof 
yc^x, ulI in tUdi inexpericoce thti/ really woimiBd tixemsBlTW. 



WhiJit tiwae €V«il8 wi^ra pa^in^ at Pans, the dnUe of Bofpmniy 
WJL4 ut Bmge^ anoiung the arrival of bia inicndod wile, Margaret of 
Totk- Ilia fcirnier friend, but novr open enemy, the uoii-ilftbic 
St, Pol. appt^trcd there jxlw, eri".«inp thu city noisily wfirh "irum wrni 
lmnip#f*i, ami viih hiB coo-rmble'h Bword ciirried before liTm. Com- 
plaints wer^ made upaa the Hnbjfct. tu which 8t, Pol replied t^iat 
BrQg» vroa in foct pfkrt of Fraaci\ and that ho u ooaatubla had ft 
right to go wlicrtrar be chose in that style, 

Tlie wedding fi-BiiviticB were grand but, Hofemn, the many-coloured 
banners of the nob lee heing oTCMhudowi^J by the gloomy h^aok and 
vioEct of thuic othXtGr- Two eardianle ataiBbid at the iiiarriuge 
tcremony Ooe^ cer<;!hiij BiJije» n&a really a spy of the kiup of 
Pmiice, and the oihtr, the Pt>pe'a leg:^te, liad heen eect u> bhIe Irom 
Cturles what he wav very unwilling 1ji graiil^ remisaion of ibo pay- 
ment e:Tacted of the erlizena of Liige. In the touTnam^nt which 
foltowod wo^ introdocod (t tignr« of i^C. Geor^, the Ecglish patron 
Mu&t, whilBt two ancient heroet. Herculi* and Tbeseua, were reprc- 
fiented dii«Lnni(tg a king* who kuelt befure them aiuI owned himsslf 
their wrf_ This, of courat, wiw inu?nded to represent Rdwurd and 
Charles ororpowenag LouIh, The duke took pnrt in ths lournamenC, 
and then, 6uddtnly leaving his biide^ set out lor HolJaad to onforcG 
the paymeDt of the ' aide ' ov lajs. re<^mied tor the expeasea of iJie 

This unrlike f^te and the duke 'a abrupt departure a^em^d to 
betoken iminediato action. For fbroe nioHths Loms lind been diuJy 
expeclLQ^ to hear of a de^<:ent opon Prance on the part of Eng^land, 
■toial^d by Burgundj and Brittany. But cjiiic WL-nt on, and Cljorle* 
Iras adll engrortBed with rjieg:e- The iniHenibTe dtiTOTia, thi^iigh 
cnubed to the very dnst, ahowed sj-mptoms i-f again rifling A few 
ttnnoft in NoTmanuy were iudi'ed wized by tha diike ci' Brittany^ hat 
Lonia immeiilati'ly marched his anniea into ihe proTince and retook 
ihem wltbont diil^culiyr aud he iheu uoinpelletl tho duke to B^paraiu 
himielf ff oiri Charl^ff and n^nounce all idfji of laking iConnfindvfrom 
France, Thia important point coDO^ded^ LoLtia t^c^urted and camas^d 
the duke of BriCtony as i(hii vtne hia dearest friendn He bjid need of 
an atly, for a b'^dy of the duke of Burgundy ^Atroops* which had b^en 
mat to a»i\A BritULny, were alill ad Caea, and an Euglitih army viua 
Only waiting tha signal lo ero^a ihe Channel. Stilt^ineaay at hia 
cntical potitioDf Lonia moved frcui place to place, thinking and 

eiuaini^, vhil^t Charlea, who hod farmed a great camp in tho ncigh- 
nihood of iht Souinic, aeeuied to take jiriiie in not moving a ettp, 
The king's impntiente drove Idru nearly to deaperalion, Growing 
etery day morp anjipieiaua, he even dreflded his own mfln-nt-arms, 
«iid i^Tird orders that th«ir lancet should he (tarried in ohariotH, aad 
Awid obJt b« given to them ia caa« of need. 


IfeO Fhkvs roa UEfrriNo— i[£c£FnoN of louis at FEPomc. 

Ohq thing, liowevrern wua ^tififiictory. Chfltka was Raid lo b« 
ftiHoualy indiKnaQt WTih the duke fjf Britmuy. AnRcr ngiunsl a 
friend might diajiose liiin to liatcn to an Enemy. Louis argued 
tirobnbfy rrnni hU own experience, Iliiving: been betifjiyed by all 
th&ie in wbom hi> bud cnnfided, he now faund bis chief mipport in 
Dammartin, an officer vho was n r^^onoiJ^ enemy. But if the 
friBudsbip of CiinrieH waH to be won, tLey most meet; they must 
bejir and bptuk Avit^i eucli oilier. Louin trusted )□ hi« own ciinjiing. 
Could he renew iHh old iuliniauyt ic would jdurtdy be <iAsy to loid die 
duke on to talk freely, and to At&v from htm all that it VfoM impor- 
tout to know. 

Ah to nny peril in pnying a visit to the duke at Peromiei Loai« 
oaly lauglieil at the i<^ea- In forujcr dnye, whtMi the Irtaly of ' lJ:ie 
Lea^eforthe Public. Good ^ had been und<?r dincuiwion, Chflrlw 
had not henitat«d to walk ivjtb the king vidiout attend:Lnt4 b«tveai 
Poj'ifl and Charenton, and one day he went fio for thftt ho found 
hima^lf vritliin the French barriers. Wlij ebouTd Lcuis be afraid 
under eimtl^ circumBUmctn ? 

A letter of invituticja from the duke, mnt, it h»a b^en sapposBd, 
nt the inatigntion of the oonsUble St. Pot, divided the ^juestion- It 
waB ncconiponjcd by a pa-teport, ^hich expre^l}^ etikted tlmt Lohm 
sbould jq;o and return jffeoisely aa be cboae- Thl^ pronij^e Beomed 
lo put Ireai^htiry ont of tbc^ qupstioii, evrai if it had been pofflible to 
Rii9pect a prince wbci piqued himaelf pveri bcuiRt^ruly minn being ft 
knight of tho oMvn duya, ficnipnioiialy Ihithful to hia word. It ^sn3 
the dukc^fl ^eafc point, and Louii fcnoA it well -, and at the time of 
the batoJi'A IiJiL^ue he hiid fljiltetid Churls by Baying, wb«o ihej 
were ne^otiaLiTi^ for peaes, ' \i.y brotbfr, I see filainly tJiai: you are 
fl gcnt]i?injLnr one of the family of Franoe.' And na a gentle 
matt vkiting a gentleman^ the king ect cut for i'croDne abnori 

At the entrance of the town the duke came to meet him. The 
two princE* embraced each other repentpdly, bareheaded. Smllinply 
thpy entered iJie town Topetlier, Louis restirig hi^ hand oa tiiadokpi 
phouJdor. The kiu^ went to the ton wbcreiLc wD£i to Iodide, and wtien 
he dined, imd then for the fxrac time, it would aerm, eome faar wtf 
awakened, u he beoAuie awiire that Bts^Bral of bis deadly enemic* 
hnd iilno bef^u invited lo Periintic. Amongst them whh one nuiii 
lli^ mre do Cbntflauneuf, who hnd beeo thu kinga friend in forntf 
yoar^ but who had betmyed liia confidence, and for whom Looif 
bad planned imprisonment in an iron cage. 

h (;ertain]y wae Buepidoua tljai the daks alionld have ivtvired 
inich men; it pavourrd mud] of the bridge of Montereau, Ij>iiw 
be^an lo (hink thai it w:ia unsaJb to kxige in the town, and ho hdt 
Co oak of the duke to rcueive bim into tbs caatJa, an old and g)(yn>j 


but n^TOTtholeKe thr^ ro3'a] rcsiJouc^Pt wbi^c ChorleB birn^cEf 
WouJiJ he rwpoosihh: k^r ibe pafety oibiH gTieal, 

He WHH Ultu, by hh own act asi it were, la pri<HO(i, a-nil nl[ thnt 
WM iwpded wna ir» phot iJif dnor There is ao reafloti 'o iWmV. Cmm 
tha eTCQts nbii-'h followed, thnt Charles was deb berate 1 -7 Irencliproue, 
Th« king would probably have been Irev to po ob iie camt but frr 
the titiiiign which, at ihb acixioiia niomeDt, wera brought troni Iji^^, 
and repdrted Avii}i ^rca^ exag^ji-raLiOn. The citizpna <if Lt^ge, it 
Wafl *&id} ^Ter3 again in rerolt, thu bishop hnil hpcn innrdpr^d with 
hifl clergy, his corniBf^Uora, nnd Humbercouii, the Knr^ncfitin onvoy; 
and tJiifl in tbc preaencflot'thGnmbnRaadcirof the king of franco. The 
report wne, however, true only as rpgAtded th* fact of insurrection, 

Charlra bufbt forth in & Ik of uniMiiLtrolEfible nnger. Terrible 
were hi? word*, fnrionn bin ibrpniii. Th^ gnte* of the easlls were 
olooed, vid Louin found hinipelf Bleue.. a prvonor in one nf thf; ^eat 
towers in which formerly ^ count of YertiULiidaiii had oiurd^fed n 
kiDg of France,^ 

Yet h'^ did not deem bin poiiillon h4>pRlflH<L He alwjiyfl drried 
hhout with him mon^y fhr bia littJe privatP npgnlrntionc, and hi? ni>w 
jrave to hi* giinrJ a lar|*r' sum for diatributi'in amon^ those who 
might be urillin^ to help biia. The ^ard, however, thought his aiac 
M> desperate, and ftared him therefore no little, thnt be kvj>l the 
greater pnn of the nionev^ for himpelE. The dute, in the mmnllme, 
had MTni^vhat r?<!evflred hia exeitoinGnr, uid vratt nhie to rewBcti more 
csrdilllr' HiA firitt irtipnl^ hnd hcon to kill Loiiin nnd place tlip 
yotmg dulreof Bcrri on tlic throne ; but, after a period nf tcrrihie 
agitatioQ, lasting three day>, imd dunng which lor one whole uig^bt 
Charlep, without iindrpn^nn^, paced bis ronm incesKinrlyj he prepared 
for a quiet ioterriew wiTb hia priponer. 

Hia demcannitr, ha )te cntori.'d the prePCEC« of Louis, wpa humble, 
but Ws geaiurcfl ixttd wnrdei were phnrp, and hi.* voice Irembfed witli 
■ uiHi ii WM i d anjier. ' Wuf the kJng,^ he a^ed* ' willing to kn-p iJie 
treaty of jwaoe which hnd he?n mftiie het-ween ibcm ? ' 

JUouit, in nnanet, profeaeed hioiftelf willtng to abide in ftjl 1hin£^ 
by the articlee of tho tronty of ConHam. Tho demnndi^ nf the duke 
iiiCre&Ke*J< Hr required for iheduk^ of Berri Champaciie and Brie, 
inttead of Normandy- ThU alao waa granted, and LouisBwore ujioa 
s mcred relic that his promiHcs rthould be kppt- 

But there wna one inore r&quirpTHMit- It ciime in the form of a 
r^^eatp * Will you,' said Churles, ^ i:»Tne with me to Lii^o and wit- 
nen my revenge upon the thinenn 7 ' And Louie dnred not rcfiisc. 
He even Hrote a Eettu to hia genenil, Darumnrtln, directing him to 
remove hia troop§ front tJig Hurguudian bordf^r, &nd nddad, * Believe, 

Cbarla the ^implo. 


253 CHAItLEA /LJUi LOCIS AT LxioK — PEfiTfiCC^lOH OF ullOR. 

for COTEU-Lti, tliAt I have aever iiniierlnken Hny fjqtediiian u villi 
lu 1 (Jd C;1i)b ouq lo Li^ge. Aft soon &B it ia over I flball leave the 
dtike, Ibr he la even nturo anjcioos fnr m*? to go (hniL 1 noi uiysclf/ 
Tbe kingV me:^iug^ who UhjIc tlija IfiCCer woa accfoipaaied bj uiq 
I * of the duki'^!* mHn, onti wiui xir)t itlloHed & momwit'a upportunjc/ ihr 

Hp«Bl:)jig to tbi? gonoml pTivatflly. 1'a.iDmFLrtm paw that Ijouia bbd 
itQted efitir<;iy luider cK>ni|:iiiiaioi], and teturneii a iQesfi^^^ to the duke, 
flivirg, ihrtt il' the kuig were not aoiit Lack all hia Itiogdooi would ga 
aiiit Ju1i;b him* 

Tii^e had no longer power to roaiaL Ihe dake*s will. FoTtifica- 
tjona, iJiDiiejf flitilJeTy, soldiEi^ all vara gone ; oti]y otic hoc>e re- 
:ikDiiiod« the nurao of the kijig of FrDn«o, And \^htTJ tho report 
reached thi! ciij that Louia had turned nfaiDal them, it vra8 thought 
wi incredible that ihn do^t, »brtiinJ etoriea were invculetl to occoimt 
jbr thfl Inrlti^ir table fact tlmt the duke and ths king were tr^reltiDg 
lo^th^r. Amongat other nimourft it woa sJd thj^t Louia wax taking 
tho duke to Aiji-l&ClmpdJei where Charles wosto he njode emperor. 
IdDnrie in th^r Curj and fcor^ the cilizeuB of Li^'ge wiait out to nicet 
the Burgimdmria — ^,00U Mf^inut 40,000. They w«r*?, of i;ourw\ du- 
ftHted, Then folJortfi^ the intuck. The Rnrgiindijin army ecferorf 
at tU^ Btin6 time Irum the ttvo 4'XtremilieB ol' the city, uid mof id 
the chief HC|Uarc. The town waa given over to piUji^^ whilA 
the duto condutleJ Loiuh lo tlie |udace, where llie king, witli ci- 
preiaiunji of great satiflfuction and exrravftgant praisjB of tlie courage 
of hia pood brother ol Bnrgujiilj, proceeilwl tn dine Jiloae, tha noiM 
of tlie diJitmeted citr nccaiupanyuig Lis repnst, 

AjUt dinner ihe dukt' rr'iunicd, llti deaired the king's ad 
* Whut,' he ftiiid, ' ahall wo do wilh Li^e ? ^ 

' My fhiher/ rR[i][c?il Ijouip. amiling, 'liati n great tree near hv 
pnlflce. The mvena made their noat in it. Their Ti'>\^^ dibtnetoi 
him, nnd Uo ordered ihe n«9ts lo bu dostroyod, Ijut the rAvoni re- 
built ihcm, AgDin find JLgtkin this look plnce* At luif he lud. tba 
tre« rooted up, nudiLfter ih&t ha Jilqit blotter.* 

The advice wad taken. Li^ge war wet on f^re; the inli&bilWiti 

were — flomo drowned, some diot, wme burnt; all who remained nli*! 

fled to tho bilifl and the Ibrestfl, where they wei-e Htill pursued, ftoi 

where the bitter winter's coid cornpleted the work o£ d&itrucuca. 

Louia waktrd fur Itjor or five d^ys aJler Li^e w^ takon^ ihra bs 

^flaid to th^ duke, ' If you have nothing elm to doT aLouJd bfi oiad to 
^ to Paris, luid hi the parlmmont know our mutiuU cngngenHnta. 
I If you want me a^ain do not spare me. NoJtt aummcr, if you Art 

r willing, I will pny you & viiib hi Burgundy, and we ota bkve * 
1 pleaflBut lirne tfigbther-' 

LThe duke conu^t^d, murmuring fl.t the same time a few worji 



thing in it to which he objectoi ' Fp waa qmta free fn accflpt it 
or not ; ' and a alight RpoLogy was added Ji>r huving brought hJm to 
li^e- The king for^t, JbrcATt, H.nd accepted eyerjlbing, aad 
nhorti^ after joyrjunlj lode awsj frojii Li^Cf duubtleu uiarVBtling 
that he h.iA at lut ^KCiip&d wiihuat the Jon of aDjthmg serionx, 
afcrifig, perhaps, his honour. 

He mfldo aehow of not caring for whnt Lnd ocflurred. It conU 
Bcuvcly hove bvoa more ibftu sluiw. In PwIh yQunp and old, men, 
wnmen, and child ren. la ughsJ ax liim, aud even tlie ^urrDtSr }^y^- i^^d 
nuigpieswere heurd to rerram only one word, ' Pwetce/ a naraewith 
a double allusion ton favDOrite of tba bing'e and to the town when 
he hod been a prisoner. 

Loiiifv, however^ did noieaWf.T himnelf to be ecoR&i at ^ItK Im" 
piroi(T^ Tljfi uncivil binla wirit uikfin inio i;usr<idy and brought 
before him- Special enrjniry wiui mcLdp o^ to I h^ir Attain mentA, and 
slrict ediotd v&rv iKsuod uguLnst all vih.o ihould dura to turn tb^ir 
aorereTjrn into ridicnle. 

LouiA X.I- bod been brtrayd Into the imprudence of triiBting 
himself ui ChurTiw at Peruane, hy tht tielief LliaL thu dukti of Bur- 
gundjcfiuld at any moment bring down upon him an Englinh in- 
vasioii- Tho duke ahnred Ihia boEif^f. Hi'i marriage witb Miu^faret 
tjf York was the seal of uuicm between the two commercial countries. 
The duke of Btirguudy^m Itrtteis Wfra rtt^ived wiUi a^ much raipert 
in Loncirtn an at Ghent. T[^ him^lf apok(> And ivniie Engiinh, wj^iiv 
tb« Order of th« Garter^ aa Edwnrd did that of the Golden Fkeee, 
and booAtcd himself to he mnri.' Ens^lieb thaji tho tin^JLsh. It wafl 
oalural to Bappoae that an aUiani^ tmsed on mcli n tirm foundaEion 
vould Ltfit ; Hiidf secure in UiIh condiiion, aud hiving tikorougljly hu- 
miliated L0UI*, CharloR had apjarerllj nothing to ipnr, nnd nnflaUo 
lotatn hU atteution 10 the ciiln-r^ement of bifi territoriea aud the 
ezt^nsi^n of his influence in (Jermany. He had hoped to havo bten 
rendered Etill niorti tv^iiro of iuttTTUpLJon ffoui France by a private 
nnderatandin^ with iht duke of B{?rTi, vho hud been promised the 
poaaevaion of tl]i> pmvtnce of Champagne^ r1(»pty adjoining BurgiindT, 
told vrbo, btijtig hio friend, would Kvcuro him agaiDat tha tn^nch 
mafbinationa. But v^hen tho malter iva^, us it waa sup[>o3cd, 
Kttl^« tlie duke of Bui^indy received informzition Uint Louis bod 
d)ang«d Ida mind, aud tniunded to give bla brother Guienna oad 

Tt wiiB a plensont exchange for a young prince. The punry floitrh, 
iritb Bv>rdcatJX fur his capital, ^ru far more attraotivu thau tjie cold, u 

dult north; iut it was a grieTtiir* diaapp^inriticnt for the diAe of , 

Burgundy. His informant was tht* cardinal de Ralne. the trnHterl 
minir^ter and faTourite of I-ouin, * Insist uprm Champagne/ vrow 
the mioirter to Ch^rlea. *0n no nrci^unl ^v& np l]je pmat. If you 
have the king's brctber on jour aide, yon have ereryihing/ | 





The lottfT Rnnlaimng rhp Bdviw wafi interveptGd, nnd the cirdi- 
nal, ns the reward of hie trea<]titr}', was in^pn^n^ b^ L^iue in a 
diuigeon at Lochea, in on iron caga tiight feet ar|nare, of v,-hich hfl 
had ojK^c hiinaeirsnid llint notliJug wu mora aure if oae winbed to 
kaeji E. finn hold of on«*s uiplive. 

liiii '^'"' '^"^*^ ''f Berri bf Clime dnte of Gnienrie (14G9), ond wvt 
duoedforthetimptororsalretheallinnco with Bur^pdy- This augured 
ill for CharlcB, but atiJJ moro aUirtliag lo him mUflt liaro bo«Ti tbo 
CTflHta wlijcb ftlmoat iiam<diatelj niUrwarde took place in Englnnd. 
Tb« greuc carl of Wjirwick optnly furaook the Jiou!4e of York, nnd, 
crossing over to Fmnee, joined Margarot of Adjou, the wife of Hanrr 
VL, JuicI becnme An Avowed eupjiorter of the LancoEtntm parly. 
Lomfl took the fome ado, for Mar^arol of Anjou vashja kioHWonuiD. 
Foru brief pflritnl the LanCdHtrians wem BLiL:ce4Dful, Under the pro- 
Ttclion of P'rench v^iisf-^A, Lliej pa^^wd over Tio Kngtand^ EfJward W. 
esmpod Ifl Flanders, nnd Hi-nry VI. was agnin ar^lcnoivlcdgud king. 
But n rcncrJon aoon followed. The duke of Burgundy, aa the biu- 
band of MargJirct of York, could not refuflO tc aid bit brotlicr-in-li^p 
A Lirge BUm of monty and fiiurteeo vew^h enabled Edward to return 
to England. Onoe iTiore he wriB victoriouH- The pari of Wnririd! 

*-»' WBs killed ot ibe bnttle of Bamet (1471). ftbirgsret of Aiijoii vu 
tHkon prJBoaeFf nnd Honiy divd in tha Tower, whetb«r QAtutaliv 
01 by foul raeiiDH ia uncertain. 

Tlie jieriod which iJjllowi-iI was one of greakt aiiriet^ fnr Iinni& 
He hnd, indewJ, mn,nflged to fjonduds n mice with Riirg^jndy, uid « 
inF secured himHcEf in tha norib, bnt hy hie intriguea aitd Absence of 
good fiiirli Jjo had rendered hinmeLE obnoxious to AnigoD and Cas- 
tile, Fi>is end NavaiTe in the sonch, whilfit ho could no longer reckon 
on tlip unpport of bin brother the duke of Guienne, for the duke had 
c«wed to be Ihe b*-ir to tha throne, A non had been bom to Loojl 
on the 30th of June, 1470^ and the tie betWH^ tho ting and bid 
brother bping thus broken, th« duke would probably uo longer Lcai' 
tate to a^ow his Bcciet mriiitjH Two ttijjpting pro[iti>i;ila were al 
thift tiuii.' i»ijeri to him. Kithtir be tujgbt inany the duughu^r of (be 
fcuni of FoJx, in wbiob ca^ all the south of Fmiio^ would nu<l 
likoly join vitb him and undortako a kind of crusade flguinflt I^iiiaj 
or be iriigTit marry the heircaa of Burgundy, at.d uPtiniately unitt 
under one monarchy FUiDdera iu tb? nortb and Aquitiuoo in 
south, nnd Fmnct and Louis XT, wnnld thsn he simply fititi4?d. 

*1 love that kingdom of Fmnce ao well,' obiwrved ibo duke 
Bar^iidy, ' th^^t inetead of ono king 1 would fiiiu give it aix/ Aa<i 
the common saymg at the court i>r Gujeane waa, * Wo will pni ?■» 
jQiiiiy greyhouuds on tbe acoul, that France shall net know where tn 
tite.' Al tbe verv last moment, howevar^ when everything nwnwl 
turning ajfainst Louiq, the duke of Guieanei, ftlwaya ddJcoU, >ad 


nuiv ar -ms dcee ot ourEprNE— ehqlish tht&bion. 



-who hod betn oalfirriii^ Oom quartan -a^jo for eigtt months, died on 
\hv 2'lih urUay, H72, Souit thi>iight "e ImJ been poiwiiwi bj the 
king's ordvr, buL ttic dtite Luiisdj' i:jijld liave bad ud HUupicioa uf 
any ifiich crirne^ for tbo day befor* hia d«ith be eraved tho imrdon of 
LoiiJB and naioed }iiin hifl bcir- The duke of Burguady, however, 
look advantjigf? of the iK:cU3a1,ioii,Diid ntlt'r pubJuLiu^ a violent maoi- 
fsto ft^inet the king ol" Fnuice, proclnimed a war o£ blood and 
fire Entering PicirdjT ^^ t<'<Jt the little lown of Nesle, burnt it, 
And maMAcrer] the gr^att^r part of the inhabiinnta. Thowfl vho 
•ecapcd vith ih«ir lives hnd their bondi cut off, We rheu puEsed on 
to BmursJjr. Tho intc of Neale mudo tho citizens dea|>emte ; even 
the woa^tD riirew ihuoistJvea into Lhe breauh, a young girl, named 
Jeanne U Hai-d^elle^ e*pedalJy diiiLinguishing hpTRrlf hy Beizing a 
banner from ^Le handa of the beategtra; and the duke woe at If^^ 
obliged to mitfo the Hin^e. Loui^ comjnamnratud (be evanl by 
iijfti tilting (ui annual prcccasbn^ in which the women lock prcct- 
deniTF of bhe uieu. 

The position of Charles was now diftrciilt. The dnke of Rri Clati^ 
had Af^aiiL pramised to help him, but seemed in do hoAte to fullil bin 
aiig«gemeDt» for Louia vra* tamperinK: with hiui, offering him monoy i 
aitd Charles, linding himBeJf at length deserted, agreed to a truce of 
two yeariL 

Prurient, MleulaHog perBfins who watched the oonrsc of event*, 
KkW xliOX chi? kjng of Fraaoe wjka growing eLTonger, the duke of Bur- 
gtuidy weaker, aad they acted accord laLrly. Philip dc ComincHf who 
had bce:n br^ up at the court of Burgundy, and waa the duke^e 
chuitberlAin» taking oflence at Nnme luiughty treatment oo tlie part 
of Charlen, Icll hia aerrine and ent^'red that Y>f Louie. He ep«iit the 
Kit of hia life at tho Frcoch cotirt, and there wrote hi« coiebrated 

The hatred between Louie and Charles, howerec* deEtdly, might 
perhaps have hi-cti milij^ted but for the iiLtrigueft of tho conatahle 
St Pol. Though openly hoJding cifliee Tinder Louin, Ibo consrable 
ttill bad a eeojot leaning towarda Burgundy^ whilA his porwnal 
■Bttreeti luggoflLed an alliance with England, en that under any 
vinuiZUBlonees he might bare &iendn aitd a refugt at hand- Ed- 
Vird TV. of England wii^ prirauily told that the EngTiiih hnd only to 
a|ipeiir and the constable would open to tharti the galea of St. Quen- 
tm, and, tmsdng to thE« promiaa, Ed\v^d prepared to ro-aBsert hia 
daitn to ibe throne of France. 

Tbrongji the ' e^er-oiien door of Calaiu ' he entered Prance, and 
wia jntned by his alty the duke of Burgundy. The Engliab thought 
that their secret friend would provide uccoTDmodaiion lor them on 
their mate ; but no, Ihey were to encamp beneath the stara of h*n- 
veo. Arrived at St. Queatin, they e^peiited to be received with 

956 noThutviEw at p^itigkt — btheues or 

Iduif XL 

pit>coatiiocifl uid rinp^ia^ of WJa; l>ut tLcy fienrd onlj the report 
cflDDon, wbilfiC two or thnje men were kiUcU, la lit<? mojfnff 
ChsrJea of Burgun^iv l>afl liwn led by St, Pol'a iutripne* lo lwli*Ti 
ihftt the (iuke of Bourban, vUo comnumded The French turcc«, wotild 
como DTcr to liie ddc ^ but whcD the Harf^iindiana presentod then' 
aelrcs bdbrt the duke of Bourbon a armj, lliey Tfere cul to piccoi 

Tu the li^ii momuit Lauia had bwo iinctilaia ^fliL^Lher the £ag- 
Itsh d»vent wniEld r^iilLy uiii^ pUce; uU h^ ktiGVi v/any ihnj then 
were traitopa in hie camp. Hia chxef hope wia m Che age atid utdiK 
]QjitM> of the Engliali kmg, who had BOca enough of -wtw, uid wu no 
longer cjip.ibJe of great phyaical rs<iTtion ; nnd, ju Edward** "mitkvi 
poiab WU9 tlie aggnindlBomeDC of Lis lauiilyf ibe cmft/ LouJa resjlred 
to B6iz4? upon It. 
^^ An intetview nu amnged between the t«o mcnarchs. It WOk 
"" pJace B.I Fi-qiii^j, near Anjien^, August 2d, lA7b. the prlrcea bttnj 
eeporiit^ from each other by a solid ivijodcn framework, Pod coDTei>- 
iiig through a 1aiti<!<?. Xiouis |in}[ios0d to Eilvrjird Ji nuiTrijijr'? herwpeo 
one of the ting of Engliuid'a driughtprs and tho little Daiiphiu. The 
English priiLCt!.^ wa^ to re<:eive At once ^U,C>UO crowEi^ ti ^^^r ^ 
ultimately ibo reveuuc of the duchy of Uuicnrc. Thi^ Ea^JA 
uobli^q were at the sime titrie aectetlj offered large duma of moDf^. 
The temprntion weik grecit, and KdwnH imd hin lordn vieided^ IdI 
Ungliah were treated hoflpit^tbly by Louio, whoB4^ reception of lien 
filmed a etrong contraGt tc that of their former oILieB ; and whan Ite 
dukfl of Bur^fuudy, who had boi'ii for a short tjciDnboent on bunbM 
ici Hfiiuiitill, reiui^ned, he found to hin di&tuay ^at all his p1aiuw<n 
overthrown. Fierce Hiid rude were his word** to the kiiigol KnilwL 
' It waa not thus,' lie aard, 'that iu lormer days the Eogli^h 
bad fiiaJiied lame and territory. For hioiKlff he needed Lot 
ABfiatnnce ; he could matiDpe h^s a^airs without them> lie ruti' 
Duly a truce of three ujoutha after they alioiJd have re-crooal 

The ditto didf however, obtain a rouch h>n^eT Cru^sQ. 
granted for nino yeara, and duriuj; thi^i time ho hopod lo ba 
cftny on hia pujecis agalnrt Lortniii* ond SwitterJand. T 
of hi& life vtaa tu rt<cou»Lrucl fur }]iai8e[f ihi? ancient ki 
LorTsine, auch as h had existed in the time of Cha^le<lMg;n^ 
young duke Rene of Lormine was therelbre to be attacked, 
the Swiaa, iostigatcd by Lomt^ had on Hveral occuaiani op|>«>9ed i 
affronlvd hiru, and un tliein the dlrc^ vengeance was to be Bttkoh 
Loniv. on ][':a parr, wm l«nl oi\ in^kiiig um of his Ireadom Irt 
foreign troubtea to aubdiie finally hi^ treacherous nobloa. Thaft 
wore tha constable St Pol, the ooimt of Annugnac, abd tho dak» 
Alvn^n- Louia wrotir to St. PrI, aiying that weig^hty 
were pi^adiag in which audi a hvad ua hid viouJd he of the 


je tJj Jiim, AfterwarJa. in conTerxation with his nltendonla, 
h? added tbat ic waa oaly tha confitablt'a Jfi'aif M'hieh he desired ; hU 
Afx/f migbt remain where it was, Tlie consiftbli? veil undershod the 
tllU'EUiag iiDQ^~, foe Lt kutw tEiut ihc duka of Burguiidj iLiid die 
ting <tf Etigliind Imd *ihown Louib letters vrhich ihej hiwJ received 
frCHn )iim. He b>ught lite protection of ihv duke al Mods, but 
Clinrlofc, ivho had alroarJy begun bia nttjjck upon the Swies, and at 
sucL a time feared to make tbe French kinfr n^iin his eaeinj, dared 
not bbelter bim. St, Pol was given up, aad, after a hiinicd lriii.1, 
b4fh«mdedacPjuiHon ThePlacn de laGr^^H, on ibe lOih of I>epenil«r, 
1475. HUpunii^bmptJt wflfl a graat libw ti> llie feudal oobltfft, for h« 
bclofllged io ihc Lu^icmbiirg iuiuily) totae of wht>m hod brcn tm|M;- 
rera of Genn&ny, ajid lie hac] nwrrii^d a sinter of tLe queen o{ Ftoiice, 
tiesdtfi being olherniae cuciiLticted wilL tmveral uf tht? rojalLouaea of 

l~he duke of AJecfon and the eooat of Armn^ac idn suQered 
tLe vciTjjeunce of Louia for opposition to his authnrity, the former 
being imprisoned fgr life a^d the latier harbaroual/ murdered inhia 
wife's ptevrijce. 

Loais waa now rapjdiy recovCTing ibe po«ition he lad loai, whilai 
CharUp vrtw aa rujiidly Joiiiig that which he liad ^iaed. His ex- 
pedition a^iuet iht Svr'i^ was fntUf^hc with disaaters. The uioun- 
tuoeer* routed his diBti^liuycl forcea, and Charles was d^feaied 
ib the battleii of GmnHnu and Morac Hiafortaraea seemed despETdte. 
Lrirraine had indi-i/d he*'Ti taken hy him, bnt the yoang duko Kene 
now i^otm^d to reappear amonffal Lis eiibjecta, and regained pnfl- 
iCHoa of Nancy, the capital. There he w«h br^egeil by Chariot 
louia leui hiA Freui:h gi>td Uj auiaL Kene, who cullecufd an amiy of 
S0^nOl> m^i ouraidfi Nani^y to relieve the dry hyanaekJng the duke. 

Th* battle winch Ibllowed was renrJered ftital by treflcl)*^ry, 
Utarled pW^oJ implicit ci>iiJidcnco m Campobnam, an Italian ' con- 
dottitre.' or tcadcr of the mcrceoarv trooprf. and al the moat criucol 
memeiituf iliehaliile CumpoljaaBo dndhiafuruea weutoverlolbecDiiiny. 

Charlea waft not withjjut n foreboding nf his fall On Sunday 
i&ondrjg, tbc 5tli pf January, 1477, as he waa prtpaiing to net forth 
hifl artillery to mc^t the enemy^ the cre^ fell from bio hetmcl. 

U ft sign froEO God/ he Aaid, oa he replaced iu and ke mounted 
I black 4:targErand rude fiileably iuadvancCi iu iheiuidaL iifaht^Tj 

r-stortn. That erening the battle wna aver and ToAt, i.nd Cbarlus 

linyuody w»a miasing. They aonght him am<»ng«t the dead the 

ik of the ibUowiDg day. Oa Monday evening CampobasaD brought 
duk« of Lorraine u page whoeald that lie had found lliebody 
f the duke uf Burgundy^ naked and fruien, lying amongsL a heap 
F ih« staiu noblun and common Roldieri*— all whitp with Hnow> It 
Bc difficult to re«ogiiifi« it. Wolves and dogb had already b«guo 



their horrible wort, and only hy the mc^ carefhl Bxamfiwfion cif ttie 
donior and ptfTfofinl fllteudaotfl vas the fiici of Chnrlea of Burgundy'i 
dtfftlti TiJflde cGrtttin. 

He woA buried with all lionon™. Dufeo Eeni of Lonwnc, m 
mouriiiDg robeHf aprinkEled boJy water on t^iQ body u it lay inaUtef 
and tnlting tHh cold Imnd of bin noble enemy m hia naid, ^ Fair 
Gouaiiif may your soul rest in God. You bnv€ caused uh mncj iUt 
and much boitow.' 

Charica liad been killed, aa i( iieemed, almost by accldeiit. Tb« 
knigbt wbo aluniki'd, vit!io»t recogniaiiig liim, is sud to bnve after- 
wnrds died of j^ief. And if be waa tbiis regretted by hia ^nemie^ 
how nmoh more by hia frienda, who hud tnown bia geuoroue natqr< 
before ambiliiDEi hud wrecked it I Whan tho chapter of tlie Golden 
Fleece met lit tho firat lime nt Brugta after the death of tho di^a, 
oed fanw hih eolUr nf the ordi^r hxiJ on & ouahion of bkck vetrcli 
Ihey burst into lean, r^bdiag on hiB ^ficutchcon after the list of bli 
titlee Chat &ad nnd arvfid word — Dead I 

It i& ruported ihnt ntihcTcry time of iha bnttla of Nancy Apric^ 
afterwards nTobbiBhop of Vieoae, waa celebiatiii£ maoB befcjre Lotiii 
XI- in th*^ uhnrch of flt. Maitin at Tours. Aa be presented lie 
Pyx to the king^ be flaid to him tbeae worda '. ' Sire, miiy God piT* 
yon pcflce and repose. You buTO tbein now, if you will. All i* 
over ; your enemy ie dead.' howls was greatly aurprieod, and pro- 
misedf if <be fnct vrene so, that he would conTert the iron trfUi^ 
work which eurrcnitided thn shrtiip into Htver. 

Th^ day hut one nlterwarda, wh^n it wna ncarcely dftVs, eofi cl 
the IdngB favouriEcA knD<!k<!<l nt hi^ daotiui6 told bim tbaE tbe piieA 
hud r^ken truth, that CheirleH of Burgundy wh.i indet^ no moit. 

It Vfoi* very ditTiLuh even (ui tbe cautioua Louis to 0Dnr«d hi* 
oTerwhelming Mtiafncrion ah fhe news, more efpeeiany from th#iy« 
of bi3 eurioiiH 4*ourtieTs, who^ as Philip de Cominea teik uh^ witcbaJ 
hina BO corofnlly at dinner tbnt oqq of them ovou omitted to eat W 
of his own portion. 

One Ibinj^ woa evidenJ. ; tt ma»t be for the intflreet of Franc* l» 
regEin the provincefi which CharleH had taken. This object mi^ 
have been easily attainod if Lonia ooiild bave mftmed hiB hld» 
eon to tlic young boirees of Burcnndy, but he waa promiaeJ loks 
Eop^McJi princGafl ; and Elizobetb Wooilville, wife of Edwaid IV. 
who alrettdy caJlcd h^r dpiugEiti-r madame In Dauphlne, would be link 
disponed to allow n rupture* of tbe ^nijagement. And wlini mPiiP 
morL- iniporfAntT ^Mfiry of Burgundy herself waa but itl-diAOMd V 
ficccpt a hTisband only eight yeors old. She might have been no* 
inclined to IJiiten to her atflpmotber, Mai^aretof York, tbe dovif 
duche(« of BuTgmidy, and to accept tkia duke of Cloiecioe, fAmri 
TT.'i brother; btit Elizabelh Woodville deared a connection witfi 


r her I'TTQ fitmilj* and proposed her brobherf lord liirers, u a Gitiiig 

I hi]iiT>atL4T fnr (lie yoiing duchess, 

BetwwTi thu d»fler*m atms of the two elderly Jadita the intepeels 
ot M«ry of Hurcundy were aacrificed, arid Louis AL. had time to i»rry 
out Ilia own i^lRr^li pid^t:/' He iciimtdiatcly «el forrh Lj9 cUima. 
AltbevUle* bo lie di^ctartd, ought to ha )x\9, zii coiihidt^ration et u al'ipu- 

I btion mud* flom* thirty years beforH. Arras wiH hiA by confiBCation, 
lh« late dul:e having in nmny ways injurod him. 01 HaiDflult aod 
FUDdcrs be auid nothingf though hia pEaup wore formed, Aa to 
Burgundy, he merely projnj«d to Ulte care of it !i^ buing tlie yoiiug 
duch^s'a ^iiardijin, a. cloini which re?T«d nn the ancienc cnstotns of 
PnAr«, ami on ihe fiif?t Ihnt he vib Mwya ri^reai relutioti [tod ^f>d- 
fiilher. The reply of the duchtea to this but ddnaad mui ehurt 
aad flimple- ^ Sjao did nol see bow it wna Ihnt lhoP€ who wirhed to 
lak*; fiDiu her om^ portiuu of her donuEiiojLn could offer lo guard thi^ 
othiT-' TrfUjis muai anticipated the hqbwct, but ii dii ncjt 
tfouble bim. 

Troops were acitt to Picnrdy at^d ArtoiSi and thon, on prvtenoe thnt 
fiuj'^iidy had reverted to Pranoe in Jefnult of n mnlo heir, tiic chief 
towns of the dut^by were Beizwl hcfore any plons fur defence could 
be made, and Btx in'>nrhfl nl^r the di?nth of ChiirleH the BnJd 
L< w&e roiKigiiiiied by tha Suites of BuT^Uody aa their lawful 

lliiry, in the menndme, wm at Gbent, tije centre of discontent 
and rvbcllion; yet tbedti/ena jjrojeteed to love undbonourtlitilr young 
duchesa. and to deftiff only lh*f re^ifirfttion of iheir Jiistnchta- Mnry 
yielded lo their demunds by the advice of her atepmolher aud of 
three fordgn counHellord — one, f be aire de RaTeflteitij a Gerninn, and 
the olhera Hugoael and llumbercourb, Fraucbmcn. SheftUuwed the 
people of Ghent lo r-ho(K4e their own magi^traleri and judge ibi^ir 
own CBUiite^, and rromi^ted to do nothing without the H&nction of tbe 
pcbbc n^Hembly of tho p&^plc- But, perplo^cd by didr olnima &nd 
alumed by the advance and the nBurpntion of Louia, ahe immB- 
diately ;iJ'[erwardE BPUrelly denpitcbed Humbercourl tuid Hugucel 
*riih a letier m the French king, who waa ihtn at Peronne, To eo- 
Xrvtit for a tnie« and tnake Inrga ofibra. He might keep the provine^a 
he hod taken, he might uvon have Arras, oaly would be deaist trom 
Ibnhet demauda ? 

Tlie uegotiutionB were goJng oil when deputies on tbe part of the 
p«pJ*> aTTivpd from Ghent To treat with Louis, The king {jlaced ia 
their handri the letter be had jii«t received from the dueheefl. lo it 
Mary aaatued the Front^h kin^ that fiiic would tniti- only his own 
amtaAudors, and begged hiui to day [iL>thing to any other persona 
vba Tiii^ht Iw aeiLt to him. luLemiely irribLted, the citizen depu^ 
rvturned in baste to Ghent, Mmy received them in a aol 


temn ^H 



audiejice — her arepmotlicr, tlio bishop of Li^go, nU her 
around her. The duputlce told thtir tiilc- She had giv<'ii a proniiH 
toiio DOtbJug without consulting the ]>eoplG, and sLe hod deUbvmidf 
brcken her voril. Mury, iriuoh s^tiiei], denleil h. * They could 
not,' sJie sfiid, ■ jiroduce the lettoT oV which they spoke/ ' Here it 
is,' va.i the rough reply, uud the sturdy dejuity drew the Ititter fron 
hisi pofltft and placed ic before her. The dticlices waa overwhehued 
witli coxLluaioD, L>ut lier Hbaum wiir< i.|UJck!v for^t^Ueci iu Jeirar fit 
the viuFpTii ouil^rGak which iiniiii!J]jil;ely ibllciw&d. HugnnfL »tDd 
liuTnbi*rt*ourt, who had long been ittipopulur, were seized and benight 
to a. hasty trial at the Hfite! de Villc, Marj, in ngooj vl tnijid, 
dresud bciraelf in deep moumiug, And wi.-jLriuj^ the little Flemitb 
cap of llic people, p«4P«tl through the e-\cited crowd a,ad pteseiiled 
herself befi^re thi; judge* to praj' fl»r mercj' nr her laitUfuf **r\'iuits- 
The chiei' citiKPU prafleni merely pomtL^d lo ihe dark niasju?*? ofbunutT 
betngd wliO Lhronged the ^ireeUi and auawer^d, ^ We tnaat Bulisly thi 

Mary left Ihem and hunieti to the public market-place- She 
VRpi, she implored. appi^JiUiiE with (lasped handa lo one nnd the 
other. Opiuicnfl were divided- ■ Let it be aa ahe wilU ; they shall 
net die ! ' wa^ Che cry that rose B-oia one party. ^ They Elmtl dit 1 ' 
vrta the £rrce seatcjice of the other. The jud^ea dreads delav- 
They put [he pcihoaera to iJie torture, hut iLrjthing new wiis confencdi 
The erinte of which they wtrf- aeeused — thai of ha\-ing Hecired U 
keep Flaudora in Bubjeetion to Frauefr — was, however^ linparJonabl^ 
ttod thay were cotidoiuned. Siury wan told of the senttEtec, and (i^ndn 
eiitreat<ni fvr morcy, but Jie wan met with the atcni reply, ' Madani, 
you bavti aworri w do jUfiticii uot unly u|xjn Lhe pimr, but rhe rii'h.' 
The execution look plaoi-on rhe 3rd of April, the Thursday in H^Jy 
Week, aud on Good Fiiday n paper waa brought to Mary which, lO 
ooDj^ideration of th« BncreJucH^ cf the day, ahe waa requLre^l to H)ga> 
graiiliiig a pardon for all the olTeucefl wiiich the poor pi.i>plc of Ghent 
mif^bt have committed a^inet her, and adding thM fibe hod ooik- 
PfflLied tj:i the fiLie sencence on tbt? two oi'niciHellor^ 

Tha unhappy duehesd van alone !□ her paJuce^ They liad ulctQ 
from hor hiT atcpuiotber, bur only friend. What could flhe do bst 
fiign, and what hope muuLiied for her eiicept inurriage? 

Ouly cue piinoe was iu my wriy uu^[>lable to Mary. Thiiwv 
Maximilian, son of ihe emperor of Gennany. Ho wj4b younger thin 
the ducheEBr being imW <'jgbteen, He could not tpcok French and 
Mary could q»l apeak Cemxan, Ho undersioud nothing of biuttM* 
or jjovcrnment, He ba^l uiritljfr landa nor money, and people upD^ 
him Maximilian the J*imiiilesi. Bui he w*3i bandi^ma, btuve, flid 

Laoble-mLnded, nnd the nuu-ringe bad bi^eri plannrd and agreed toby 
the ]al& duke Uharlos^ Aml>ufitfadc]ra about tbia umc came fra^ 



861 1 

Qtnuiny io dnjiuid the hand of the Uucht^w of Buri^uiu]^ for their y 
prince- They hivught with ih^m a ler[*T wiitieu long brfora !n 
UATy'fl ovn haud, consenting tK< ih& lUAiridga, They said nln ttiM 
A duaaocd had boen ^iven by ber a» a token of betrolholH No'v 
ii*T d«mreJ ihai ulic would Julfil Her engnf^emcnt, Mftry, xiihnui 
ukjug coaiiBvl of anyonfr, repli«] coMlyf ' I wruk lh»e Jett«is hy 
the wilt *nd oommEtad nl'iiiv lord Aud fjtcher.HDil 1 gnvv iIik diiiinonii. 
1 ackDotrlp<l|j« both.' And upon this consent the marriAgo cnntfEpi 
WWB ewnyhid^rfl on tbe STlh ot April, 1477, with the approval of the 
citW«a4 <]f I'li^nt. 

Louiv XI. luid now r«coTC(«d not oalj Peronne and Abbeville, hui 
Attw« and Fkiutogae, mid hptw^pji Arras and Hoiilogne h^ cculd ehut 
up ihe EngUali in UntmB. &Hij|i>gn>> wmt Ida pfciilinr dclighL Itwitri 
« j>lnr« imppofted to Iw ipcciAlly protPcTfld hy the BJc»«d Virgin, 
and I^dih taAdc h«r 4^ud(i>« of Boulc*^?, acd then, According to 
llw ftudAt ctistumn, did piihtii: homage to her. and receiv^ tlrt* town, 
■■ It wu nud, (rom htr hands. His wipi'ri(Uinn wrs indeed his 
■fiHt wpporC^ wirhant it hv (-niild ifAm^Hv h^vt- bem Abl« fo hear 
Ma^tiKthe cijnftcinn9nr>K.«f>r Tho disiniat !ioha<J mapirod. Jncqu«a 
d Ana*icitAc, duk*r of NoltkiUt*, whom he hnd imprifioned, hhe the 
avdinal d* flalut\ m a;j iron mg"* Weing put to the torture, rercaled 
■o Looia that tliere wan not u sinjjlp pttBnn about bim in whmn he 
cotthi «lvly contiilo. With fhia knowlodgH thv ktng feared nit bie 
«9itrtivr'L Some hi- llAricrrd ; pitnL<, like the duke ofNenienra, who 
wa ultiaiaf«<1y exe^^ut^dnt Va^v'm in 1477 <ia a charge of high treanoh, 
W rantuviril oat of liis pith. 

Ut wjDed dr.iliTiEv] U^ gain hi« ends. Maximilian of Austria oftv 
kla jnarriajn with Mnry carried on ■ doBcUfofy rtrnggle with him, 

LoUd uhmmU'ly ^in'^rl th? ndvaiifAge, ^ttjvaaca fell inta hie 
ftlWr the death of ihe nid kinc lUn^, and the coiiQt of Maine, 

Da|4ww, who vurvivvil hia uiick Jittle arore thui a year: ttad 

k ht %4tri ihc «jdili'U di>4th (if Mary fkf BiiTgimdy, who w»* kif!o*f Tw 

A Ul from hor honw, kd eFitircly nlt^rtd tl>« position of Maximiliii» 

tiMt l«oiiia wDh Hiablfd ki roUQit« the duohy of Burgundy nitd tlio 

of I'ranvv. 

iLodmdijin hiMi beea aooqiltd by thi? Fltmingsonly ai Mary'ii 

band. Wh«u »He w»d™d their inter'^st us well ns Their Rym- 
pUhtn led ih«tn tn an nllUnec wilh Pmnoe, Pt'fii'e wu prT>pn«i>>| 
«aJ Of^iMtad*d at An-jf, aiid the i^>ndilrr<nii wcri- idt thai Loiiin ciiuld 
BKB^ have du**iT^' Mar^ari:t, Th^^ infikul. dnii^htcr "f MaxjnkkJiitri 
aotlMary. wjunlliano^l to thi> t>anphin Chjtrli^*, nnd Jt wiuarmn^i-il 
ihat 'hv Bliaulil Iih iimi lo Frariie tiT h« (ilut'iili'd. As her diiwry 
I^oifla wm iJi recoive llw crttmtiM of ArioK t' ranch* C'dmr*, M*oon, 
Aiu(«m, whicii rtfally formed ihp 'Un^hv of Bupgtjndy. In th» 
y, iadc«d, ao dln-vt mvotjou hua rtuuiu of the duchy, bat ii 



Louis _17, 

woa lKu4 tacitly ^ven up, Loui^ on hia jifift* mrretidered sll duioi 
to French Flsinilprs. and prumiaed devbt aguin Id counteaanoe Uit 
wbellioiiM btirgheni of Lii^ge. 

AVIien the ambfLeaadord vrho brought to Louio, at ths c&stie oi 
Flcui#-3td-Tours, the aavsa of the complctioa of this moBl JBTOumbU 
trebty, tht cruwu of oil hia hopes, iticy found the oorerei^ bcEjrt 
Mhnm all Lrmnbled living like b priaoDar in Kis i>wn puUico. The 
caatiB itself wuH n fortTM«, fflirrounderi by a brosid ditt-li, in wlii<^fc 
wero plftted iron ipikeB. Foreign guards topi watch by ni(iht and 
day on rho brond ramjiwrTg, and tlie flonlincla liati ordt'n to pLoot aa j 
person who hhuiild vtEture within th^Jr mni^e uiWr nightfuii' lleif 
Louis lived with hia fmiijluir iLSsuriates — Oliver D'uiHt hi» bfirber; 
Ttismn rHermite, the ejceciiTifiner ; and Jftcques Coitlier, hm 
phyHifian, a man of bnitnl inannorH, who tynnniBod ovflr hia wh-c 
reipti by toirorT and wrung from him cnornioua aunts of money 
The queCD vra^ de,idi and the king's cidy vl^iLotA were hib daughter 
Anne aT\d her hJisbftTLd, the aire de Beniijcu, both of whom woti 
carefully watched. His other daughter, JoKnne^ who, rhough amiable 
in di«poaitioo, wna iiafortiinQtely deformed and unpropoeBoasing in 
appearoncti, had been married to Louift* duke of OrluuiSf vctj uiudi 
rij^iiiniit the duke^ri wivhe^ uml neither uf them visited Pleaai^. 

The king had fliifftrpd ft^im a sTighr, stroke of npapleiy, and 
thoujfh he had r^KOVvrQd, he had htccme ao thin and pa!o that bi 
could Boaroely hare dnrud ehow himrv^lr to hia aubjccta He wna 
Atill active in mind, but as rtgarded the body he could do little or 
nothing; otdy — ihe pfleajOQ for hunitny remaining — ^he went (roni 
roam to rnorn, with little dogH ttained for tba purpoiie, »nd caugkt 
mice, Tho Floniiaii auibapeador^ ware teceivfld at PleBSig-lea-Toiin 
in the evemD,L?, in il fmall room badly lighted. Tht king wiu acjitcd 
in fi conier» utid his rich robei ofcriniiwn «itia linwl wlih fiirscouJJ 
BOAiL-ely be dieiinguislied in the diirkue-iH. S|>eidkiiij^ with diHir-iili/, 
for he could no Innger pronodnoe the letter r, he apolcpiyt^d for u"t 
riaing or taking olE^ hia cap, and then, after a few word^* ^.^rdurtil a 
cupy of the Holy Gogpels to he brought, on which ho waa to lake 
hia (tfith, ^ If J eweur with the left hand/ he aaid, 'you uiiiet exotvf 
me ; the righ^ is k hltlfi WE^ok.' It wiia, in lui^t, paruly^, and iil|' 
jiorted by a string. T^uiii raok carp, however, to loiicJi the book wilt 
hin right i^tbow ; no dnubt thinking tliut if any j>art of the lUUd 
(jereniony woe alti:rad it might afterwards bo mode a pretext tor $ii- 
uulling the treaty, 

Alreiniyit had brought him ialo n nennua difficulty, TheEn^iiJ' 
princess, nctiafltomed to call heraelf T)anphin*«s, waa not iuelined » 
ubandon h^r position, or rather her Jrienda were not im^linod Vi 
abandon it for h(;rt Kdward IV. war i^dignatl^^ ao in JigniPit thni 
he tLxHiteuird tfar ; but Lia aelf-iudulgezit habiU hud uud^nuiUEil ii>i> 


f^finstitution, nnd before h& could put hie plnnn into execaEJon h« 
diwL EJnHrd was the Usl etL^iciy whom Loiiia had to draud on 
earthf wnU cite ©jcceptwn— DL-atb, the foo from wlmm there ia no 
eacspc- And aa the king, djiy hy duf, hour by hour, watched th« 
fiC«Llt)ij ^t«jp £,[iprcm;)]i]|g, bia tcirur Liuisiaiv loore miii uioru abject 
and pitiable. 

Live ha would, and of«tlj ofi^eiiogB were aent to the ahrinefl of 
^ the Blended Vii^n and the EointSf in the hope that houUh ujt^ht ho 
f Touchsafed. A Spani-sb hermit) vha waa reputed Eo wcrk mlraelctft 
^ wna oIh] sent li>r« zkud Louib on hib kueu) li(9<LiugbL bim tii prutoag 
^p hiB lil^^ At length, on the 2.'>rh of Aug;ur<[, 14H3, he e.^pcrienced iL 
^ ihird fltrote of Apoplexy, which for a lime lofik ftoia him epeech 
■fid conacioQBQeipH- Onuo jnore, indeed, he rolljcd, aeul iht^ sire do 
I Btunjeu with meaia^ea U> hie soq at Amboine, aud cunveri»ed with 
I his utLcndauiA un public afTairs ; but it viaA on\y fi.ii n ftvi dnyB, and 
on ihe 30ih of the moutlx be expired^ in the eixtj-tirtt year of tia 

Fere sovertrigna hare ic.^ behind tljom a more hntcfUl character 
than LouM XI. HJA cruelty and dupbtity were united with the 
most hypocrinc^ fiupuraLiLion. The mno who rJiuL up his euranie& 
in cagei, nnd addresfitd bia pmyerd to a little leaden imu^ of the 
Bl^rtaed Virginr vhich he wore in bia cap, cannot &it to oicita our 
aTerjion- And yot, when we roi^cird him as a king, it must he allowed 
that luariy infinitely better men have been far wor** rulere. lie wa« 
DBJiiHt himsflir, hut he required jiiHticp tnwardH ore another from hiH 
■ubjecu, and tfven his g^Jdah ambition worked for the ultimate good cjf 
Ilia GCFimtry. To make hU doinmiopii one in litwti nntT gorcmuent 
wu cHBcattal for bia perBonal iuterest^i, but the ann^'icatioa of tbi? 
BTOt provixiutB, which bad hitlierto b^vn a consDant source cf civil 
dinnrbBDce, brought peaiif? iil leapt to thr; renire ofFrAnce, although 
ihe meam hy which they were acquired cannot bo too strongly eon- 
dcmned, Tbere eeomH t<i have beta u djivming even of Romething 
twiet than ambitioo al the l.inl. * If 1 live aome time longer/ he 
Vkid to Comine^ an hia life wnb drawing to a done, * ihtre hhell be 
^ily one weight, cne meaiiure, one law lor ihe kingdom. All edicts 
ithiil be written in Freneb and kept in a book- Wo will have nc 
"J'ire lawyera cheating and pilf'irinig; lawsuitB tball bo ^ortened. 
■bt.Te shall be good police in the cuuntiy.' Cominea adds that the 
*ing aaw tlie nu*crie* oi' the conimou peofde, and dcfiired lo help 
4iea- Kod vs may hope that hin chronielpr ppcke tnith. Yet the 
pfttfettioiia of a prince who, in the pToepect of death, owned, oa Lenis 
J^M did to Cemin^ia, that he rewiirded or ruined men in order that 
^ might be talked gti and that bia subjects might see he w«a not 
^el dead, uiwfi awaken uiELmderable distrUdL 

Only on one point am LeuJH XL be praised without reaeiration. 



CAarl€B nil. 

Hii vtns an enctnjrflgar of HtemtTire^ ond Browed Iqtoqt to the 
learned Greeks yrho a:cAped irojD CorwEaatiaapli^ oltet il£ cBpti;ir# bj 
the Turks. 

]i w»a !n his rei^ fhnt the art of printJDg^ v/nB iatroducDd Eu^u 




The doath of Lotub XL aeemed the dei^ruction of tho al^sDlin 
ooTei-oigntj for whiiii Ke hud Inbonred. Hie eon Cliarles •nas but 
ihiricfij jears of nge, phyflicnilj vesX nnd aomewlmt JcJoxmiil, uil 
mentally dnl] and igTiornnu FrinneH, roble*. clcr^j, nil w>?re clHmrmrti» 
fortUeir own iDtoreetB, Who wa« to control them? But the iniiueDCi; 
of tho dwd monarch etih haunted hia Hu^jocta. Tht»re wbs probebij 
no person who irould nfit hnro turned pa[e if he had receind • 
panJimL'nt, HignL-d Lot/s (Loujn), an i when it was kno^fn ^mi dn 
laut king on hifi il^j^Eh-becl hiLii enntiilRd thp (ihaT^<> nf hh ft]Q b) ibi 
prinuees Anne, commonly called the dome de BpMUJeii, onJy («< 
pSTBon dared to dispute her claim lo ba rEgcnt uf the kitigdom. 

Thi* was Louia, dufce of Orleans, tlie fir^t prince of t!ic hk»d 
and heir preMuiapuvu to the crown, who hivi h«fti mliicnied at tl» 
court rif I^iiifl, and hai mnrried Jpannfl, fhe yriunpr Bi«t^ of Am* 
Tht qiieatioQ waa settled by the Srntes-General, whieh met wt T<iD» 
in Ja.niiary MS-I, and after lon^ dieciTasionu the ffovc-mmcn: was ooar 
laitted lo the hands of a conni^Ll, ov^r which ihv king wiia topreuilA 
ia persjii, tha cliief place, Jn the event of his flbwrnee, beirp aasipiJ 
to the dnke of Orleans. The STaten then proc«i>r)ed To tmtar IdX 
voHdub grtevunceaf and to prnj>osu cfrtFLin remedjaa, but their oW- 
plainta r<'ccircd hut httle alti>otion ; and afttr voting o, mMtiflC 
Aubsidj ihf; atHeiiihly hivktj up, oijoo tavTV le&Ting (he royal Biitk~ 
rity to !\Qt wiThout check. 

Anne of B^aujeu, however, wafl not to he an ejwily set aai^e 
She wne a womaa of romarkable tjilciita fknd spirit* poEisej^iog tnnc^ 
of hoT father^a nhrewdncj'a, and also moth of his unecruptddUiBrtii 
and 4f llie gtiaidjun of the young kiog^n petaou ahu mo» ouotriTed 
lo exerrinc such an inf]nence over her brother that he npok^ noi 
BCted soldy by h«r dioUiCion- 

jm VIII. 

I Chirks waq al tb» time r^gnrdfi^ rs the hiiebnnd of ilie prin- 
e«A Margaret of FUndert, the dtiughter of Maxiiailiao acid Mary 
of Burgundj. Shortly Imfore the death of Lotiia XI, tbc little lirido 
Lad been aeDtto France, hurb^trathal had taken pluc^ pubUdy, mid 
ihe had b<^r left iT' ihe French t^onrt with the tJiln of (jtrepn under 
the guarfl inn ship of Ann* ftf B^anjeu and her hti^band. Any diffi- 
culty, ifai'Tefore, K^^ardin^ tho marringc of bo youn^ A monjiruh as 
Chu-len Appeared to hedefiaiiivdy r*eilleil. Aane* ivith hct two young 
cbar^^ under htr own eyf , yia.B able to givfr htr full atLentinn to her 
politjca] pOAition, anr] it vus won uvid^DC that the dame de Bpulljeu 
wa^ vJitLUlly the ruler of Fraoe^, To the proud and ambitions 
ItfiUB of Orkone tho ]Jij^iir>n which h» wns tlms compt^Eiod to lake 
beouita intolerable. At the nah of civil war he reaolved to asa*-ft 
h\» poweft anJ Icziving ihe court of Fnxnce ha re[>airLil lo BtUttnj- 
The dnke, like hirnsoif. wus pri?pnrfld to roheT, Tn the hope of bMnni- 
Utg An jnd«t^ndetit pcvereign itieteod of a vaH^al of Frani:?, The 
Mn«t*nc« of Haiimihan of Gennnnj and of Richard ]H. ot Encr- 
bmd was also wught, and u dechrntion of vrat \fa.s tlifn miide 
with fair proaptH;tH of snccenn. But the dtuue d^ BeiLuj'eu was fully 
Htlal t£i ths emprpetiey. Aid from Fngland was rendered imptis'^ihle 
by oupport secretly given to ihe airl of KichmoiLd, aC^erwardd Henry 
Vn.; the SlafO' General of Fbndtrs wtrc urged to oppOM the plana 
of Maximilian, whilst in France the young king was brooght Itr- 
vrard, dreitBed in gay armnur, mounted on a honw, Jini plnced at the 
head of the royal Army, and tht? loral eorhiiHiauni cC the people hfing 
thus roUBtrd, Anni; prepared lo meet the tbrces of tho eonfi^duraleB. 
A gnat battle followed. The royalialfl were vjcloiieua. The duke 
cjf OrJe^DB, who served aa a vcJunteer iu the Breton army, wun t^iken 
loivmer. Anne'e exullAlioD wnn unbounded, but thu young king wah 
EFri«Ted- He entreated that theprii^De™ might t-e brought before himj 
but Anne, fearing the t^nderaoi^^'^ of' hie ciotaio, re»:)lvedtoprGTontthin, 
The loDg-neglected dnchfiis Jeanne petitiontd for an inlerview be- 
tween her brother and her hu<>band. Still (lie regtut woalnexoratile, 
and Lo'iis, flRer b<-iiig Kirri&:l Ironi pince to phiee, wam finally ini- 
ptiaoned in a dork, low-roofed eell in the tower of Boiir^a, thti 
*toly changQ in bin life being hi^jrcmovnl at night to an iron cage- 

It wan not till Louia ivafl knos^'u to he ill in his prison thiit bi^ 
^fr, hy hw earnest I'ntreaHeR, prf^vailed on thu dame Je Beftiijeu bi 
*]lov her to "vUnt him. She naw him Horn, wailed, lonely, and bunt 
^to a pn*Hion of tears. * Ah, Kir.' ahe exclaimed, * how minemble i» 
^he condition in which I find yonl ' 

Louifl, rouEPcd from his enfleriiig, luroed away from her, eaying, 
' Vadam, you have uiime (o hat«tUH, but leave me in peace/ 

Jl 19 a dart blot in the charaeiiT of a prince whoes after life 



oi»Idne[«, he se-iiiifl to liavs dlsti'italL-d llie fiincerity of Itia wife's love. 
AgHin urid agaja J^aiiDt tiriLrKiitd Lo bt! uLowi^ to -"thare hiu priflon, 
but ic wjiM in VFiiii ; nnd nt Icrtfth, ma lii^r only con«n|ft[ioii, ehe took 
up l^cr lUiddoEK^o in & coovant ut BL^urgva, uiid wJd hor jewels toftimbih 
hirr ItualHind. wilh tho neccsrvinGa which Anne of Beniiijeu denicii 
Jkiui. l^ht duke of hviUnay jiaid aJmoflt ua heavv □ puaiUl^ as ^e 
duke ofOrltiwn^ for \i\ti An^^iiijit nt iniltpcuiltirjt:!'. He wa» t^omp&Mf^ 
%o yield ta tenns ^vhlch under DTbar oircum^tanc^i he^vould hAi^Bn- 

i'eetu'i with ecofn. Ila hud no Bonn, and aa regnnl«d hifttwo daughffli», 
le Iclt hiniflolf ctitir? Jy in the huiidm>i'.^nne of Bc£.iijf!Ui pledging him' 
Bell" not to Tonu atij alUance fcc them withuui LhtcoiifteQCoflhe Frpuci 
king, vvbn, on his pjtrt, promised to treat rhe priiiceeses aa hia nauM 
reUtivee, Btid nifoi-d ihem f^ill protection. The iiraurnuco va/t mori 
oeediul, tor a ftw duya orttr thp treftty wca (i^^ricd FranciA IL. 
.t.D. the last duke of Britiany, expired, September 14^0, and hts litdd 
'*^ daugbLcr Acne, tbeo oiiJy ihirLteo yeurfiof age, wba Lefl to fiusaioofl 
the perils of lier high poiiidoi^. 

There muni hove been much in Ibo early tnuniiig of Annfl a' 
Brittany to alrPngthL'n her nntiiTalEj firm ohuractcr^ and tCAch btf 
to underBUmd poJitrud ufTaJr^ utlierwiab jt ^rould t^^arvely h^ve been 
poBftTbb^ fur bur, at an age m young, to ijike ihe decided pari in ie 
chalking nut (it iier own dpatiny which ehe did at the first nie*lJtfl 
oi' her counsel iors ul^er bor &oci.'adioti. 

Tbdy desired her epcedj morruige* and recomTnendBii the comt 
d'Albret, wlioee cqu^ had heeu ol^i p^eudtd by hla vater, ihe 
goTKrnewof the jnunp ducheaa. Ann*' ucom^e nyt-GU-d ihe proponL 
The count wan ii widower. afli?d, Ihe father of twelve children, Sitf 
hud aJwaysdialiked him, and md^cr than eorieont to ba hia wife ibt 
proposed lo retire to a conrent and take the veil 

The iniiiiMitra were sutrtltd, Ajxue'n liioc^uenue was an reumrkibl' 
flH hfr r*iaohitJcin, But they were in n grea; diJbculty TbeFrenci 
king^, infitrueted iiy the (bune de Beonjeu. h^d atnt ambAmadon Tf- 
rjuiriog thiit the two prineeaaca Ebouid be placed undT hie 9^ 
He inltndcd, be *aid, to marry them lo two aoiia of the Lou* of 
Rohuii. On tibidcoDilltion idotie wuiilil he lay aut^laJm to tliedncJl^ 
of Brittany for hrmu^lf. The De Kohans were dnie^led in RriLBUji 
in tlie civil wars ihe-y bad nlwoys taken [>Hrt with France, aad il w" 
a Donimon euying anjongbt tlie Broton3| * He uit4 nt the miafer Ift** 
fiubaii/ jueaaing by the manger the table oi' ibe kiiig of F™>* 
The prupcfflitiou at Gluiries wub eonaidered an insult. 

DriTen to ejcirpTinfy, Anne and hur efiunaellont turned ^ 
thoughts to Maximiiuii],arcbdake of AurAriaand kiugof the Jtom*"^ 
the widowiid huubnnd of Mary of Buris^ndy. He wjin atU! in ^^ 
prime ttf life, liAndAoum, kiud-hturLed, brztvt, alevei- — puinllta't ^' 
dtsed, (Ktf liia taib&t- wua uut of the mo^il penuriouA of numkiDdi but 



the diwliew cT Qnttany liJiJ poa.'<«iaLCijLa suffiucut of btr owOy aoi] it 

I would hv wivn U- hcMiow h«r dominloni with herself uptm one Ht 

I capibJi: of del^diDg lioth. So Ui« negotrntioriB Ih'giUL, MedAungCTB 

-vrerft despatched t^i JkliudiuiluLa ic infDrni him that hf^ hrtii odIv to 

LlqJ id Brittany in 4 taanoi^r belhung hiA tnnk 4ud the lireioihs 

i voiild rec^ivr hhu as ihti lutun: huabund uf tlii-ir youny ducljeeo- 

I Tbe aoHWtt came baclc, Miniiniliiia wsa ' hoTioured, ddighted; 

I ht would ^end a frioud to coacIiLde the engagement, but he could 

Tiot oomchim&tdr/ tlis fntJitir aJlowcd him no uiODC^. The excuse 

wiu ACcepCed. and when ilm representative, fllUir coDsiderable delay^ 

BTTiTedH the ctrcinony or beimih-il wnH gone rhrongh in ibe suminer 

fi 1490, >nd Arnt ol' Bntuinj o*wiimed ihi? Tii|« of qiw^en of ihe 

RopuuiA. The ucpe<!led bridegroom, however, oever c:Lme, and tin? 

marriage W4A a aullitj. 

The rcfuid of tlit ducheaa to nccept the proposal ol' tte king nt' 
Ffunce produced its iiuturEi! rez«ult, Frpnch troops invndpd Brittany 
4Dd reduced Breat and Boveral other imporumt townti. But the httle 
duchefc was not Avithcut hope of friiinds and naeiHCancv, On the 
\erT first occasion ivhtc thii quealiou of her Diarmgs htid heeo 
brought fuL'ward the had debimtdied a uecrei Qjefi^ager to Htiity VII, 
of Enijland, wilh letters, *«i bv her own hnnd^ lagging for his 
mt«Ht:reiice and Hiip]H>r1- ^^Le Imd u good right Cci exp<>ot that th(T 
■pp«l ^oald b<^ LJdttaed to^ l<jr in bygone jutb Henry, vheu onlj 
earl of liidimocid, bad fuund tdielter aud ptotei:tLOn at tli^ comt irf 
Lhe duke of Brjiumy. Muxindliiin uIh) fltill held ihe iKuiritin of het 
affianced huubimil, whii^T Feix^iciund !Uid iHJibfllla, the powerful joint 
fctTcicigTiH of Spain, were fully alive lo tbe nuctsaity of keeping lie 
pi>wcT of France iu cbook. 

I But frit'oda: mu^t be proved by deedR, and wben Anne of Brit- 

^Htr put her prqmW] i^iipporters to the i«*t T'be found ihcm want- 
^|E Hf?nry VII. dislike Ajmnding money, and rcRLly ejit^d more 
br au alliunco with France thiuL with Hntl&ny, Ilu fandi>d u few 
ttiwp* in Uji- duchy, bul speedily recalled tbom, Ma,\iuiillan could 
ilo Dothiug, mid Ptrdiiuiud and lnuWIa wera too mudi eiig^iL^sd 
in eouflulidating their own power in a newly-united coimtry lo be 
PTep^E:d to ettter into a wur with a neighbouring nnlionr Aid 
Came at Uat^ but from u totally iijienj"ecjtod ^pmrtor, Tho eouneel- 
Iqtb of Cbiirle!+ Vlll.^ and more especially his couain the count 
iJunoi*, hid waiched wiih keeu iutertiit and aujtieLy the eflbritt 
niajJa t/i aare Brit'any from the power of Friince, To at-ciirH them- 
■dve* Eroui pres^ut daiigr-r tbe young ducheafi nnd her ministers vr&ee 
Itkefy to riflk future BiiJbty, and the bopu Ltavruod upon tbv Fraut^ 
JOTernment Umt by the marrittge of ibeir king with thu heireaa 
^ Brlt^ny the impurbint duuhy, bo long a thorn in tlie oidt^ of the 
tiiigs of Fruncr?, tiiijjlit b^ome an inifgnil pnrticrn of thair doEDinioiiL 

Chnrfa J7ii, 

Thti firM- person to lit ^aJDed v^as Anne cf GeaujfUj wtio, by tlii' 
Hefttli of hi?T himbAnrl's &ldf»^t hrolker, bRd now hecomft duchvA^ i>f 
Bourbon, Diintiia oought an interview with her nl iVnnteB, which 
CUcu'k'fi baJ already titlcpD po^so^ion of. Setting forth eitrcncly ittr 
i^yiuOs^ee tonccruc frfjoi the marrlnge of Chadeaand Ajintt> liflmode 
l)ie flliirLliri^ prupixyit tbaL ihti mnrrLngti hyptuKj vricli thu littlR Miir- 
garet of Flfrnderflflhauld he annulled, and the princa« Bent bauk to htf 
fnth^- Jl^ would himself undertake the Dcgo^ation on voudiliDP 
that Lotjia of Orleaun shauEd bo set Ij-ce, and thus an end be puE lo 
(he ploc^ foriDeii by bis IriaDda. The regent htaitated i the duJiv i>l 
Orknns wan her gr«it(»*t enemy. His dtYoled wile whs er*n then 
vainly pnCreating for him. I'nnntietTl and rinparfd for, Jeann? ImJ 
followi^d rhe kin^ tc Kant^B, remamiap the greater pnrt of the ni^i 
in the atreclfi, b^caune no accommodaliDn hjid been provided fnr beT, 
tad upoti obtuiniugu private Atjdience frum Charles i!Le bod rec^ivod, 
not ihe Icing's cnnHtnl, but only bis BViripBlhy. ' AJon, my Iboiyi 
Jaann^^ Baid CbarleP, 11:4 he mised her front her kneee ; ' v^u ailc tlf 
that which. U H^tn«t your own inrepcst, God grant that you mif 
lie vex repent having gained your pctitian.' 

But thi^ puhiic argumeiiUof DunoU prevaLled where compK^nfl 
had failed^ and, To tlic inliiiit^ Fatiafjirtion of CliJirlea, the regtftt 

The young king' instantly roda off* ^th oae of bis fbllovren 
under pretence of a hiinling fmrly, and Bending mcneui^brH tc biin| 
hauifi. to hib preaeucef whs tli« firat lu welcome hh cou^n fin his k* 
torn to fref^lom. In rlie czonven^aEion which ^Q«iied Louie aAeil 
pardon for hiB rebellion, wbiUt Charges ^poke of the griof he bad fstt 
at hia imprisonment, find entreated tliut he would not etiuid ia A* 
way of his siiit to tbe duditss of BHtUiny, Louia bin wani 
and the reconciliation was wided, ai^cording 10 the cijatom of tbr 
timeR, bytJie twoprincp^ occupying The finm^ bed. 

The tirnt stop was tnhen, but mueh remninrd to be doti«. Thf* 
were poioooH in tbe <:ouri of Britt*ny devolefl to the Frcntjh inter**"- 
and cutiiHtoutly did they renjind tbeir yuiin^ mistre»4 that Msuthnilt*^ 
her flflijinced hu'^hand, wan powerless, and the anger of FTjinffeeboT* 
all tlxingft to be dreaded -. and when it was thought that AoHi 
mind was duffidontly ]ioisoni?d, Dunois and sevcmt of tho p^ 
BreTon ooblea appeared before Anne in a private audiencet ^ 
made tbe detiniie proptisnl that Ait abouJd consent to be (lucrt'j' 
Frane^. ' King Charles,' replied Anne, 'is an unjust prince, who wii* 
to deapoiJ me of (he joberitoneo of my father, whiUt my eok*^ 
nJliflnce witJi tho king of the Homana boa boon approved bj »f 
eounscllorB and my people. I will not fiUwfy roy word, and rtlhf' 
thau do HO I will Hat furtb U> join tlie kjtig of the Romans^ ^ra 
Cfinnot come to me.^ 

1^ SECrt>rr> ikvaikw— Wami^Oe — cWAaACTER of cbajelks ahu *t:si. SB9 

krUt VIII. 

I 'flie noble but unsatl^nctci^ answer prolnced the immediate 

I jTiTajioD of BriLum^' bv ClmrlL'^i. Tl wil.4 ^ aLranj^i? mcule of irooing» 

' jimJ Louifi of OHtnnfi could tviih difUcDlty oont^i^l hifi dt^L^iuinr 

Lhe priipOfliU ilifll bi* shmxld j'-in ihi* expsdition, Th* younpdutliesg 

vfLfl HiOQ inrormcd by ht^r ladies ihrit list Lcini; of France, ab the lieail 

! pf an imujeTisc army, waa witliin a short distance of her castle al 

I RtuineBf wLerv! she bbd taken up bi^r abode. U wa^ JiiereJy, huw- 

I BTer, a ihnw of hiMlilitjr; a depnuifion wns s*Tit to ihr? (iiifjhf^ and 

twelve jioTSOnr* on pitb^r udo wvrd appoiuted to exiimine iiito ibe 

I reApe'^tJvo oLjkJTnB of bolli parEics Ic lLq dut^br of Brittdoj, 

The e*en[a which Ibjiowed luive never been dtarly espkined. 
Tbe king of Frjuice irisiaied u[>ou hHvJug die lo^n uf Kennrf ^ivi^n 
into bia bjuidt,^ »nr1 gimrjiriTead n saft^-c^nnthict ta ihe ducheHs fhir 
b^r departure to Germany, He orderfld his troopn to ro^jrc, and 
oalGltfiibiy rrtiimifd hLnk^^lf to Toui-aitic- Bitt it ia snid thcit ho 
re&]J/ went to K<:[ines, was iotrciduced into tbe caatle^ and had A 
ppTMina! imervh'w with Anne^ aiiJ ihat thraa daya afterwardji he wna 
ipcretly nHiimced tn ber. 

Wbiitever nmy he the corrGcEiicafl ofthetto d«tai]u, ail KuropmvBB 
ocrtaial? BtojCitd wbtit, fit^vtn days a£[cr the ^ilbdrawtl ol' the 
Frerjdi troop*» it viw.* known llirit tbe duchess of DritTJiiiy had takea 
birr jnurrej to Fntnee with Charlta, and hud aLiiiaJly been mnrrird to 
him in th« cfuUe of LongealHi on tbe bonkfl of Ihe Loire, Dacembef 

Jl ptfbpal dispensation! pranted nflcr the infliriflRei Btates ibflt llic 
dupviualioD ia ^lUnteJ only in ouee t^ie ducbtsa Anne t^all not 
have been fiweibly oirried off. Evidently then? was a report c\tr~ 
lent at Ibe time tbiit the joiimty from lt4-.i].Dea to Langt^d ^'oa not 
«D^Tcly vnlujitAry, and the idea in greutJy i^ireoglhencd by the fact 
thai after ibe blrtb of her Sral child Anne waa obliged to put furth 
■ publie dt-tl^mlion that »he bud come Jreely to be tbt wiiu of the 
kisA of FrnncP- 

Cbarlea VIH., at the tiniv of lii« marriage wj(h Anno of Brit- 
tfcnr- «"a*eigbteeo jtatTPof ai^e. Nerther biabtAlth tu-rbis appearnnce 
bad impri^iv^ nince hia childhood ; but he had an aiiiiable, ibuugk 
ttilffit. diflposition, and a kindiiNfM of mjiiiiter whieh reconcil^^d his 
mbjc^tR u> thi^ dinkinutive appi^irance of their littk' kin^ — * le petit 
h3j,' SLt h« ivaa Ikcailiariy erLllod. Aon^! who wni> nbout Iburreen, 
in desi^jiied as romarkiibly attractive) with a con^plcxirto of duzLing 
^inii^B, rental lectures, and t\ niEiJentiu tiLrriage, Wurm-hE^rtod, 
g»D«rD]]B, pure-minded, obaritiihle, rellgiouv, E^h^ might indeed have 
bwdi ibe model of n ipeen hui fuT her great pride and the obittinacy 
Vbich made her peruflt in maiatainiog her owa opinions, whatever 
djffictilti<<a tbey inifht r<cotaioji fo ibe aUic- 

Sbe bad no 4:au^c fo regret bur Frouch nurriage. Cluules did 




Chari^ vm. 

cveiylhing In liis power to stow ti/r tono^ir mid maVt l»er liappj. 
Aflfr two Tuontha spoilt in f^r^fl at ihe chiW-iiu of Pl^i^^ the f|iiani- 
ducfaeBi^, lis Anne iafllBled iipoti lieiog cnlJed, w&b cTovnnf\X At Si- 
Deme. The duko of OHeAii^ wJio ^vc1uld ffkin himsolf \m\t ^tv£a 
het hnab&nd, held die crown— too htavy with jeweU Tot Anno t" 
weir — over her lieai, while the Juchias of Bourbun stood bj iIm 
throne elcee lo tlie nifin whom nhp di^^mpd ber disa<J|y enemy, and 
vhoiv frt^^om phebud bten cartipelled lo grutC at the tiaenbcc of 4IJ 
bcr oheriahed ochcmeis of ven^&incc. 

The niarri(vc;o flrticlen were ytiry TcmarVnhlc. Aane ceiM ^ 
ber ri^liLB m Bj-JtUuy, unleM ClifLrlea filiciild die bofuiti h^ widKnil 
leaving children. In that cawe the duchy wua lo rev*Tt w l«, 
on the condition that alio shmikl Tnnny no other person than tin 
fubure king of Franctf, if he wiahod it. Shuuld n^ ob^^olc «&At« or 
if the king ahoulJ be alreitdj married, aW pleJced herself t* ayiny 
DO oae but the heir-preauiripiive. It is thought tbni the dube ef 
OrliiaTi>i had the dilatation oE th^se nrricTra^ nnd aiUr svenu gftveldn 
a remnrkalile iutereet io them. 

The tJrat weuks of married life rauflt have wn^med bright and 
hopeful lo Anne of Brittany, but ^lere were clouds looniiog in i^ 
dtAtnnre. Ma^niilinn ortwfrnmrj', indignant ut thp afiront piiujfli 
hia diiJd, threatened vjrTj end vian nn\y nppensGd by tho ooMiivi nf 
the <«milieft which hud hvca ceded to France as the prinoesfl Marp- 
ret'ft dowry. Henry VII. of England, under pretence of awisiini 
M«xiujilJHji, besieged Boulof^ne, and ouly withdrew tin the y«ymat 
of nn enormouj sum of monry ; ^nd Ferdinand and I^1>elfA nf SpHiQ 
MiKcd th* oppcrtunify of them* cnibin-aEHinenu to detnATid ibf 1*0 
provinces af Koiissilion and Cerdn^e, which had boao pigged ^ 
Loiiia XI. For money lulvoiiced by him- 

The territ<3rif!B w^rc- reKlorod f'roely; no demand wan made ftf 
tkha HUin4 f^r which they had been mort^n^d. ChariM had rvhtt 
mtereniB at heart, lie wii drfjaming of I inly, of the recovaj « 
that kingdom of Naples which had been bestowed by llic Pope a" 
Charles of Anjen, the hrolber of ^. Loii]a,and which Lad eVErBPBl 
been tiu inheriumce of evil u* nil who laid <'lmm to iL 

It bad niiw paawd into ibi? hunds af a branch of the boow w 
Aragon, having been conqoered aome yeara b^cre ( 1458) by AlAoiU^ 
kinp of Ar&gorij commonly called the Majp^nanimooa He had W^ 
it to his illegitimalti uon Ferdinaitd, n com^iti of Ferdiitaad ui< 
Catholic, but the Anjou fnmily still uPHiTled their ri^rbt lo it U^ 
CbarlcH VIIL, aa their ivpTeBenlaiivej burned with an eager d»i* 
to recover it. 

Though physically weak. Charlen wna adventaroua, and, wiiW 
neglecting llie government of hia owtj country, abaudoned hi m*d£ * 
vifflona of military glory. He woold conquer Naples, and than pru- 


witi rm. 

ceed to escpel the Tnrka from Cbnatantioopte, and, renewing tte 
cnisftdeaii re-vcUbl^Bh tho kingtlom of JoroBakin, 

Tht dream might have rcmaiDcd u drcAm hut for a ^^lar 
concurreaije of clicumsUiiice^^ vrhich aoib!^ bitii to attempt ile 

Tbe dnphy of Milari vx at that time governed by Ludovico 
Sfbr^i or, a^ bo ia often {saJled, Ludovico ii More (tho Moor)* who 
profeased to act aA r^ycnt for hi^ nephew Geaq GaleoEZO Sf^rEa. 
Luilovico, ambitiouH, v^Wy. clever, had, bowevcr, no thought of 
yielding up hi* power to a Birklj' id\ti\, and Rnlfjuzo whs little 
better. Even if lis had ever inicnded il, he would lijiTe been pre- 
\GCtlcd by the ioiluoncc of fiiu vilb. The proud imd btu^utiful 
BeatHco J'Edk, once seated upon the throne of Miliin, wm bent 
upon keeping posHn^un of il. Vet it could not be hdd without a 
rtmggle- GftleBzro was fln imbecile, wbo wiw kept iu impTiBonment 
DD tli« plea of security, but he bad tnEirri^ iKubella, the dnughler of 
Ferdinand of NapIoR, and Inkbella nafl bb proud and FLmhitioua ae 
Befttrici;^ She carried her cc>mp]iiint» to her father, And Liidorlco 
w&A Hummoned Ici relhiquiah hia throne. 

Tb*- regent of Milan fell himself necirre. Florence lay between 
himAeif and Napf^ and the ^rjrd of Flcrenco^ Lorenzo the Magni&- 
cGotk the bead of the ^ent Medici family, vsa hia oltj. But Lorenao 
died, and hia Aon Piotro« a man scarcely auporior to Galca^i^zo in 
iniellFct, broki- the old idliuiu-e. thrtateiied LtiduvL{:0) ^nd led lutn 
St lut to summon the king of Franco to hn md. Charles whs in- 
TJL^ to make gi>od hia title to Naples, and Ludovico promitud tc 
nppori him vith all the rci^oitrcefi ill hLi command. 

The T>Tillianl; French court iraa at that tnne kept up reckli«a of 
cT|ieD»»', l>ut (here wna no money Ebr the enn<jiJe}^ of a kin^nm, and 
the dfichean of Boiirhcin aod her hiuiband kuw vri^h infinite regret 
tl»t QuitIos vaa bent upon tlie OTpedition, ' I do not aaj,' obeerves 
Comine/^ 'that the hin^ wne not wise enough for his age, but ho 
WNSonly Jn^t out of hia cgg-dicUi and had neither »eii«e, money, unr 
uythJug else uecea^ary/ This WiUi die opinion of one who looked 
on ccJdly, Charl^ saw only ihar hts vimonn of gloiy might unv be 
«oliTOrted into a renhty, Hia fint chdd had jiuft boon bom, Octo- 
b W 10th, 1402. Thn'G had heea a grand ohristcniiLg at PIcaais, 
where the saintly St. Francis do Pnul stood godEither to the little 
prouv Chjirlea Kolnnd. But the king^ was innennble to the attruc- 
IJODa of domoflcii? bappiness, and. To rhe nurpriw^ of hia friendft, aa 
^rell aa hia subjecU, now aunauncnJ hia intenrion of accompnnjing 
Ikia arcny into Italy. Anne went with him to Grenoble, whcra she 
iBDuned fot six daja, and then turned bjick to Fraace, to b^iu a 
Vruggte for power with the overbearing duehes8 of Bourban, who 
*M pmctically left ruler of the kingdoUr amce her husband hiid 



beoD flppgioCed regcul during the kiag'if abd&ucci nnd ho obayc-d Ltf 
IQ (lII ihlug& 
^ ChiiTlfs f!ro»ued the Alps dh thp 2i]fl nf Sepi@t]it>or, 1494, wkh an 
Hnnj conaiatin^ of niitrw thiin 5l>.*rtM men. At Asti ho wub rtc^ivud 
liy LudOvJco Sforzii, who conducted him ru tiic Tu-h^n J'routiotT 
wbere tJw first temptolioa lo turn aaide frtim t^io courac ho \\aA 
plhuucd uretieiittid iiaelf, Gulea££u SfurzEi whs Ili Ijis nt^i^^hbourhood. 
iinri ihu Jiiug of Fniin!e, who had tin pcnijui*! enmHr n^iurt th# 
duke, paid hini a viiit. The ducheas l*iboik, Ibrgptting thai the 
object c/f the French king wiid to d^chruue btr fallitr, 1hi¥>v boHlf 
on her knuea before him und entrented hia prDtecEion Tor lier hot- 

Cliricl^fl made no promis^n, but he u:ls vi^hly TiLoved, nod 
LudovJco saw from that hour that in benrL iJie ^in^' of I'raiict: vaj 
d^Inot bim. Id bU secTeE; distrust nnd dlMppointiDent Lnd^ricD 
bxJi bid uHiiirs u)tiri!l7 into hitt own Imnds, and upon the death of 
Ga]eji7zo. which occurred alnidst immediiLfplj after th@ itit^rvier 
witJt ChurJeB, be caused liLiuHtiJf to be prockim^ liuke ol^ Alikn iD 
the ptuuc of Ihe infimt heir. 

Charle£ maroUod uo lo Piea. Surrounded by hia officers. h« 
repuireil in tJie fanmiin cjitbi'dnl. Ou the threfiJioM a miin thrCY 
hims«II~btfore hJm, heEd him by th« knei?A And began a frantic CK^ 
tjrta. He pave the tra+rical hiatoiy of Piaii, once n ftoiiFiehing c\tj. 
tiow deeiroyed by tht FlorentmeB^ her cuminfu\^ tuined, }jer pQO|iJff 
if^re tdiYes lo iht liuiiglity Medici fitmily, the lords uf Tijs<ain^, il 
length, Jtfter the fcuffUring^ of a century, thers ffna hop*. Liherij *ii 
nl hand- 

CharlcQ turned neido and entered the chiireb, buE his followen 
remaiTLcd to liaten. Out of theiHf I^Jthnt, ji GntinAcUor of DtiuphJgJifi 
£olI(]\ved the king. ' It ia ii plti^oua t:il«« bire. Ntvor fiRre people 
bten so bndly treated ns tbtse. You will mirely ^rant th^jr f^qu«(U- 
'I dvfiire noihjng twti^^r,^ was th« thoughtl«u ^ply ; nod Jfab^t 
turnod biick lo thi: h{uiu¥, in which ctowdji hnd ^th^'red- 'Ctii- 
drcn ! the king of Frauce ia wJlliug lo renture your prlvJlr^ 
* Pmiit'h for evi-r ! Liberty ftir ever 1 ' hhoured the mob, and. rW" 
ing to t}ie bridjaf© over the Amo. they threw down the oolnmn ** 
^vJkjob »tood the greut boo of Tnscauy, Uio symbol of lh«ir Liu>^ 

Tbow few vrordp hud rendered tlie Frondi king in thi* sight d 
th^^ ptjopl^ tho inipporur of tbetr cause Hgninrti tluit of their \^r^ 
They were, indeed, fl menace n\' couHiot throunhout Italy. FolJo"*! 
by the applauae of tho PiaAn&, Cbnrlea proooeocd lo Flerenofu A'l 
iiksurrection had htely tukeu plnce there, Piotro dv^ Uedici h^ 
dedi uid power wob in tJie hiinda of the peojile, diroctfid by SatcaO' 
rail, A moiikj but a ri^former, ctetir- sighted, diaintereAtad, udtfti 




daTDted to ]iia ccuntry and the renum^on of the purity of reli- 
gifto* which had sunk to the lowcBt coudition under the mJbnioaa 
Pope AJeauadei VJ. (Bor^a). ^vonarolu catn&, at iLe head of the 
Flortatine tnvoya, to nitetthe Prent^hldng, ^ Miniflterof jutcict, eer- 
Tant of the great God I' he ejicliiimi^^ rwhe eDiered (lift rojal preBence, 
'»t length thou art como. For four y^an hftve I foretold of Itea, 
tJiough 1 kne-vf tho? not bj nuuie. Wf^ ivolccma theo hm aoothj 
JleaTen toabaae the proud, lo exalt the humble, to renew theworld. 
Never lLcIcs^ most Chri^itiiui king ! bearteu to my wards aud leL 
ihem be graven on thy hertrt. Be not thoti tlie oi^casifrti of greater iin. 
Uc tlie prDLector of the incocent, the gunrdian of ihe cloister- Be 
mflTcitu], an ihj Snviour ia Tuorcifiil- If iberc nre pinncrt io FJorencc, 
BD also &TC th&re ri^hteona m«a. Pardoti, For Christ ha^ pardttued.' 

The king replied to ihe addreB5 7aguiiE^_ tie would not Huy hov 
OP up^iD whnt ponditionq he would enter Flori?nr«. Bict he wiifl 
truftcid' The Flor^ndnea throQgdi around him uith ocDlnmationSf 
sad the clergy ^^^^ hymafl, oa vrith all the pamp of tilt he trsveraod 
[he streets tu take poMe»«cn of the p^laoe of the Medici. 

Then caiEiid ibt- ull-iiiipurEHnt i^ueifUoa lo tlie Floruniinee, whnt 
waa hifl precis position 7 Did h« coth^ to rule tbem in hi^ own 
righti or vroi he only the rtprcsenlalive of the hated Modici ? 
Charles knew well enough wliot he deeirtd himaeif — to march as 
quickly as poa^bli; tu Nuplap. He chared nothing for (lit FlurentineH 
and fJieir politlctiH, but; he wanted money. He os&umal the rone of a 
coaqiieior, and inaitited on Ihe payment of an enormous sum. ^ If 
mioh are your detnund^' o^ccluimcd tho chii<f mogietrat?^ ike gOD- 
£iI(miBr Cafiponi, ' sound your trumpets, and we will ring our bella.' 
Charles #^ alunned ; h<.- reiluced his d«imiiid^ ncdt on the puy-^ 
meat of 1:20,000 florinn, he nmde nn alliance vith the Florentines 
and deported for Knme, 

At thc'time whwi Charlfa VIIL entered Italy Pope Alcsander VL 
hmA bul rmenlly bet^n roioed to the pcntiS[:d1e. Il^ \fiis a man of 
about aiTtyT very rinh anJ Y^ry profligfltP, a piTaeeuicr of hereticK, 
and an ally of Ptiltnn Bajaaetj the Turk. Popular tradition eoys 
tiiat he eont a mefuoge to CharJea adi^i^ing him not to ccta^ to Kooie, 
an plague and famine were already there, and the jvrrival of the 
French would certainly bring the Turka iuto Italy. To which 
Char!» EH reported to have rHpIied that ' he did rot feiir the plu^Ct 
for d«fl,tl] would be the end of bin pilgrimuge. tTeitber Jid he fear 
bmine, for be brought with him proTiaious ir plenty. And as (or 
(he Turk, he desTred nothing bettor than to Gght him, and would 
With that view gladly meet him half-way." And bo on the 3lst of 
December, 1494, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the French army 
defiled, ftlmoflt into night, throngh the narrow etrcetii of Home. They 
Mere lighted by torches as it grow dork. At their head, to the sound 


S74 ENTIUKC£ nnO roue— TBB££ UEUATTD^ of CHAltLEfi 

of tliedrum^ came bheSwlMftDd German LroopB, gigimtii: merif ca 
ing fthATp lancet and heavy batUe-ftx^a. The dark-camplexioned, 
fifiry Gmcoqh, to the number of B,UOO, foUowod j and behind 
tbcm caiue t^c oavaJry, Bpbndiii huruB, with tLcir T«Ua abnrleiicdi 
according bo llie FrtDih oiuU'Qi, but locikbg oiouBCrous lu the eyta 
of iljc Italiinfl. The Swjtch guuril — AGO urcherB and 20Q koi^rhw, 
covered vrith purple and gold — marched on Jbot immediaiely behind 
tJie kio^ aiid tliQ proao&SLun viu complc^tod by tho arTillcrv — thcgTMl 
pina not, aft in Wv, drawn by o;(tiL, but each bj bIa horfiea. The 
leust impofliiig ^bje*;t in die whole army was undoubtedly ihe young 
king, with hi(4 aiT];ill fi^urt add Inrge higiJ, juii3 wi>:Lhf though kiodilTi 
tixpresaiou of tounteoHOfH?. Cardioals, generals^ and itobtea aur- 
romidoi Hm, but tbo cmc ori^tiator^ of tho ^holo ecene were titf) 
of Chartca'fl JavourilCB— Dc Viae, hie wnesohal, and Bricoimrt, ■ 
metdiziDt. who for ten yeurs had filled hie head with vain drQumaaf 
glory in Italy, su that wh^n he was oaly fourteen yean of age ha 
tragged that he ought have a pJcTiure of Kome. 

The Popp had tfcken refuge in iht: casik of SL Angclo. Aft« 
the tifPt moment of terror, he recovered hie dignity, and *eEit a mm- 
BUge to The king that he was ready te recfivo hirt oath of obedimot 
Charles merely replied, ^ I must ftrsl hear moaa at Sc, Petor'a; ihoi 
1 iquhI dino j afttr ihat I will i-te the Pope,' 

But tho king vras not prtparcd to qmurol ^tb the Pope. Ha 
required Lhree favoura of hjui : lirst, the iuvcsilCure of the kingdifln 
of N^ee: HQGondf permitvion to hear mnfis, although h* and lui 
quddTi v&re excommuiiticated ; aud, third, the delivery into hu 
haudd of ZusiTUf or Gem* tho brother of tho Turkiali sultan BojortU 
ZUim had boca detbroued by OujaKUt, aud had been «eiiC for HCu- 
rily to Pnpv Aiesandcr. 

Permission (o hear Tnasa waa grsoted. As for the inTesUmraof 
Naples the Pope eluded the demaod, and couftrred on the kinf; 
JnbLuad the golden rose,' a fipecJal pijl to aoTcrtigna who wero de- 
luudera of iJio church. With legtird to ZizLij], the Turkish pKnu< 
WUB consulted bb T^ hia wiahes^ and cautioiiHly replJefl, * I am u^ 
trenr^d as aultan. "Whai can it nignify to a priflooer whether He 
shall go or etay 7 ' After the lojieo of three daye, ho waa ostdifflblj 
given up to Charlea. It h 0uppi>acd that at thifl rime poicoa Iwl 
been udmioi'^'tJ^iMi to hiai with iht comuvance, if tiot at the angg^ 
tion, of the Pope, for when tJie ufififjrcuEiate prince woa uik«tL Vi 
(Japua by the Freuch he was bo weit that he oodd aot tiiad a letter 
troui hie uiothor; and he died txt Nap^cA, thanking God that tlrf 
kiiij^^ of France cijuld not make uae of him u an e^i^ute ibr oaafi^' 
log the Mahometau etiiplre. 

The Pope'A feora had been for a moment c&lmed by friaidlj 

' T\i& prvtic* of gLviog tha Ruldvu rose still coniJaave. IfeoboUa Ok, ^"^ 
of Spain, reccirod it abcitljr bcfon Bha waa dcthnocd in LBflfi. 


CtmrUi Via. 

aasiLnaco^, but te v&n aot ^tii^cNJ ol heart. Being mnUd U> dine 
with Ckirica, he beard t^aQQtiii £T«d jrj bla owq Loaoitr, and, in 
terrDT le&L \\ »houid be a «^a1 to uke him prisoner, he il«d wiUioat 
hi» dinner^ The fjimiliarity of the French nohlei also atartled him, 
fi>r on tho «ligbt«Et pretext tLej cntcrred his room and Bcatnl them- 
neHes vzth the cordinala ; whilst tlie le^pect of tLe foldierp t«rtifinl 
him, (W they crowded Lu suck nuinbvfa to kua his R^et that Ehej 
nearly OTerthrew him. ItDkogLfiare br«n a rejoicm^' day for hitn 
ftod fiir nur^y whtn at length CharJis tjoitt^ Rome, earrymg with 
him Cear Borgia, ibe Pope'a iEifAr]iou& aou^ aa a boetoge, 
M^ In Jjvoiifljj 1495 the French wtrc on tlie confines of the Sea- 
pgJilac territory- FeniinaDd of Najjieswiwntiw d^wl, ond hia soa and 
mcc^ipr, Alfonm Hawaii so terrified ftl the advance ol the enemy, 
thst when they drpv aeai the ispiial he aMic^ted in favour of his 
I Mm, Perdhuuid U-, and escaped to Sicily, where he shut hiraEeLT up 
I in a xDonoetcry, faatcd HgorotCily, aod died within the year. 

AfUr AtrtQfo w&ii gone, an iuisurrectiun broke out lu Naples, 
which ih^ unfominai^ Fenlinaod IT. wa.^ f^aiie miAbte to qnell. H>) 
abo hA^ly Teftthe city, snd the 1«11oivingilH}', February 2?iiii, 1195, 
CSkirles VIU. entered it la tnunif^ The Neapoliukoa gQnenLlly 
hailed him a« a deliverer frvoi tbe Spuiiah oovereJgiijB, bat be waa 
UQ&ble lo auis^ the demaEida of the Qi^ble^ each of wLom expected 
to recejTe some perwmal faronr. Cbarfes coold uoly sny that he 
abould Efuke no chaagE4. and tbe result waa imiTsrs^l diBappoiot- 
meat. On the ]2Eh of Uay he ajnuacd himt^lf by n Din^iuSoent 
CDCuDabcm, ivben he appeared bearing the mantle t>f the Greek 
flmperora and ihe i:niWD of The king:! of Jfo-uaalem ; ^ and haTiog thiu 
MUfied his raniTy, he made nrrangementA for carrying hi^ troops 
fandc to France, 

There waa no dmc to be loat. lie hud not advanced so Ihr into 
Italy TvilhoulioiudiigeiieQiii!^ who were prepared to disputehisrutum. 
T)ie Vt^netlan KepubJic, Ferdinand the CjitluilJc^ king of Spain, 
and Maximilian, emperor of Geroiany, had formed a l^nguii with 
Ludcfvi'^ Sibraa^ who wu now mere than aver the enemy of Fmnce, 
fiir Cbarlea had refined to acknowledf^e him oe duke of MiJon, i^nd 
hftid evrn allowtjd JJixu? of Orleana to etaim the duchy in n|{bb of 
hi^molhtr, ValeiitinaVintcnti, whose family bflri been diapDBUtaaJ 
hy the Sforaaa, Thti Veoetiiins had trom tht? firet been opposed la 
the invasion of CharJca Tltu king of Spain wda abciut to claim 
Naplc* l<>t hinuelf, Ji having more right lo it than Alibnao Bud hii^ 
Mm, who were deacended from an iljegiticiiaie blanch of the Araguo 
tiisotly, and MaKimilian burned to reven^H the inauh phovra lu hia 
daughter by the marriage of Chaxleti with Anne of BriCTany. 

■ The ■07erFi^H of Maplv* aid 5i;Uy hiul ra^ua claiou both tu tlu Qnd 
Mapin^ vol Lhi kirieduDi of Jenuulom. 




C*4rfM 17^. 

CluLrltf was ue c^g^r t^:' loavii NaptcB as ho hftd boon to Donqiur 
it. An for blie goreninteat of hie nawlj-acquired tenitury, he trtuieii 
h alinosi to cbance, fi:ir the perKica to nhvin he conlid^ it v/vrz 
wholly inerpcrienced ; and tlie Ticert»j of Naples, GDbcrt de Menu 
pioneibr, espDaiully, though a bmro knight, wu so inveteriktely self- 
mdulgont that he never row till noon. 

Cinng little for -vflmt iaip;bt foUovr his departure, Charles at 
length fel tint an h\a hfnaeward jouruey* hia forcea d^inillinc; uwir 
AB he wflut (IE. Thr Pop*- flw] from Itome at his flpprnnch, Ipnviaje; 
the cnrdiruUH lo Teceive him aa beat they might. At Siena he was 
jomed hj Philip ds C^^mi^l^■^, who had been sent to Veaioc be hi* 
oDibdssa'Jor, and Charlif.s asked CoouDea jolciitgly if be did not tliinli 
tbaiw rt^publiuaaa would send lo meet hLiti- To which Cominei 
replied, *0b, jab, sir?; the naignourie nuid to me, when I toolc a: 
learo, th&t your muje'^ty vonld find on your route 40f0(J0 men 
longing not oiily to them, but to tbc duke ofMiian.^ 

Floren^^ was In u htat« of resolution, aad Chnrlea djired not 
etiter the <:ity. but Siivonurola ^gain a|jjieared hdbra him» not, bo*- 
ev9r, bo wekoma him, but to tbrmtj^a bim with the wn^th of God 
for the aLid<!ry of wbJeh hip undiflciplmod troops had boon iho caiUB. 
The admonition vrb diarc^irdixl, nnd the French king continuedhiE 
jaurney, occasionally lingering in the great towns, pi here bia soldier* 
commitled every tind of pxce?**, till he Tuached Fornovo, b villige 
on tho farther wde of (he ApnnineB. Here the coufed«T»te army 
vtaa awaiting him. The kint; had axpocted help from a fo^c^e widtT 
Louia of OrJeaoa, who had aomB time preHi>ua entered ItaJy and 
laid clfitm to MilEm, But Lonia had turned aaidt; to Mize ihe lo^vn 
ofNavara in tho Milancw fur himBelf and at the very time vr 
Charles moat needed hia aid he waa ahut up in Norara, whiofa 
oloBcly bEc<:k£ided b^ Ludovico Sforxo, 

Charlen, thererore, had no otie but himself to depend Upon> 
9,000 nifn to opjurte 40,000 waa a ft-arfuJ disproportion. Bray* 
things indeed, waa agiiin^t the Frtneh; a awollen torrent WiU io 
their wuy, for a (torm burat over them is the night, and the inta- 
bitanta of the di&trict ao diatruated them that when provieioas mi< 
brought to the camp, the a*rldtcr^ fearirjg they wore poiamtv]* 
not touch them until they had been teeied. 

The hour of e?:tremity brought oar all the liner qu&litie^ of 
adventiU'OUB though feeblo km^. ^On Monday morning/ A^ 
Philip da Comiaes, ' the king c&llcd mtr to him, I ftnnd him oov- 
pletely armed, iud mounted on the finest charEer I have ever beWl 
in my time. It wa? called Savoy ... He appeared to me then ia 
every way unlike himself- He wai generally timid in «[>e«ch *bJ 
manner, for he had been brought up in great fuar and with melt 
peraona; but on thto hurso bo looked tall, liia fiicc wixa animated, lui 


l^ia Fin. 

«oloT)r bright; bis word:^ were bold and (r««. It eeemed, ind^, 
tlut the Tords cif hrothor UicrOD^mo j Savoaarola) w^e true — that 
Gvd WduJd Jenil him by (he haodi that he hod much tzouble before 
him, but that God vuulU lead bini W houour.' 

Thi^ «v«iit« of tlic battle wbifrh rblEowed frith of July ^ 1195) #(-rL< 
tionlnuy to aJt humaa eip<^ctation. The French made ^real blun- 
den, y«t tho'r gnined th^ day. Thej acarcdy mad& luiy tue of t)i«jr 
cxocUeot utiUeijT aod tli«j lOAnag^ to leparate tbdr Ibrcoa so thut 
Uie couMiy were nble to duow tliemsatTes mto thnir nudbU wbUst 
ihe Teneriiiii floldiArn, the Stnidiot^v ^th Lb?ir light I^Dces poninrded 
lh« Lorws of the c&r&lry, utcl m&de th«if vtay &vgd to the French 
CKBip. But this htst cxpEfiit va» the ruin of the coDf^emtes. 
Tb^ Irc^au to pillage ; d^Kipliue sru^ Ion. nnd the Frencht profiting 
bj the cooliuioa, nutde fta^ful Lnvoc; 3,5!K) luliimit art h\id lo 
MfV Mlcii' CbarleB fcuglil palluiily in the fnremost ranlc. Hii 
drw ■looe voirld have reuderud him remarkable, &r he wore a 
•picndid cmbroidE^r^ orfnour-cont dE whit4i and vioii^t, fltrewn with 
*/t ienualca in gold and prt-ciourt »ioDca of gs^at vftluoi but 
Utdi- i^arc wvi laktMi to piut«ct him ihut three limre be wha left 
tnd BttAckal hy group* of IcnighTS, and wa^ Hivfd only by the 
iMngth uid the fvir^ of bii noblo bisck duLrgei^ wlto fought for hii 
■niter witli u^rh nnd hooft. 

Aftior *Ii wu ov«r, the king and bl? party wer« £kin [o lodge m 
tt IkUv Cirm-houw ; no f^UHrU'rv yftsre Ani^vd Cmr the troops. ' For 
flBV own fjan>' n}^H Cominea, ' I r;]f?pt in n rmpvuril. gla'! to,^ Iher^, 
vtAodt a cloak lo cover mef br 1 l^ad U^iiF miiko to tbe king m tbe 
monAtr^. and my peoplo were fiLT enough of\\ nnd it waa too tul4: to 
IkA aflirT tJwm. Thovr^ who ci^uM ^d na^ihiiig to eat hjid tbeii 
■opptr. 1 nw iho kliig in hi« ctianiber, where ibtre were KTenil 

TbDniuaiDderofth« retreat^ though leaaptriloujirWajifu.. of diffi- 
culty, biit Charfra arrived mfc\j at Lyons on the 9lh of Kovpoihtr, 
t49S# The cicrg}' met him at his entTAace, The oU'cetd were liaed 
wiCfa lafviby ; dt^itxA wer? ^ervwhere (c be seen aUuding to ibe 
dneda of thp r«lumpd it^rr^^: and at the pnlae« of th« 
p of Lyan* Bfocd Amte of Bnlt^my and the duphoia of 

. fHidy to pre*!l the aucei'-ssful ticfl, t'^tCB and rcv*?iiy wera 

ibe trder of una day, iuhL the king and hia wife entered iuto than 
with all the eicLtemeiit of youth. 

Bat iha conqnAAt otot whidi ao miiith njoidrtg wtJi made waa 
fa tb« mcantrina ntpjdiy aanuoing a doubtful uspoci. FerdimmH, tJie 
«3K-kifi|E of Naplof., had made every elJurt to n^^rain hJK crown, and 
^mm «ipF'>ned by bh? force* of hia couaiq PerdiiiAJtd, the Cathvbc, 
l]D4iFT lijc uommand of Gt>n(wJvo de Cordr^va) commoQty oiiled the 
QrrsL Ca^Kin, who proved bioiielf to be the rioAt diatinguiahed 

CkSTlft VUI. 

commnndcr of hi* ng^. In fiQe buttle, indeed (fho firrt which he 
touglit in Italy), GonwiJTo was deCeatedf but viclorr followed bim 
ever afterwardA, and rhe fields NcopolitansT woo by liia buccpss, torn 
Hgiunnl the Freach, drove ihe vi^^emj, Gil1>ert Je Muiitpf^iLiit^, frota 
the ^Atj. sind reKtorad Ferdiniind ; snd ftfwr Bt>m€ flTnigglL* tb<^ yicerof 
Wfts COTupelled to ralurn to Fmuce, wilh hut a ine« frcgjnenl of l^^^ 
iioblo army nhicb had so pi^udly entorod llalj^ ^^| 

Tbc newa of ibcaa dlaaaterfi, or at lea^t of a portion of tb^^l 
reacbed Ghftrfes in tlie nudst of the fi-ativiliea at Lyons. Tbey mtuE 
hh'v^ been a grieTWis disappnintment, for ha hai flatWrerJ liiniaelf 
that bis Italinn flffiiiM would niirely ppoflper. Before leaving Italy 
lie hod coacludGct d pcrmaTiGat pc^ac? vvith Ludovlco Slorzai eo tb«e 
be had □othing to drt-sd hnm Milan, irhilBt be bad ftiUj reckoned 
upon the ahibty of Iub geueraJa and tbe tiinidiLy aad incapacity 
of Ferdinand for the Bemrity of Naples. But tha appeanuiw cf 
tbe Great Capraia on th« eceno had c^faanged the whole aspect of 
afnirfl. Italy wnfl now rapidly eluding the French grasp, snd tho 
cot^BciousneM of tbia fnct muEt havo been ftfit all the mere keenly 
from the recent tfiumpha. Two nionthfl bad bcaratly olapseil afiflr 
the kin^'H Hrrival at Lyons when a domet^ir eorrov wctB udd^ to \iM 
public anxiety. The little D^iiiphin, a chili of fovir yotra of igOi 
precocioufl in inlellect and fascinating in manner, was taken dan- 
geronaly ill at AuiboiiH?, where he bad been left when Anop wait Bo 
welcome her buubmjd at Lyons. He dic>d alter n. few days' illiie» 
Anne wna struck to the ground by the blow, nud Charles tried Td 
comfort her ; but he did not understand a motlior'e gri«i. Chang* 
of accnei he thouf^ht, woulJ dd her good, and he caused her to TiiiE 
new places, and urged ber to take part in fesLivilJea. Louia of 
OrlenpH offei-ed h^r a IFiP at Bbis, and, following- out a ftincy of thir 
king's, rhe duke appeared befl^re her with wveral ofhiT yonti^ 
noblemen, and danced for her amusi'mcut ; and Anne lookud to. 
knowing that the hnndsfJtnfl prince juat diirty yi^ara of n/re, *> eourllj 
and joyouB ttiid popular, wut* (he direel liuir to tlie thrane. Mwi' 
seigneur be wa-^ nutt callod ; (H]ly a few week^ befuri^ ihat had heed 
the title nf tbe litlle Dnuphin. The duke showed but little mnpntfc* 
Jbr tho florrorvful i|ueeri, and Anne's Hpirit woy ronwd. She apnti 
cf htm harehlj to the king, aud whea Ihcj Icfl Bloia it wua vii^ 
the underfltaoding that hia absence from cooit would lie accepFahb 
He acnordingly rpuinved ir Blois, an<i there employed himaelf iB 
arranging his father'^ rannnscript poema, and in onllecting a mig- 
nilioont bbmry, wbioh included ultimiitdy the libtnry of ihfl fiuuow 
ItJtliao poet Petrarch, and that of rhe Sfortda of Mil;m. 

Nothing DOW inttipo^d tu prevent Cl^ariefl from inlertftnff 
bimBeTf in ihb ]t:ippine»< nf hiH jteople except hi* own inilnlencT' 
love of pleaauTe, Theatrical ptrformancea were ibe delight both 


the Viaii; uLiI ihe ParisiaoB. Tbe gav young idgei fiirmed tbemsdvei 
into coTTfumiPft for the performiiTice <>^ Tario'is piwes, in which th* 
prrndfuil penoiiB of the day were lumed intrt rrdicule. One eom- 
fMiny cyinUfllfN] of jcutxr lavy&rr, and fmolhcr in which the chief 
citifmfl of Pati^ took put waa isillcii * Les EnfuiA non^ Scuci' (the 
cJiUdrrm frre from cure), and wah under ilie direciion ^rif a chief called 
tlie Prmw of Fnola. Th? king waq rapiiFni«d bj ih^se fc>Ilif«» hirt 
the nobler portion of the French people had very diflei-CT^t objects 
■K hGftrt. Th« caiuTaiticti ondurod by the ormT in Italy hod roiiFied 
the f«]inpi of tbe nfttion. and ibey would wiUiTipJy hare pe^n lie 
n7 renewed, Chtiles, in obeditoce to die ^enpisl wiflh^ n]>er a 
time fitted cct an exp«ditE'>n againiit Ludorico &lbTxa. and afniittess 
f *Uack waji taade upon G^noa m 1437 ; but it was a apajnnodic etibrt, 
and peace wiu aoon ogaia ccrcladed. 

Tb* king cared, indeed, more for enlflrging and bcAntifVing his 
l.rtiivir cMtte of Anjbobe, io imiTatdon of the huiidingti ha had ad- 
vind in InJT, than for reroTt-ring the antherity he hul IoaK in that 
WorkmPD, pain tort, Brchifecta, and tuBBOoafrom Ttaly were 
lev, Ood a wond^Hii] tower wa!4 coavtmcted which cokild be a»- 
Ttff***^ by a regiment of hnr*?, wbilnt preat improTementa were alno 
in tlie town, hj de^e» Charles peomed tuawiikirn aln> lo the 
kity of irnproTemKit in mora important matter^- He attended 
Ip tb» eomplainta of the jh^ot, made a |rreat rednetton in the Uxea, 
iol prrpuod to keephtaexpcuditurewithiD ducl»undiu Brorythiikj^ 
wcU for the luture. and ^e vi^roufl mind of Anne <^ 
Lj moot have lejoiceil at thi^ deveJoprutrnt In a right dueddon 
ibe energy which had long tain dnrmant. 

Ilw apring of 1-198 she wab with him at Amboira- They wart 

■ ahort time there inspecting the buildinpi. The place 

greai eonfamoCt and when making their wny to a court in the 

when a game of tencii* baU w&m goinf on. ltii-y w«n> ohhg«d 

I thnn^rh a low, dark r^jn-idcw^ dirty and lillspidaTfd. At rhf 

M «u a litiJe arch with a projwting corner. The king, <n- 

ni oonremtion, did not tiotico ihc comer, and rtmck hia head 

il wa TideDtly that he w&* for n time stcnned hy the blow. 

wcor er ed, howerer, and went on (o the court, uhere he remained 

ttmtt tine, intereated in the game, and talkin;; ohwr^illy witli the 

aaaennhled. It waa af^rward* remamhorcd that he «jd tn 

of Umhi io the eoune of coDveraation that he hoped nevi.-r a^n 

MOnait a wilfiil sin. About two oVTock the Hamee were orer. 

kinf and rjueen retomed by the way [bey went, but they had 

entrrei) the dork corriilnr when Charles fell to the ground 

The preTioiia blow haii prodneed apoplexy- Thv ^TiPim 

tn terror Ibr aHiBtancci' A wretched mnttrefw wna brK>ii;aht, 

th< IftPfi w«i laid upon it, bnt do one dared attempt to move 

2B0 DEATH or CHAfiLifi— AOsaaHM Of LOOT* xn.—rxmnuL. 

him from the comdor ; &ad at nine o^clock at oiglit Anne of Brit- 
tany beard with coDstemation that her hiuhand wu d«Ad. 

^Thtu,* BajH Cominefs * departed Irom tJiU world so powerfolaad 
BO great a kiog in a place bo miserabJe. He who posaesaad Boch 
beautiful homes, and wa? building one bo aplendid, jet could find 
onJy this poor chamber In his kBt great need/ 

Charles VIII. died on the 7th of ApriJ, 1498. The grief for hii 
lotf was univeraa]. Whatever hnd been his follies and mistake^ 
he had latterly endeavoured to redeem them by attending b> fail 
dutieBf and he had woo ail hearts by hia affability aod geatleneM. 
Two of his fiervant&— a butler aud an archer^died Jrom the ahod 
of hearing of his death. 


A.D. 110B-IA16. 

The proud portion which had been bo long tempting the ambitum 
of Louis of Orleans was oow his; but it was given him accompinud 
by a warning which even a man leaa thoughcfhl than himflelf conU 
scarcely have ^ed to recognise, and when he entered the chambtt 
where, according to cudtomf the body of the late king was lying in 
Htate^ he burBt into tears, aud, kneeling by the bier, remumedftt 
some time in eilent prayer. 

LouiB XII. WOB no ordinary man. He poascBaed talent, ensi^i 
tact, and judgment, and though his actions cannot always b^rA 
Strict ecrutiny, some ©icufle may be found in the principles of tlw 
age, which tolerated much that now would awaken grave cenBora 
UiB first thought was for the unhappy queen, whose poaition sb wdl 
» affection- had received w> overwhelming a abock. For ten dij* 
and nights Anne gave full vent to her grie^ neither eating nor 
sleeping, but lying on the flour of her chamber, weeping ince^uttf- 
It was not till the meaaages of respect sent by Louia had aatored bs 
of hiB real sympathy that she was induced to rise and take nouryi- 
ment. Her one desire then naa to do honour to her hushud*' 
memory. Louis euoouTBged her to give tbe neceBeary directioiia £ir 
the funeral ceremonies. ^ All things were done more expoiKr^ 
than had ever been done for any king,* says Cominee. ' A Hervica w« 
b^un for him which ceased not day nor night Neither did aojcMt 
either of those neareat to him or his chamberlaina, or any a liii 


ttWi*xT^, iiu>vt< Eitiui ihe buJy; anil tbi^ sendee nad thin compAity 
coQUQiied UDiil it waa plact^ri in Una eartfi, whith vu not for tht; 
«piu» of a month/ Then, follomng iLe natural inclination wliich 
Jed her to Uvc diddd^I hor own pei>plc, Anao rcpair^^d to her 
I mldTe titj of Nanlta. iiit*^udiu^ ftcm iliEQEielOrtb Vt devote herwif 
\ to the good of her Rreum j^iihjeciLn, aeiiI whh apfwrently no thought of 
reiurDing to P.irw But evcdm i^ere otherwis* dccTtpd- Ifi tha 
C0Tit7UCt of marringo bLrtwccn Cliiirtcn arid Aiido it brni bfli-a Etipn- 
laled that in tbc event of the kiog^s dcntli hid vidow should edpouae 
the neil Iieir to the cr<jwn who waa tinnuuritd. Thie iitir wa* now 
a childj Francis of Vabin, the hoil of the comte d'Angriitl^me, first 
ci>lia]n ta Louii, He wnA no fit huBbjtad Ibr Acne. Loiiia himself 
mighc havopropoBed to tha qu^a, but bo was marri^ Those wcro 
dayst hovrerer, in which luarniigc wju a v«rY alight barrier to tbe 
wiahea of perfiUDH suiEcieprlj pow«iful £uid wealUiy to oblaiji n fnpal 
diflpenntJOD, and the chanicter ul' Pupe Alexard*T VL afforded no 
twuOQ to feat that he would be iueiorable if only n HuiKcient mduce- 
mant tor cottrnDting to the diTorce of Louia and Joaaao could bo 
giTQQ him- 

The Pope^a ambitioa wu centred ia Lis two ille^dmate chUdieiit 
Csaar and T-ucretLA Borgia, both infamous for their i-io^s. Lncretia 
bo had married to an illi^timate aoa of AJphonao JL of Naples. 
Now AJphonao woa dead, hi6 eoti Fredarick had micceodod hlmi and 
tlu9 Pope would fain hwve received Freierick*rtdauehlernallit wife of 
CBHr Borgia. Tlie kiu^^ ul' Niiplea iuterpotwd difUcullleA, and the 
Pope and hi« aoa turufd for tiupport toLoul^. Tbe prinoote CharloEta 
of Napios had been brought up vX tba court of France. This in 
itadf wu a 8u£ci«nt rconou ibr aoekiug on alliance ; but Louis waa 
also about to iaterfcrc a^-uiu in tlje alBiirH vf Italy, tie hadiLlready 
daipatcbed lettP:ito the prlficet* of Italy renewing bisdaima to Milan 
in right of biB^randnmtber Valentinn Vincanti, and laying ctaim also 
to the tbrono of Naples, Ko time, thijroforo, wan to be losn^ and 
two DtiQcioA were dcapatchtd to Paris with cordial congratulationa 
to Louifl on hih accesuoa. 

They wtre nfoaivad with tbe ntniOEit civility. The French Icing 
would} ib^y were auured, do hin utmost to u^jiold the interoeta of 
AlcjciiDder and hi4 £on, but it must be upou three condition-!. Th^ 
Pof>« muet assist Louis in hla riewa on Milan; he mn^t annul tbe 
marria^ with Jeanne, and permit cbe king toniuriy Anne of Brlt- 
Cuiv; and he nmgi give ncaTdinol's hat to George d^AmboiHe, arch- 
biuop of Roufia. 

The laat wa^ a coudidon which no one ntod have he&itatcd to 
make, for the characber of George d^Amb&ioDj the king's attached 
&i<^d, atocxl high in the bntiiaatton of all loen. It was the HpeciiJ 
toerit of Louifi that ht^ kuGw how to di^tiDgui^ and reward peTHODa 

^rim ' 


cf wnrthan*] Tjilent. And he hsf! no mwin suspiciona, ' Tl does tot 
bcffomo the king o£ H'mnoij to roBPnt the injuriea of the dnko oi 
OrlonnB,' waahin answer to rhc mft^Htm^esof Orlcnns, vhea thejMnt 
1o b^k IjI^ ]>fLTdt'ii for any'ijlTercea commitTted figajast Lioi vrLiUt be 
was a piiwinPT in tJip city. THp rtjuiio nohlfi i^pirit showed its'If 
throiiglioiit hi* life in aW hic privnio rplnticmn, hm condncE to hi* n^^ 
hnppy vr\ie heinj^ the one fnta] exoeption. j^^M 

The divorce vw novr all lint certnin. The Pope prira^H^ 
aatiurpd LouIh tUiLti h? would throvr utj obstAules lU the wuj of hd 
wiphep, Rnd Tj€ui*( in rptiiriL sent ri-ii Aiiih.i&4]tlor 1o Rome It) h 
back Ciesnr Borgia, vho wai tO be cr^ied duke i>f VsJentinoifl 
a laigo rt^venuo. 

Coaar Borgin mudc an Qhsordlj magnlficccib entry into Chi 
where the king went to meet him, und the king looted out 
winilow iLHii privately scolTed at him or hp piuwed, hut he conU not 
venture openly tn ahowhis contempt for hia giiesT^ for Ca^ar Borgii 
brought with him a paper more Taluahle than nnT jovel^ — the p>fl 
hnll which toade the DiHrriage of Louis vith Anne of Britt&ny pov- 


It wiui a terrihle injtiEtice to th@ m^k nnd snlntly JesumfL She 
bad long pveii \ip all hopo of guLoing hf.<r liiiNbaiid'n &ff^otioni» boC 
obe oould not fcjr her cotinoienoo wake repudiate her rights, Wbai 
the decree unEiulljDg tho marriage: van coramunicar^d to ber nfae 
made one mif ueat, thnt ^hri mi^ht s&i her huahand iLgnin. * I mnd 
flire/ she said whtn they met, 'that yoti will bp happier with anothflT 
than you hare been with me ^ and I entreat your pordon for haviaj 
caUBod yon ptt much unonHui«&' Louin iu rcportfid to Itaro hunt 
into tear?* and to have replied that he was not vorthy to live vntli » 
bolya VTomfln. 

Jeanne look her monmful way (o Bonrgew, wbioh she bad ctcK* 
for ber n-trcat. There utood the grenl t<>wGr in which she hfld »isile«i 
her hurtband when bo was a prisoner- ' Ali'^ !' ebc exclaimed, aa «b* 
gHsed upoo it, ' he wa^ then ^ptive, and now I am freo/ From thu 
tim€ fllie devcitj-d hprself tn religious eserriiwR and tn the establifih" 
roant of an order of nunH, whiet haq fiince sprea<d throuu^h Frui^^ 
Tho dreaeol^thc ai]pi>rtors of the AtmunoiudeB, with its rich crim^o 
and blae hr>rdcr!Eig, mnrkiv oven to tbiff honr^ the eoatume worn \t 
the days of the unhappy Jeanne J^Orl^nns. 

It \s lULid that when Lonid Xn. eame in perenn to makp hu fvo* 
posalE for the band of Anue of Brittany the yoimg r^neen wiu gr«iE|j 
BurpriHcd. Yet thin i^ scarcely probable. Her hidiea hivd been in- 
fltnicted to Boimd her on lite vubject of a ninrrtnp'e vtith Lcuii, tB6 
the herself liad been heard lo say iliat it only depended on her o" 
will to be still the quem of Franee. But her consent con Id onlrbew™ 
upon corlaia coaditiona. Slie irequired Qral to be fully a«ured tUt 

iAitRU<a or Lons Ain> axne — smunR or intAir. 


i*ge with Jeanne iros lcg;aLty niiiJ. She inasted bIao upoa 

the prWilegea of liei Breton Bubjectft, oiid reluining the 
■nt of Lhe duciijp, with the title belonging to il, for herdprrnil 
Tighter in the erecit of >i*r hiiviDg chiHren ; unrj, jis a furllier 
ijtt she iTiEiBtcd thai the marn.'ige fihould take plucG at NantfiB, 
the king should remain ^mc time with her in bcr own 
and aot require her tij rtturn to France btfore it was her 
i^rnre To dc en^ I^odIr a^tieil.anil ki iHr aHN^mpd fflriooth, 
''rench nfttinn genially wire Endtgnont at th? repudiation of 

nnd vthea the net dtBactving rha marringi) waa rmd bj the 
de Luiembourg^ ini a day w r^rrifif^aUy Jark ood fltcnny thnt 
eccA'^jy to llgbt tcrchen lu iliv faiLlI, they deemed it a sign 
n^eance of Hiiiv^n, fiTid ii^ tbu ourdiTial nnd prievta Hepirted 
ilace fthouted after rb em. ' There go CaiapbaSj Aiiiip^ sud 
rho have condemned the holy quooD, nnd ttikOTi the cMirn 

the outcry waa unelea?! and on Ibe Clb of Jannary, 1499, 

Britmny, in ihe midrtt of her own RibjectR, *n(l surroimded 
nobles, vaa uuited to Louifi Xll. in tbo ^ntbednO of 
Titli aJl tha ptnlo and splenileur for which the s^ wan 

rbolo year passed l*fnre either nf them revisited France. 

ihey deemed it wise to nvnid hmving iha popnlnr opimnr. 
expiration of the year LouJ*i took hu ^rife to BEois, his 
; residence, and them btj^n the pchenie of pntntary reforms 
ly kncwu afl the ^ Ordiimtice of Bluid,' which rendered hit 

beni^^ciaE tn tlie mitcitry. A purliHmenTAry Lrihumil v/aa 
iSd to rectify abosea, the pay of the troopa wna regulated, 
itjry people vrorft profocted from the opjtremionB of the sol- 
id the tanea moat btirdcnponie to them wrre tAkcn ofF. TJia 
p, indeed, gaTC the briebteat hope of peace nnd prosperity, 
ifns of ambiCitin hnnnted the king, and, in the month of 

in Biipport cf bifl dnima to the dni^hy of Blilnn, a French 
la »nt nr-TOBB the Alps- 

wenty dujfl ^ftcr Ludovico -Sforza waa a fugitive %t the court 
nperor MaximiIiAit» PLod the MjIiiu^m was in the p:}s>4exdDn ^t 
toIh of The French kiii^. Both the Venetinna nnd the Popn 

their aid lo tbU oonqui^. The Pope had not, indeed, ob- 
]] he wiflbed when he ifont hia bod ta France, for the young 

of Nnplen hod inili^ar.tly rejected the iTLarKn^, BHyin;; that 
id not accept for her huatouid the son of a prii'Ht, inniiiioun by 
1, Hitdanll more an by Mb wicked actions. Butanotbor victim 
Q found, the danghier of the ting fif Navarre. Her fathpr 
a bribed to coQacnt hy the puymenl of a large Hum of moony 
f the Pope ; and thus Loui^ hod attached to hia intoreati the 



LoiM xir. 

two mcij^t powerful yet mont unimrthy pBrBonagCB iti Christendom, 
Alexander VI. nnd hia eon. 

The news oi. Ui« ejuccqai^cs in Italy ncrc brought to tha kinj; aL 
Lyons. He had gone thither vrilh the intention of ulttmntelj joining 
the lulin-Ei nrniy. Ko^v. itupatEectt tii be preeent uu Ibe ^i<Dti of hii 
conqaetTii, he w-t ciiil Ibr IX^Xy^ miidr? hiH ^QhrjiDce icio MUun, em^ 
ciaed the rights of a Bovereign, and then rettimed to Fran^^e. Bat 
ha Lad acd-rccly lotl Miliin lycfore nn inj^urrcctioii broke out 
Tilt French gtn^tnl and TJctmy, TrivuJzio, waa drivEo awaj, and 
Luiioviou SforsfL again (ouk pcts^c^iun of Lis cLpiUil. The triiuu^^ 
of the unfottimnli? duke waa^ however, only momentary. The nMt 
now8 thjit reached France wd:^ thnt the Freuch were onoe more 
m&atGra of Miliin, and thnt Ludorico il Moro w & priaoner, and 
abouEi tc U- brought to Fmtjce. 

In the grini old cawile of Loi:he3 la Touraine Then> ia etilf r*> ba 
seen fl vflii^ttdd nhainhflf, E*ome thiny or forty Rtep£ below the levclof 
the ca^lOf tho oaiy light being that odoLittcd from a narrow windoir, 
crofloed hy three thick iron bnrs, and pierced in a wnll eight ft* 
thick- tlt^re the once {JOweifiiJ dnko i>f Milan ^vua impriBcui^ er^ 
night, being compelled to sleep in an imn cage. He had doubUsM 
been guilty of auiny criinea* hut hopeless captivity under eireom- 
afancea of sueh abject wrttchodnoaH could BCorcely fail to awaken 
f^ty everi Hir the greatest offender; and it is Htrauge to leara Uai 
LouiH and Anne reaided ofien at Lochea. and held icuruaoieiLiAaad 
fe&RCB, the t^joidag son nds of which nin^ hnve renchGd thi^rprwrnff 
in hia dungeon and added tentbid bittemetu to his leelifigs. It if 
audf however, tJiat after a time tho eeveruy of tJ>e duke of Miian'i 
captivity iv^ lesi^ned, and. he \Tna remriTed to a better apartment 

And now had arrived rJie linie Ibr Lntiis to carry nut his uhi- 
mate project, tho rtcovery of Naplpa. Frederick, tlie »mcle of F<rdi- 
nnnd, waa the acknowledged king of Naplea, but both Fmnce ani^ 
Spain were ee^retly prepared to dispute hii right. Ferdinand Itff 
CttlhuiJc, tliuugli profeHiiig to support the ilJe^iti^ate branch of hii 
fkmily iu Iluly, nevfir for a inometU forgot that the ilfron^ wu b* 
a^wording to ihy rules of hereditary aucctffi*ion. Crafty and trcach^ 
FOUA, ho allowed his general to profcpB hifnetdf on the Hide of fredond^ 
whilet, io conjunction \vith Louia of Frani^e, ho pfnnned to dispoMBd 
^-°- the king of Naples and divide his dominioofl (a.u. 15t)0j. TheaiJhuiOP 
was Mt racret that it wji^ not tit I the Prjpp had ieBueda bull dopriring 
Frederick ofhia dtimininng, and tranBfeiring thetn, on n fief of the Ho*/ 
See^ to the BDvcreigns of France and Sjioin, that the unfortunate bn; 
was aware of the daiigera which thrcatcaed him. Under the ch4D^ 
circuiuatuuces^ Gonmlyode Cardova waa atUi^d upon to act nolongef** 
an atly, bntHn enemy. But llie jji'iiemra noble Kpiric revolted 
ihe comtoand, even whdehe ihouglit hiinsfJl oampelled to ob«i 


reaigneil tlie gmnta w1ii<?h ^ad be^n mai^« liim bj^ Fn^d^rii^b in t^eliuI 
of bift former Qervicoii, aad jti^upptoi to be reltuflpd Irom hia obliga- 
tiuoH oi leattY. Fr&iiorick accedi^d to Cbe latter pcrtion of liis rcqiient, 
bat ioBUlicd on liid relaiQing hiiri posz^cs^ociH. Jecl^ring ilmt Lh^j" were 
bnt on LOfldprjiULre cnmp&neation lot ihe benefiu whti^h GoqhaIvo hod 
rendered him, Fredtri<^k now coded all tU Bovereign rights at Na[4eB 
to UiQ Frvnchr BEid w/te thon oifowod to depart with Lib Tuml\j for 
Fr&iice. wLere Limia j;;«Lve hiui the coiiDty ot' T^loiiie ami a coinibrt- 
&bte pKoaioD. lie lived in obBt^urit; for three years, and died in 

Tlio escuse mfl^e by Looia and Ferdizxand for the troaebary of 
%hich tboy liod been gui^j wiv', that Fredorick of Naples was a 
friend of the Ttirb. Tnc afiur then became a mntiter of ao-ca1I^ 
Teli^cjn, and Annci of Brltiuny herself EvoLed opon it as a pious 
workc, nnd gaTC money from her prJTate foTtUDG tc support chenrma- 


C*cBir Rofpta fllao took part in the triumph of France na a Frcticli 
aptaiU' lie eniffed Rome under the tjiinpled bannetB of Fraoceand 
ihe P<'[K!f and caur^d liun^ielf lo bt declared duks of l£cjiiia;.>iia. 
Great k^E^s fotlowed. LucTfiiiL Bor^in, with two hundred ludiea, her 
fttteodfinta, whb invited to share in them. At one of the entertain- 
mCBtt aix unhappy men iindor s^ntenco of death were brought into 
tbe court of the patfice, beneath the Pope's balcony, and, in the pre- 
vnce of Alrxander and of ihe ^Hrjuiiiid Lucn-lia* Cuwur, Eplt^ndidly 
Irr^rd. urjRRed hiniHeEf by shooting at rliem with arrowa, Iheir 
ftoiB, orie*, and eontortiona fonniiig the anjiiBoment of th<" eom^may. 
Such a itt&te of thicks coidd not Ja:«t< Jtulj tiycd iu terror. But 
b^^ire any dtjSuiLo con^ijaej could btj formed, illaet^a and deatli re- 
fnored die lyranrs out of the way. The Pop« and his son criT(Tte(3 the 
HMdth of the cordiDal Onini, and in order to get poasabalon of it 
roeolved to poison hinu They invited thcmK^'ea to eup with the 
cw<iiiii-1 at hifl country houso. and brought with them a present of 
rich wine, poi.-oned. Immediatety on their arrival, being very 
ildn:^. thpy iflked for wine- ITie Pope'n senrants were out of the 
""m^J, and the cnrdinara E^rvantii broiifjht the poisoned wine by mia- 
taloB, Alexander drauk heartily of it, woa wiEed with catirulsionfi, 
«Dd dieal in the conrie of a few houm (a.i>. 1G02)- Cjcaar, wbihad 
' 4mnk more Kparingly, escaped with hie life, but he never rocovered 
liii bEsllh and etrength. 

Id the mtfliitiniG, Ferdinand the Cu.tholie and Louii, having dift- 
tovteaeed Frederick of Naplee, qnarreiied about the partition of hia 
4aaiinioija, and wore soon at open war. GuuAalvo de Cordova took 
toaa^Bon of Naples, whilst the French troijpb which were ueni by 
Xriouia to reinforce his army were detained at Rome by cardinal 
<t*AmboiAe, who woa anxious to moke uao of ibem to ovarawo the 


Z^rj Xff. 

cflrdinAls dad compel iLem to elect him Pope. But he foiled in 
object* TUe dii]it» of the c4irdiiiuJa ftU tin an luJiau koowc v 
JdIiua Tr^ fu\ Hmbltioua, turbulent luau^ far mvtc titteil lo be a 
gen^ntl than a Pope. The French then passed on lo Nflp1«. jtnd 
found that tliu lots of &> much dme had boen IaulI to tlic cxpvdicitA. 
Lft Tr^muuillc, their Icradcr, became iil Cioa mnlariii, jkcd we^s ol>li|EiJ 
to reajgij hia coiuuiuud to the lubu-quis of Mucitua, a geucraJ giudj 
his infenor. The battle a( the fiarigliano, fought against GonnlTo 
k.Ti. anri the Sp^niflrrip on the 27ih of December, 1503. nmiiist torrenn 
*"* of Tuiu and in a jnnrahy country, pruned to be one of ihe moat fau] 
disastecfl iphich eyor befell the French; aiid» notwitliaUuidiDfl Um 
espluile of the chevalier Bayfifd, iht^ famous ha rhlisoc^, Louia d^AiA 
bud oihor biuvi! Frtneh knighiSf the Freoch ^tre Bnolly ohligcd 
entirely to evncimte Itnly. 

The diBappoiutnient of bia hepoE cjioaed I^uu a Tery doagerOUi 
illnesB ; but, on his recovvryf u ntv ^htiiua au^eijtcd itaelf 10 bin 
for tEie aUoijiment of hia cherished object. Like niaiiy of the Iul.^ 
iinpoTtant poUticiil pluns which iJie world hns known, JD w« nrnuiged 
under the protection of a pubfic feativiry. 

The youn^ and hand^oto iirchdukCf Philip of Au^trijt^ tho bOD 
of the empt^Tor Muxlniilian, and hia wifi] JuiLncL, aflLrwuMi^ unlmp- 
pily triown on ' la Loca," the InHine, dftUghter of Ftrdirtond W 
luibella. of Spain, were to vlniL the king and queen of Fr&nCB tf 
BIoU, lor the botrothu.] ot^ their son nnd heir ChuleBT tlien about fotir 
ycara of ego, lo tho littlo Fnuch prinoufls Cljiudo, who wa£ ouLy a fir* 
meotha old. The cupEiccmfTDt hjid bcea brought abi>ul bj Ann^' Sht 
is aEM:rted to have plumed it, fiouL |«rsomU enmity ugainst Louincf 
Savoy (the mother of Prancia of Angouleme), who would natnnilT 
bare expecCed her aon, afi heir-pr^umpEivCi lo b« the hiub^uid o! 
ClfludD, Three women, f^\c, quiet, and domealicf were, ia fitf"- 
penultted at this time to decide the doBtiniea of Europe. 

Murgaret of Flaudere^ the rejected bridi: of tlie late king oJ^FiaiWti 
sat by the bed of her little nephevr Charlea, who Itnd b^^ri given ioto 
her chaFg«, and, &e ahe ving U> the child the versea ahe lud howl^ 
oompoeed, and worked at tho ompcror Muximiliim's Hhirte, elie b«ii 
leiBurc to ponder on the boy'a future, and to conaider the etjicniei 
which Anne of Brittany deviaedat her epinning- wheel; wliihtt Li»iiM 
of Savoy, clever, thoughtful, and deiennineiJ, lived npxn in herhoM^ 
At Angouldme, whore iftiJl i» to he soon h^ room, with tJie mrxta' 
inJKription, * Libria et hberia,' keeping herself in reaUintM Ht ^ 
riglit moment to iaterfcrt for tho Jntereata of her own aon. 

The affectifma at' Anna of Brituuiy vere ciJULred in the WiCx 
ClAUde, whOr aa tJiq wife of Charier, would share the nio^t ^It^iJd 
inhtrJIance in E>m>pe, including Germany, Flandera, and Spiin. 
The chroniclera of the time are amnsing in thoir account cf dJ 


mecdaE of t^c prmvc-a at fikii^, It was ne^ly Dight, tbfj tell ua, 
wheo Philip oad Juiiiui JvacLtd tbe Lvwn, and, with ft iraia cf gen- 
dem^n ind ladifia, luid a long huilu of Iiutma jmd waggcrnSi Veod^ 
their way, by the lighi cf lorchea of jellow wns fixed ag«iiLBt tlie 

I wallfl, up tho ^'ijp Etreot k'sding to the oaAJo. 

I Ftddo tte prc3i4 of apcctawra tho urchdulcc and bis wife w^e 

aepKralcd i aad Philip MriveJ iirtA^ tmd vtas cujidutj^ by 4U0 

' archere ihroiigh a Kingt ot" apjtrniienis to tk taptHCTied wilooc^ where 
be found thv king i«att.-d by ibt chimney, Near him atoo4J the 
young oomto d'Angoulvme und ihe cardiruiJ d^Amboieo, Aa the 
arcbdulte entered, the gnuid ma^T of the cereiaoaieBr M- de Bri- 
enne, luklng ofT hid <^j), uajil, * ^irt-, bt^re is LiioDsieur TArcbiduc/ 
to which Loiiin replied . smiling, * There h ahandBome prince/ Philip 
made three low Kvvr«ncea. Tbe ting rose to mvtt bim, and they 
embrocedf iha aichdute rcmainLng imcovered, though t^e ting 
b^g«d him to replace bis hat. 

The uehducbv^id cow arrived. The ^lag advaact^ to the 
threshold to meet her, fio that ^e had only tbne to ranke two very 
low curtAeY^ ILouiH, barebeodod, kiaaed Ler, led her the lebgth of 
the chamber, and i[itroduo<jd her to tbc comte d'A;]goulemeT whom 
g^ kiaaed' Then he aaid, ^M^daiuef 1 know that jou lidiea deaiie 
nothing betttr iliun to be ^one togetber. Go, I pray, and at^ the 
quevo, and leave ii>' men to ourwlves.' 

Juona retired] being token to the itpikrlmeat of qaoua Acne, who 
t^DClTed ter witli greet wettnLh^ TTic duchew of Bourbon woa by 
the Biiic of the queen, and LouiBa of Savoy vtu^ ako preaeut, with 
the dachesa of Orltann. Juana kUaed them all, but she omitted ihe 
Udies of honour, who were ranged aJong the sides of tlie chamber, 
for. Bfl modatnt? de Bourboa obeorved, thoy ^ere eo many aba would 
Aerer bahVe done. Joana then retired to ber own cbjimbcr, but 
BoIiCudi? was not to be peruitttcil. A depuUtiuu waited upon hit -. tax. 
little p^ees bearing golfleu (JiAodeliera ; iimdaine da Bourbon, witli 
a golden box of aweetmealB; TiLtidhme d'Augouli^aie, with another 
fall fii jmpkina ; nod nudume de NeverBr with a goMen boK full of 
kujTea and forks, which had e^ldcn handled. Other proscata of 
■Wveimeaia tuid i;omdta wece alaij brought, out: of tbe uoiudtd being 
described rh vtarveUou»lif Jine, of nilver gilr^ and bo long that it 
jeachcd th^ ground At iJie end of the proeesnion eaine the qoeeo'A 
•potbecary, who, howL^VDr, appears to have only Etuod at the doofj 
wkilot the bonbona were pUced on buffeta and on the bed. 

The archduke bad a mure fiulHULntiat repji^, Ue supped with 
Um king afld two of the chief noblefl, Louih, howeTer, took only 
IjtVBf] BLod W9.ter himself, ae be wm keeping a fast. 

For live days the AuEtrian gueetd remained at BIoib, and vrhilat 
gr^od fetea occupied tbe public iCl^niion, Louis anJ Philip drew np 


Lvis xn. 

H compact — OTIC of the moat unfair in tho p<ilitiail history <A Enr^iS 
^— bj vrhicli GennBEj, France, Spain, and ihe Pope engaged to 
uuile in depriving the rt?pubiic of Venice of Ler terrlinfiea in aorth- 
en; Imly^ The diicby of .Milan wiw l€ bo recogni^t^ i^ belonging 
to tliG Frencb crowd on the payment of a large sum oH moauy to tbo 

The Archdukv and hje Spaniah wifi: tgok kave of ihe French 
court Willi evio'y UemoiimrikUoa of rri&uddliip, bubihc plAnson which 
Ki muth tbniight had been bcBEowed were deKjned fJi meet With aa 
imforeBeeii ebeck. 

Tha lirat diHiculty woa ihc mamivge. Tho Frcoch bntcd Utit 
Germana, and Lhe Irienibi of ihe yoiiitg comie d'AtJgnultaie wvm 
iDiIignaui^ that lit: should be deprived of Ihi^ bride who cieiJiiEbd nnTa- 
rally markL'd out for him. The murmnrfl were loml and untverail, 
and »LS«d e&pedally n^ion^ ihe i^ueen, who, it wiu well knowo^ Iui4 
pbuined ihe DiiLrrifi^S' Louia it'oa greatly i^JEtrOsood ; Ida health And 
rtpirit* gu-ve Tvay i he beranie c^^loll^lJr ill. Jtad wTiea he thougbl 
1 dm ^'Tf dying, IiHtent'd to the wifihiu of his p&ople. jiiid, nt thagugg a** i 
tion of cs-rdinal d'AmboiHe, made n will by which Claude wu to |^^| 
givt>ii in DjdiTiage to Francis of An^ouli^me. ^^| 

The S^n tea- General were auiiiUiencd en iho king'a recOTorr, isd 
^D. when Louis H]>peured bi^^fuic tiieni on the lOtli ot Mny, IJjOo, IhlJ 
^*" BsJuted him with the title of Failiiir of Ids peciiilo, and be mada 
public declnralion thnt the rmirria^e of Cljtude and Fmnoitt 
been docidud on. No timo whm loet in ornrnging tlio betrothtli w 
Lttoh place at Ple^ia. Cardinal d^WiboifiO oBiciatad^ 

Louiaa of Hkwey eAultingly ejitured th^ event in her joarniL 
^.D. 'This yea.r, 1507, the ■22nd of May, 'At Plessia-lea- Tours, at two 
J^>^' o'clock in the uHernoon, the morriiLge by promise was contimted 
betwiH/n my eon and madamc Claude, now fjueen of France.' 

Ferdinand of Spain took ite olTtiice at th? brejich of the fctmCT 
Diorrioge i^itgiigenienii- He hated hia Bcin-iii-]uw ihe atchdiik; of 
Aiutria, and mw no reaiian to tale up bit quarr&la. On the om- 
tJTJiy, lie dvnired a cloeer aJlJunce wiih L'ranoei and, b^dng oo* % 
widower, be propooed to marry Germaiiie de Fouc, the niece di 
Leuifl, and tbti French king ngnted to cede in Ibveitr of (be 
printer all hiH ckdnis upon Njiplta. 

New pinns and a new war werE inf^vitable^ Tbp European 
tiouB eoon Icamt that a league, eelabmted as the League of Cam 
hcbii been set on foot. \t& object was tJie mune aa that of tho 
of DioiB, which had never been carried inio efleci. Venice w*i W 
be humbled. Tho weaJih, ftiwer, and gnindeur of the republic hJ 
ercited general envy, Eren Masimilian^ liie rejected and the pennJ- 
le»«, urged by hie aisCerr could not resist ths temptiLtion of joinjaf ' 

Lda ■ 

■ATTLK 07 AeX41>E1, — PFACE WrTH VEWlCt. ^K[t 

tu XII. 
Ibe Httack- Ho aHovpcd Miir^riret ia sign the tronty for him, whilst 
^ cAnlinal d^Aniboise nigneJ for Loui?, DeccmbEr 11.^, 1503- 

It 1*119 n T^'iribk bliuidcr fur sM coQL;ernt.'U, Margaret waa in 
reali^ the mnrlji] enemy of Frsn*?*', whii?h had originateJ the bop- 
rowA of her Jifo. Since Kvr iitst ]ji?trothLiL h) ChfiHei VIJL ihc Imd 
hecn twjce mnrricd, GrM to tha eon of t^erdiaAad and l3a1>?]lti of 
Spain, who died ; tlien lo Philttwrt oF Savoy. wLuUi ulie loved wilb 
nil tL« inicDfiiTiy tjf Eier diapoMUicn. and vha aXso died. Fn^m that 
moment her (Uitiir^ ^«&med chnng«d. Sh& built a magnific¥]]T;rhurf!h 
DTor her buflbond'a tnmh, and^ burying in it the jays o* har past hfe, 
Ivccomo in heart a xaan, Eitiidincr 'he politico of Europp, though o^n- 
ribly hem upon ihe home duliea o£ & woman, She mode aweetmenis 
fur her father vrhiUi formtcK ^^^ Lt^ogue of Citnibn&i, aiul in thJa 
leiini* 'I mi»*t hove been eirjdpnt to all pnnoflmed *hfl could haye 
h^ DO thought of the ag^rundiGeniqiit of Fraiicsi?. 

It wna to be o wur for tbo church, ao it viu mid, and iho Vcnc- 
tuD^ theinselfes fur some ticie thuug'ht cliut the forces orEurupe were 
^h^ug for El crupude uguinst iliv Turk. Wlifin ihut ejcciine rjiijld 
no longer he made it wne ibited thnt Venica had de.'ipniled the Pi^pe 
of BQTCEuJ privincoB, whioii wtre to be recovered. This pro^Kihly 
Mvia«d to Mjir^riri't an wiay tii^h. Th*; Pope wou[d In? coatenltd 
with the itaioralion of two vi llirt-e towiifl. and tiieu the Papal 
«tatef<, ArtHirin, nnd S[uin mi^jhl nil turn dfir nrrnH agnrnst Fnuce. 
Louii wu durtrmed to be t}ie uiurilico, but he widked into tba ^nnre 
with hU oje-'J open. He cronoed tha Alps at thfl hood of hifl army, 
in the beginning? ofAprtl 15i~)9. The VeaeliaDa met him, and were 
defeated at Agiiitdel. Loui?s contrary to hin natuiu[ demeacy, 
mHTched oaf marking- hi* courj« hy dpsnlarinn and neverity, Griev^ 
ouft it LI to read of ^e siiScrings infliclad oa the irmocenl popala 
^00. A uaivcrBdl hnttod vaa rouaed against thooa barbaraiu in- 
ThderS' Town aficr town fell into the handa of Loniu; and, having 
rpcovercd uiJ enlarged hia C07eL«d duchy of Milaiii he recrnsBed th^ 
A]p«. and left the Spimiardi^ the Pope, and the Gerraaaa to carry on 
ihe war. 

The rcanlt was that which had been eTidentiy foroseen hy tike 

tic Margaretn AFUr eatiafyi^g ^^^ ^^ ^™Q particalar covetouB- 
by hamblipg Venice and demanding ctrtain portions of h«r 

it^ry. Pope Jullua, Ferdinand the DttholicH and the emperor 
SfflXimilLAn taade peace with the repubjicj and with oai? cooeent 
Kcretlyjniaedwith her in u^hoiuc for driving the French Irom Italy. 

The ootCDBible leadi^r of thia confederacy wju Juliua 11., an old 
mjui. Iwnt and furrowed, who looked ai leHsb eighty, bub whrao 
pwon vfHA wnr, and who had oven himaeJf fniight on occflaion and 
Jod the papal troop« to the asMult of a b^Je^ed town. JSy the 
aomaier of 1610 hia plans were aaflicientjy maturid^ and tho French 


king waa infonned of hEs danger bj the eudden *^i«Tii«l of hk 

ambasador from Rome. 

The pcwitjoa of Loula waa ^r from enviable. HU Health me 
giving way, hie truated counaellor, cardinal d' A mboisei was d^J; bif 
Vjfe, whose strength of character ikr aurpaaaed liia own, waa devoted 
to the pope, DH being the head of Ihe church, and waa tho intimate 
friend of the Mcbeming Margaret of Flandera. 

Hia Arsi movementa betrayed hia weakneaa. When t]ie mr 
with Julius began, and the French commander obtained a vlctcaj 
near Bologna^ instead of following it up Louia forbade his troops t# 
enter the papal t^Tritory, and conteated himaelf with referring bii 
quarrel with the Pope to the decitfion of a church coancil (chieflr 
conaieting of French biahopa), which met firat at Piaa, but waa lAer- 
warda tranaferred to Milan. 

Julius cared little for conncila, and immediately announced to 
the world that Louia waa an enemy of the church, aud thai la 
alliance, known aa the ^ Holy League/ had be^n formed beiween 
himaelf and Ferdinand the Catholic. The oatenaible object of dui 
league was the support of tlie Roman See — its real object was the 
overthrow of the French king, 

Louia waa roused to energy by hia peril. Yet hia firat alep wtf 
scarcely calculated to inspire contidence. He placed his new artaj 
under the command of a youth — only twtinty-three years of age— 
Gaatou de Foix, a nobleinna of Navarre^ hia nephew. Brought i^ 
in the south, accustomed from in&ncy to the rocks and preci[»Ott 
of the Pyrenees, the young general led hia forcea acroaa the Alp 
with a rapidity which waa aiartling. Storm and tempest, frost ud 
snow, wt^re indiflereni to bim. He made one prodigious effort, paM^ 
the Sponieh army, who knew nothing of hia approach, and ponisd 
down upon BrescJa, which had just declared itself Venetian. Us 
town was taken, and 15,000 perrons were killed. Cruelty jh tltf 
one great stain on the character of Ga«ton de Foil. 

So far the French had be«n successful ; but England waa dov 
preparing to mingle in the fmy. Henry VIH. had juat ascended 
the throne, and thought to distinguish himself by war. He had 
aent tnjopa to as^^i^t 5]>^i]j, and a descent upon the north d 
France waa antici|iriled. Louis XII. wrote to Gaston iliat it w» 
not a question of Siifety for Italy, but for France itself. A twtik 
must be fought — a great battle — and it must be a victory^ or all vonl^ 
be loat. An agent of the emperor Maximilian wrote from Bloiitv 
Margaret of Flonrleru that lunce France was France never hod tU 
French felt themBclves in such peril. The emperor himaelf w* 
f^j threftttning to foraake ihem. On the eve of Good Friday 1512 * 
letter arrired from Maximilian to Jacob, tJie Jeader of the Ganv 
' lanzknechta' who accompanied tlie French army. The Gena* 


BhUtle of BAvryvA — death op gistok dk foist, S91 

|, GAptains were orJeredT on pam of death, loinieJJiitt'ly to quit the 
Freucli camp, Jacob look die letter to tbo chtiviilier Bavard, lo 
Thora be was dcToted, thongL he never talked i*i him^ for he knew 
onlv iwo French word*— Boj^-jowr, monsifur. An inl*Tprtl*T ex- 

eiQcd tho diflicutty, ' Von nre bound to the king o*' France/ tuid 
yari ' He w ricli, and vrill knew how to rfcompeaso you. Piic 
die Eetti?r in your pocket and flbow it Ui no one J Jacob cliejed. and 
thp Gt^miaiiB remiimeil with the French, Tht warning had, how- 
erer, bees given. DoubUoBH otlier letters wouJd i'Kin nrnySj luid no 
tti&e was lo ba ioBt. The French troopa were b&fore It&wnna. Th« 
order vtma given to take h by oa^^ulL Six tmius the atlecupl "wu 
made and failed; th^ii (lie Frt-udi drvur t>auk. 

The Spnninnls were entrenched wirhin a etrongcjimpBirrrounded 
bj d«p ditcheB, leaving ooly a email pflfliii^o for tho cavnlry. In 
ordd' to attack ihem it woa ncc(^=i?nry to g^t between the camp and 
lt*r city i a liitJe rjvi^, which in the aptiug wua a torrent, was iu the 
,h way. Gaston di^ Fr^is, sia he wart walking in the morning riflwn ol 
^ Ea«eer SuTfduy, i»o ilie 1 1th of April, 1512^ mot r pany of Spaniaidfl, 
ftod BHid to them, ' Gentlemen, 1 am about tn oro&i the atream, And 1 
flweir beforfi God that I will not reuroM it [JU the Tictory is cither 
yuur« or mint?/ And he kept Lis cath- 

The bnttle tonic place on that pamc day. Gaston de Fi»ii wenc 
inlo it richly and heavily arme<:l ; but hiK right arm vat bare to the 
elt"OW, for lo had vowed to bathe it in the hlo[>d of tlie Spamaidfl, 
the hereditary eneruied of hia family. He spoke of this vow to 
hito frieniia with that strange mixture of ferocity and tenderne^ which 
marked the perind. ' He had murle Thin tow Tot the love of bin liirr 
bdy/ ha »t»l, and he wm about tt* Kuntam her honour, Gaafon 
fba^ht with incredible brnvtry, but it waa dilliaLilb to encounter 
tlie Sfaniards, who were aniitd with a^iort ftwords, and dcxttroualy 
gltiini^ amongst thb ruuke of the Freiidi, prevt^uted them fro EUUBiug 
their long Innoee. 

lu the uiidtt of tbo battle Dumolaid, the iriend of Bayard, wiali- 
ing Xo hojiour the fidelity of thv German leiidi^f Jnoob, ordered wino 
to be bn>ught, and wating hiuiiflF, with Jacob by hie uide, tJiey 
dr«nk together. At thnt moment, wbiUt the glA»«a ware aliJl in 
their bniidfl, the ^irie b«ilJet carried off both their heuiiw, 

ViCU*ry ullim.'itely wan declared to be with the French, bnl the 
Spnoiards retreated in f^ood order, and the io!Vt oi Gaston de Foix, 
who periahed at the close o£ tbo buttle, was aiiihcient tu outweigh 
any ImmedLate advanliis^e ui Li-ni^. His dtatb vmji mainly dui: to 
hie 6ery impaiienct. A blrong hand of fugitive SpaniurdK m*"* ahe 
chevalier Bnynrd with a few followere in a narrow lane^ and were 
about to Ih.' attai;ked. when one of tho Spaniards came lorword and 
mid, ' My lord^ jou huvc loo few merj to attack \ts^ and you tjave 



^infd the Any. Let Oiat aaffice. Tf ive ei^cape it ia bj God'a fiTOUr.' 

Bayard let them pAiu, but they vera ag^n encountered bj Gaaton da 
Foil, who wiLited for do remonstrance, but aptirred his honse fbrwsrd 
to attack them. The Spamorda deliberatelj took aimathtm, andhe M 
to the ground and died^ pierced by sword -thrusts, lit^<>en being Bim«l 
at hia iiice. The Pope hefird thc^ nuwa of the Irwa of the battle of 
Ravenna and fled to the caatlc of St. Angolo, The shops in Rome 
wen closecJ, and the citizens from the summit of the walla looked 
out for an array — which never came, 

Tlie em|>eror Maximilian now joined the ]e*ij^e, and the bimve 
French general, La Faliase, who succeeded Gn^ton de Foix, was 
unable to njake head Against it. 20^000 Swiaa hired by the emperor 
descended suddenly upon the Milanew. Majtimiliao Sfbrza, the son 
of Lixdovico, was proclaimed sovereign of the dnchy, and before a few 
months had pasAod the Holy League had obt^ned its objectf and 
once more the French were beyond the Alps- 

Jultus XL had triumphed, but death soon tbJlowed. He expired 
1511 on the 21st of February, 1513, and Leo X.^ one of ^e famoui 
Medici family, was choseQ as hia sncc^'^or. Theo once more war 
broke out in distracted Italy. It was a new league — Louie XlLwd 
the VenetlaDs against Maximilian Stbrza, who waa expelled by fail 
own subjects. At the same tirae Ferdiimnd the Catholic and Benry 
VllL appeared on the RcenCf Ferdinand threatening France on (be 
Spanish frontier, and Henry landing with 20,00Q men at Calais. Ta 
a battle fought betwt-en the English and the French on the iGth c^ 
August, ]5l3f the Hlght of the French was so precipitate that the 
engagement has received tlie name of the Buttle of the Spurs. Bat 
die campaign ended suddenly ; Henry VIII. quarrelled with Maxi- 
milian and returned to EngJ^nd- 

Louis £.11- was by thia time heartily wesry of war- The only 
ally on whom he could depend was Jamea Iv., king of ScoUand. 
and in the summer of the same year in which the Battle of the ^ms 
wad fought James was killed in the disastrous engagement betveea 
the Scotch and Engbsh at Flodden Field. The French king's do- 
mestic sorrows pressed heavily upon him- His queen had long bees 
ill, but no one imagined that her malady waa of a &tal characttf- 
1BI4 On the 4th of February', 1514, she was able to receive a mcwenget 
from the emperor Maximilian, and to send back to him a ooidi'I 
assurance of her continued affection for the house o£ Bui^;undy, lad 
on the '^xh she was dead. 

Louis was deeply ^ieved- He had respected and rested nptA 
hia wiie, in some respecia perhaps too much for his own good and 
the prosperity of the nation, for Anne waa undoubtedly ao 4r 
blasf^ in ^vour of Ms^ximilian and the house of Austria as to be 
comparatively blind to other interests. When she was dead peace 

SK<an> UH^nRiA'^E — death or louis — irrs chab^ctcr. S9d 

bccutiiL* more Ihon evvr a necGsaiTy^^ nnd Louis ontorc-d jnto negotia- 
tions nith i1j« Pope- Leo made cerUlu coudJtiuuA, uue ^f wliidi 
wifl ihnt MuxlmiliuiL Sforza filiouM be acknowledged as duke of 
HilsD. TbiH being agreed to, he nndertook to makt t?rms between 
tJi« contecKUng parties, 

Heniy VlU. at first held tflcV, butpcraoruU interest nl length 
induced Lira to eign & treatyi dqu of the m^ articlea of whidi wui 
dtat Louli^ now a tuau of middle agt. bralen in h«ilt]] rind apirics, 
tthould hecome the huabnnd of chv yming En^ieb princesa Mar^. 
I Tb& mfuriage l^wk place ininiQdiuTi^ly, and was a<!C0Dipanied by 

1 great feetivities. The kiJig, ^vhose liiibiia had lately been very 
' simple, who dined enrJj and w^at lo bed al aua^C. ivaa unable ^ 
I bear the fatigue, aud esc item mi, and Ute boura wbi<;li hi« bride 
»^i^ delighted in. His health failed rapidly. He lingpri?d during the 
imaUtEimD, and difd on the l^of Januur?, 1515, 

The title of ^Father of hia People' bontowod on Loui* XII. 
w&A in DMny resp«ct5 \?eil merited, lie yrns upoo the whole jiiM. 
pTident aud geueroiis; he reduced the l-ft\t'a ard onlbrwid integrity 
in ihe nianj^ement of the public re-Tenne, and — a stili more impor- 
buit bonefit to after gonemtioiLH — he canaed to ha collBcted nod printed 
tho ci]?4tom8 ^hich had bocome Inwft. The eE^ta of thiti * Code 
Coutumiei'/ aa it nn4 called, were <jf raat importanoe. The people 
crjulil now no lun^r bu oppreaatid by new mid utiheurd-of di^nandn. 
Breo if Ifae ci^iLtnni ivaj^ bnd it was at leodl published, known — 
everyou* eouM read and diaciiaa il, nnd th^re could be littie douhi 
that iti time the common feeliTig of mnokind would rine agjun^f il 
Bod it would be done nwnj wilJi. 

AgrioiiUure, irdde. and evtryihing which marks ih^ prosperity 
of A naEinn HcniriBhefl nnder T^nis XH., and the c»i]iirry mightliaie 
pnjapered ev^n yet mote il' the king could harff reatrainod hia nnibl- 
tJOQ. But the same spirit vbioh tnduevd him to stanfit-e the un- 
happy Jeanne in ihe prosptct of a brilliant marriage with ATtne ot 
Brituay ltd him to renouni:e th^^ bo|ie of belrkg what he niighi; 
have been — the wiwst. Ijest^loved of French monarch!*— for the vanity 
of military gfory and the gmtilicfitiun of an inHeriKLle desiri' brloroipn 
trTritorieSh Undoubtedly hu is l^i bo admired aa o ruh'r, but he 
TOiild hare hoen a better kinj; if he hud been a better mau. 

Hie period at which Louid lived ia often exiled tlmt uf ihe Be- 
B>it* ftpf, or of the re-eatabJLfihnient and improvement of the ans. 
Bome of the I0'>b1 scrikini; public bmldin^ in Fmnce dale from thU 
iime. The arrhit-^ctuml alyle known as the Ketiaisainoe i^ indeed 
Cipen to objeodon, na eoDtdinini^ a mixture of Grecian and OoChic 
which b not acoi.irJiog Co atricb ride ; but, altliiiugb the details maj 
bo found fault with, the effect Ia on tlie whole impoaing. 



A.U. Ul&-]&4.7. 

Francis L, the Buccesaor of Louia XII., waa tbe fint oooBm odm 
removed of the Ute hin^. Both were lineally deacended irom lb« 
duke of Orleann, who had been aaHOBflinated by J&tn Sana Peur, 
FranciB being the repreaeojadve of the duke'a younger *on, NalUrt 
and GLrcumatauceB bad done much to fit bim for hia high pneitioD. 
Dignilied, graceful, and handsome, an accomplished gentlenian, % 
courteoUB soTerelgn^ faBcioating in peace, brave even 1o recklevnen 
in war^ he needed only one thing, principle, to make bim the model 
of a kJDg, But Francia bad no principle. He waa ft aelfiab, 
ambitious schemer for hie own interest, and bis brilliant, proJligata 
reign marke an epoch of misery for hia people. Something puy, 
pe^ps, be said in hia excuse from hia education. Hia mother, 
Louisa of Savoy, a widow at ibe age of eigbteeJi, bad conceatnted 
upon him all the afTection of ber paaaionate nature^ She bad planneii- 
laboureHf done evil, for hia advancement; and what ahe so«e<] 
abe ultimately reaped. His tutor, the son of a man connected with 
the Tomanlic court of Kene of Anjou, bad delighted him Irom hi; 
infancy with talea of self-indulgent love and mock chivalry; whilst 
a^ bp grew \i\i to manhood the stories of the knights and noblefl who 
took part in the Italian wars kindled io his breast a vain thirat for 
military glory. But the peri^on who extrrciaed the greatent inilueDK 
upon bis lile was his aisti.T Marguerite, only two yeora older than bim- 
eelf, but ii-om her strong character bis superior by ten yearu Mar< 
gueritc'a hopes, her pride and ainliirion, were, like her mothcr'a, fUoil 
upoD Francis; and the very qualities which excited her anxiety woe 
also the fuel for her admiration- He waa ber hero, and ha «» 
conscious of it ; and the dangerous worship thua bestowed upon h^ 
in hia own family wa^ by degrees offered by tlie nation at tafg& 

The niarringe with Claude of Brittany hod added to hiri popo- 
lority. The dread of the nation was Jeat Brittany ahould become an 
appanage of the house of Austria. Now there waa no mor^ bv, 
and Francis and Claude were welcomed as the instrmnenta bjwhid 
the glory of France had been achieved. 

Italy, like France, hailed with joy the accesaion of the young 
king. Maximilian Sforza, duke of Milan^ bad called in the Swin to 
his jtid against ^e Spaniarde- Swiss and Spanish troopa devastitrd 
the country, and in the extremity of their distreaa the Iinhi|f7 

DTviffiOM or rr&Lr — yuEfu^if contiitDERS- 


UanLBe turned prh-ately to Fmnciz'. Kven it' he ahould rcoovr the 
tind] c^aim va tlK duchj" Itb would s^tve tlii^m from tLpJr prtfent 
vilenkble burden. Vpn^rr filian-d iht- fiii^liti^ of Milan, and F1l>- 
at^&, o|)pTeued by th« Medici, silent fuid atiU, bided har time tor 
ngctoice. FtnijciB had but lo iTii^ka hie propuLrattDnB^ and iha ro[td 

con<|ueBt Iflj open before liiax. * I will jp— be very eure of thai,' 
a hu secret Dieriaage to iJie people of Milan ; 'and I ttIU conquer 

Jt UBfl ifi the moiLtb of July 1515 that he aflflemblcd bia srniy 

GO^OOO men iii Dnuphif^j Ibr the mvasion of Looibardy ond the 
pport of th« MilniteBe. To oppose him 20.000 Swies occupied tbe 
BK» of MciLt Ceiiia, tlmu coiir^iilrrred iIlc ouly pruclicublf; «^i(rujice 
» TLalj- But of this obstacle rho French vara not fully awara liU 
oy rcBched Lyons, Thare Tri^ulzio, who was in command (for 
ekinf^ bad not yet joiced the araiy), waa compelled to contemplate 
s neces-'OtY of crtwiaing — if they crowed at aU — bj Bome olh«r 
Ute. Cofirlifra wern sent cut to explore the jQOuntziiua, and brought 
ck a repcrrt tJiat the rugged gorg4« of Monte Vim might be ac-^ 
npted. Thfl army advanced in that direction, Hock» were blown 
' or pierced through, nod bridgos built over the deep mvinoB; the 
■vy cannon were dnig^jed over by horaesj the Homller artillery 
rri^ on tb^ b?iclcA of mulr^; and a:, length, alW incrtpdiNe hard- 
rpa, the Freneh army Joimd itaelt' oo the Italiao aide ol llie Alpa, 

But Franeiti had by thia time joined his army m person, bDviog 
t Ilia mother r-ir^at during bis absence, Ilia irofipa hud adiHDced, 
jugb nut wjihout oppoHition, to MiirJijniiio, about icti miles from 
ilon, but behind him werp ibe nrmieB of Spain and tbe Pope. 
>£>re hm were lbs Swisa. The Venetinju were the oa\y Italians 

his eide. 

The cooimander ofthe French army inipbt lie said to h© cTcry* 
•£ wad no one. The king — only twenty-one years of age- — was ibtJ 
iminal bend, and uudtT him vas tbe conpUibJe De Roiiilxm, hbo 
U JTwt five-Hod-twtnty. La TjcinouiJle and Trivulaio were, ind4^d^ 
Ued leaders, but ibojr viflvvn with rt^rd to ^mr wore looked upon 

jLOtJquaicJ. The king had with him a nobL' force ol' cavalo^ and 
a brareBt knjglita ol Fr.inca, aud in an opfu [ilain Lhey niiglii have 
me wonders, but their present position vas on a narrow causeway, 
bich did oot allow more than twenty men to charge io irontr whiUt 

the right and left wore dituhoa and marslies. 

Tbe army of Sforat was conipoeed ihiefly of Swian and Ger- 
BJis. tbe former hj ouger Ui BUtpnae the enemy that tljey put ofi 
cif uho^Sj in ctrder timttlie tmmp of the solili^rs might be leaa dU^ 
ictly heard, and that they might be butler able to jump the dilchei 
id <;rooa the marEhts. 

K Freitclj VEVtb Burprioed, though warning bad been giist 


Franeii £. 

three dmes- The cooHtable De Bourbon vaa about to nt down to 
dinoer, and the king was trying on n mit of Gennsn armour, irhai 
news was broug^bc thiit the enemj were close at hand^ Fmncis a^xed 
wilh delight the hand of the Venetina generaE, who happened to be 
with hinif and eotrt-ated him nilbout delay to return and collect bu 
troopRr and pre[iared to ride forth bim^f to battle. 

From four in the afternoon till midntght the conitict nged vJtb- 
out any decjsjve rosnli. In the flickering light of the moon then 
were many strange accidents and mjr^takeo. The kiog was aboai to 
ride into the midst of a body of S^^DO men, believing them hijs owiti 
but they were Swi:4ii. ^ ^ix hundred R|>earB were pointed at me/ be 
aaid allerwarda himaelf, *und proved to me who they were/ Three 
hundred knights and some light troops gathered round him, and fae 
retired^ whilst the constable De Bourbon rallied the infimtry, which 
for the first time were found to be more important than tJie cawliji 
and dispersed the enemy. 

There was a. pause in the battle^ but it wb« not ended. Frieodi 
and foes mjcgled together lay down for a short repose. Frnncii 
rested himtcelf on a gun-carriage^ and refreshed himiie^ with a 
draught of water — not untainted with blood— which a aoldier brou^ 
htm in hia helmets 

When the morning broke It was seen that the able French genenh 
La Tr^mouille, Trivub^io, La Paliaae, and others had empJojred 
the night to great advantage in placing their troops in a belter poii- 
tion; and though the Swiss advanced a^in bravrly they were om^ 
powered by the cavalry. Men and horscu fell upon them, and thai 
lances could with diflieulty pierce ihe perfect armour of their oppcn 
nenta- At length, abcut ten o'clock in the morning, a cry wn 
heard, ^ Marco 1 Marco ! ' the war-cry of Venice. Alviano, widilbs 
Venetian forces, wa^ at hand, and die Swjrs saw themselves ovar- 
wbehned. 'Iliey had lost half their forces, for no leaa than H,000 
men were ieft on this terrible battle-field- Yet the remainder toc^ 
their way towards MlLiin with such proud cooIupsm that they woiJd 
not even give up the cannon captured from the French, but diaggad 
ihem along without the aid of horses, till from utter weariness tiuf 
were obliged to leave them In the ditches by the roadside, 

TrivulzLo, who had been in eighteen pitched battles, decUred 
that they were all children's play in comparison with the battle of 
MarignanOi which he called a combat of giantd ; and Francis, «b» 
had borne his prt in it with unequalled bravery, marked hia scum 
of the importance of the victory by receiving knighthood on ihs 
field of battle, at his own requeut, from tbe honoured bands of the 
chevalier Bayards 

The immedmtc result of the battle of Marignano waa tbs f*ll of 
Hilon. Majcmilian Sfurza, who bad for some days been besiep^ ia 


ttA CHStle of Pietro Navarro^ wiJlingly surremJered oa the 4ih of 
JctobflT. * Thank God ! ' he said, aa iic fouml himueK relwuwd fronT 
k« L^iTea of goveramfnt ; ^ at leitglL I am free froiu the biiattJity of 
he SvtiHti, the i9is1i4ne->rv of thu eiii^itircir. anil blie [leT^tly of lilt? 
^pAJiiflrilf,' Frauf'iii olfmid liinv a libend ponsjon, aod he retinal Ui 
ire pcflceabljr m Fnn^e, wbiltit the king took pofiseuion of hxe 

The peW9 of the victory of MarEg:iano reached the Pope tJie day 
kfter the liQtile. 1i ^vns c'DiiiiEiiiJLJ{u[«d bv bhi^ Yrut'tiaii rmibatt^dor, 
rho cBTpfuUy watched lis effecia. 1*0 X. turned fifile He hMJ 
>TDnibi!d Dcutmlity, und liod broken it; and, fcrgotting lUut ouriuua 
fyeA were bcot UfiOD hiuif he dnspcd Lis haadd anJ er^claimodf 
WTiBt will bciajmi! of nn?' Tlie juice ho w(W iniiued lately to jmy 
raa ilit BurrenrJer of Us'o provincei*, Pnrrnji and Placentia, and the 
QOOgnitioD of Fmucts n% ^v^r^ign of Mih/^. Some more d&licjL^ 
[aeBtioDs re^rdin^ the reffpectiva ri|«hta oE lh« Ptppe and the king 
n Franoe ivere reserved for a pensojial iDlervievr ab BoJc^hh, In iht 
neuitime FhidcIb, reco^umlng the valour of tht trvrire aod thi^ir in)« 
wrfiiDce £^ allien, entered into nn ^giigtiiit^nt wiih thFTiii known 
1$ the Perpetual PeJi^e^ whic^ti bLsled Avilhuiit jntemiption from 
hat time till the overthrow of the royal dynoaty ol' France aX the 

Fmnti^ returned to Paris, uiiJ aliurlly ufler tht concordat, or 
Ifire^m^^t, which had been entiT^d into with the Pope m Tofsrenei^ 
xi the GallicAD Church wds i:iiad« known. The kitig had ac<]uiri^[ 
dte TiRbt of [jrtBcntalion to all bit^cpric* and other ccclcauaticol 
iJgnitieH ; tthilat ho hod aurrtiidert^J to the Pope ihe ' jiutiaia,^ or 
SrAfruit^ ho'iug oac yenr'a revenue of every hva^iiaw to which ha 

T[i'j r*>yal power was very greatly incruised by this amngoment, 
tad the FreDch (r-jopli; now in it an alluck upon their Jiburtica, and 
in miuty waja Tried t*- elude it. They were cijiri[]t!lli?[l at leDi^th to 
mbmit ic ihe roy^il authority j but it whH ne^er without mumiurfirhd 

It WBd on hifl return to France aAer th« battio of Mon^t^rio tb^t 
PiaDciiB heard cf the death of Ferdinand the Catholic, of Spain, aijd 
the Bccest^on of hifl granJnon Ohitrlea, The afTujra cf Kun^pe were 
DOW in the hands of Bovtref{ni>* who WL're Acareely more thjinyoutha. 
Heary VlfL iif Enj^laml whs four-and- twenty, Francis I. two-and- 
Ewenty^ Chorlua of Spjiin eistccn, whilfll the little king Louia of 
IIiUiBarv waa only ten. The Po|>e himself was yuunp; compared 
trith other Fopen — he wjs niue-iiad- thirty. Energetic action nii^ht 
natuntlTy be ejCjMVifd fiiim prini^n i*j vig^jroUH, but Cluirles wan 
dow in hiflmovtim<?nih, A nipkly, toM-mftnneT<,d» yet i-iuguUrly iniel- 
it boy f brought up under the guardivi&hip of hiBauutMftrgoiAtjtha 



govemsBH of th^ NetlierlandflT he had been early (augbt to look at tbe 
a^ireof goTenLmeatoflhia proftwaior.. Pile^ of despatches and «tftt« 
papers wp.i-e placed before him aa be ?at by tbe aide of bia tntor, 
Adrian of Utrecbt, Jd the boll of the palace of MalineH ; and he tu 
required to make himself maflter of their content*, und to prepvea 
report for the council Even in the night, if need wej-e, thin dutf ef 
T^Lng despatches was imposed upon him. He fraM a ruler &om 
hia boyhood, nnd the virion of a vast monarchy waa ever betbrB fail 
eyp» ; and when at tbe age of sixteen he found himself lord not only 
of Auptria and Flanders, but aleo of the fairest kingdoms of Southen 
Europe, it was no vain dream that hia ambjtioun hope^ were eooi 
to be reaUsed, 

But for the present jie needed peace^ for the aOkirs of Italy wov 
unsettled, and Spain had only recently been moulded ioto one king- 
dom ; andt notwithstanding the wise government of the great prtiM 
minister, Cardinal Ximenea, insurrection and revolution might be 
expected. Tbe Turks, moreover, were making their way in Euxopa 
It vras not a moment for a war amoogst Chrisrian princes, and tbe 
first tmnnaction between Charles and Fnincis wa.'* the arrangemeot 

liii ^^ ^ treaty of peace, aigned at Noyon on the 13th of August, 1516, 
whit;hpiitan end to thedeelructive content occftMoned by the League 
of Cnmbrai. 

Peace under their young and brilliant monarch must have b«FB 
lungularly acceptable to the French. The court was a living lO- 
mance. Expeditions along the bajika of the I>oire from cas^ » 
castle, Irom forest to forest^ grand himting partien, and splendM 
banquets, these were ibr a time the order of the day. Then, on i 
sudden, all was changed. The envoys of the ting of Spain new 
knew where lo find ibe king of France. He rose very late, and fail 
mother^ Louisa of Savoy — who in authority was almost a jcoBt 
sovereign — rose Inte alao. The envoys came to the Maver,' whai 
courtiers and ambassadors were usually admitted to b« prtvat 
whilst the fcmg dressed, but Francis was etill asleep. They CWW 
later, and he wn^ gone out on a distant riding excursion far into the 
forest. The evening was given up to j^aiety ; business U-XOt be pot 
off till to-morrow. But tbe morrow arrived, and the whole cciw 
had departed ; und tbe unfortunate envoys could only find woat 
Btray servants^ who informed them probably that the lung iotetided 
to sleep that night ten leagues oC 

Such n wandering monarch ought lo have been well acquaint^ 
with his kingdom, bur it was not bo. Francis was, in lact, a slave tc 
hia courtL The very day jLJter bis accession he imposed a h^Ty tw 
on his subjects, so thiit be might make a present to aomo of Iw 

The court of Charles in Spain was not leas oppreenve from dtf 


»Taricc of bis Fli?iniah coatiHi-Ilurs, at tlie hefld of wbom whs iIip 
de Chi^vrei^. one of thp lanioiiB Tamilj of Croje. It wan mit 
to Uke the gold coin intro^liiperi after the diHCOVerj' o( 
ca out of thfl countty — jt wem doitnod too ran nod Talimble. 
The beanlirul ducatfl of Fcrdinnnd and rAflbt-Ua ncte cupcciftlly 
esleein^i The Fkojiugs, liowrver, carried theni olT uimcnipu- 
1oii«]y, AtluB^ ihvn ivrimiticd eo few of ihe ducHti rhat when n 
Spaniard Baw oDe hs puc hi^ bnnd to hi« cap and said Tevereotl^, 
* Iloatoa prcJKTve you, doabla-headed ducat, Jdnco M, do Chievres 
has net Tcl discovered you-' 

During ihv three jears dmt Char Its reraar red iti Spma the efluris 
Df his counseKorft were direot*^ to keeping fnpndft with France. 
Ther omnfl^d the king with tha idwn thi^t OtHrlin would marry 
ft French piioceaa ; nod CharJos, who viaa Eixteen^ ivrot« ^ My 
dear fnlher * to a yntmg man of four nnd-turcnty, Foinci* wfis not 
derciicd, but he nas content to let Jnuttera rtdl bo long aa he re- 
if»j«wl a p^fiKLon of lOO.tKK) croima on the pr?rext of thia marriage. 
Hifl fiiture coursa «>pmed marked out. The adviince of fha Tiirkn 
WAH Blartliiig, aad jiU cyea wtro dipotted lo Fiaricia nt tho ciiiojpjoa 
of Chrifltefidoni. But Id order to be this he miiflt bft empiTor, Ue 
mu&t disprii^esa the bi>w« of Austria, which for ni^arly a century 
Jmd received this elective dignity. If the word of the king i* to h^ 
hclievGclfh^ deaired tho empire for thi^n one only rpaBon, that ho 
Iftjght overeoinc the Turks. When tho Knghah nmhafisoikir, Thomea 
BolejD, JiB^ed whether he wouJd go sgnjnflt them in person he ^x- 
cblnicd, * rf 1 flra elected I nhall in three years either ho dead or in 
CormtaJitinopIt*, * 

In the month of Jonuaiy li>19 the dtalh of the ngeil emperor 
.^[aximjtmn Cook place. Fratioifi iit once announced hiraselfa can- 
didate for the empire in opposition to Charles Reckleiilr prodigal 
\mt olE times, he Tziade use of tlio nio^t liivish brilH-s m t^he brpe of 
jfarflueDcinp the election. * 1 v\]] njieud ihrw* luJlJiona of erowns to 
[etia mv oKjt^et/ *o he trrote to hi» ambEiRsadorB at tho Gorinan diot. 
|But when tho day of election cnme the hopcig of the Frrnch hinp; 
i»ere dimppoinled. I lie rival, lifncefoitli to In: knovm aa Clmrles tlie 
.Fifth, was declnri'd mji:cpiaor lo the trnpire. 

Up to ihi? time Francis bad prnfi^ii^fd thg mrifc friendly Ib^lin^ 
Itcvwnrds Ciuirlt*. ^ \Vc are/ he remnrkcd, ' two Hiiitnra to the aamo 
[fniMreAB. Th*: moro fortimute will gain her, but the other muflt 
wmuiu ^^ontruted/ When, howeiverT tho eve»it of the election was 
pD»Ie known h\s fueling w:ia intenwTy bitter, end the diMippciinlnnint 
i«>heni» to have laid thi? fniindarion of a personal hatred to Charles, 
'viiicb Luted througii hia whole lifen 

Id such a Btate of miod it wan oot difficult to And occasion for 
deverat pointa were open to dispute. The little Kivereigniy 


F^vncv I. 

of NaraFre, ou tlje borders of France and Spain, vas cl^m«d hj 
both couDttififl. 

The duchy of Milan was^ according to Charlea, a fia£ of tbi 
German empire ; according to FraDciif, his own ioberitaDce in right 
of hiH gr&ndiuothej-, Valentina Viaa^nti, 

Bur^ndy waa claimed hy the emperor, aa having been tak«o 
from his grandmotlier^ Mary of Burgundy, by the crwfty policy d 
Louis XL Fruncifi anserted that TjOUIS XT. had only laken \»^ 
that which was hiw own, aiace the duchy of Burgundy was unqiK^ 
tjonably in former days a French fief. 

The rivala were Dearly equally matched, and the adTonti^ 
would, it was evident, be with him who ehould win England to h* 
side. The probabilitjea were on the side of CharleB. Englu^d «*i 
in feeling essentially anti-French, whilst itn commerce waa directed 
towards Bmgea and Antwerp; and the growing industry of iht 
coQDtry bad even been discouraged by the prefereuce given to ibc 
manu^turee of Flanderd. 

Francis did not despair. But one thing seemed to him necsi- 
eary — the support of cardinal WoUeyi the all-powerful minister cf 
Henry VIIT. 

Charles was equally impresaed with the neeeasity of winning 
Wolsey to his side, and he sent over U> him from Spain a lai^ nun 
of money, Wolsey's ambition, however, was greater than histf^ 
vetouaneas. He desired the Popedom. Leo X. was, indeed, yennger 
than himself, but his constitution was impaired, aud Woteey hilly be- 
lieved that he should live to see him buried. In the meantime hif 
desired an interview wiEh each monarch separately before nukipg 
his decision between tbem. 

No sooner was Charles elected emperor than it was settled dtf 
Henry YIH. and Francia should meet, but before the arrangemoiti 
could be made the wily Charles, without invitatioD, had landed in 
England, held a con6denciat intercourse with Henry and Woli^i 
and gaiaed Che hearts of both by bis flatteries and gifte. 

Francis, when he met the English monarch, according to appoint 
ment, on a spot between the towne of Ardrea and Guinea— sines 
known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold — had lost the advantigt 
of making the fint impression, and could only hope by gallantry v^ 
cordiality to lesaeo the effect of hiu rival's shrewdness. 

When the interview was firat propo&^d, fearing to be efllaced bf 
tbe wealth of England, he enquired of Wolaey, through the Engliv 
ambassador, ' whether hia brother of England would not thins U 
desirable to forbid his followers any show of splendid tents? Hi 
would on bis jiart willmgiy issue a similar order,* But Wols^ 
hoped to crusli the French by tbe display of Bngliub ricEies, and 
inusted that the meeting should be a fete, and Fiaucin blushed te 



baTing drpamtd of ccon'fiiij*. Tlic mcrtinir bcoimt^ in fact, a 
llmpJe livaij^ of ezLCraviigaiJCC. and houses and hwlii in Fz^nce were 
ir>1d utd morv^gerl for Lhe purehmxp of velvijt^ sktini^ cloih of goUl, 
^w«1a^ and above all i^hainn nl' gold aiich n^ tli« Kngligli worf>. 

Yef it vrna not a qradilablo ahoWf at Icsitt oa the pun of France. 
Dutiuguiehed acioiiRst aU the ladii'S who crowded lIii? court ymxt 
RUMi&iuv de Cliateauliriand, avDweiU^ iJie kiiifi's favourite, uliiLst tliu 
VneeD, CUurie^ thi^ n^ickly dAiighl^rnf Lonia XM,, ^t jkji^irt in lonely 
ttigniiy. Only tlie pond queeu oiothGr^ Louisa of t^:wOJ, could 
diopulJ? the phim with the fjivj>iir[le, LouinL hnd her purty, tu 
Fr^DoU bad his, and the court favoured her, far flfau vaA nllll hnud- 
muK »nd uitribcUve — h^ atlxtictive, indi^vii, Lhiil Khe had dn?umtd it 
H|fc| be poffiible to gain the HlTectii^oe of the yoi^ng cooafable De 
Hvixra* The wnHtJkble, however, cnrDd for riches rather llicn for 
3bvc. H? \i»d sought and ohtfdut^d the hand of Suaunc, the lictle 

of Bourhoo^ who wa^ the i-ichcet heirefia of FiiUiue, nad 
iwer was now 'unmetiM^; hut tlis* ijijpph mniher'5 lovo was 

in a very fewjeara to bring unlold evil u|n>n him und upon 

)«7th cf Jua«, 1530^ Frruiciaaeti aff^m Ardrca, Hoary from 
Gtilii^B, and at th'' fame laomeiic the two prmceH appcuied on the 
Obpi«\Ut heights couimun ding the Field cf the Cloth of Gold. Their 
r?Bpc<:HT# fiJlowem remained on the hillfl. Thfl Boverfign* dencended 
into thopLiiii, Fruncif>waaon hore^buck, 1'b<? constable De Bourbon 
CaJTiod tha BWord of Prance bclcra him, Henry sow thiB from alar, 
Vid liE also Oiax Sutvmnl with tlit; awurd of Eoglaod. The two kiogs 
rnst aad ^mbnit^]. The keen eye of Henry glaneefl nt ih& «plf^odid 
figure ft the conaiabln, vhom he well knew by report, and aa he 
CasQrcraed with Fmncia he Bnid^ * If I hod auch a fflibjoct, bia head 
ahuuJd not long Tcmaia upon hia phouEdera.' 

A royal baciquet was prtrarcJ. The English offered to iha 
fnoch winr^ and relreRhmeni^, and TTonrj diEvniued with the law- 
jen a treaty of intimate alliaoco. The title of king of Fiuuce EtiU 
.tJBiinioU by the Knglir^h monurche woa roferrod to, and Henrv cour- 
(eijiuly put it naide, anying, ' The titlo Is a fklAlty,' 

The next day tJie lists were prepared. At cath end were trees 
of eioth of gfild with ieavw of green silk, from which hung tho 
OKnicheObB of thi? brother moaarche. Around were huge bcntfold- 
iiig4 for the ladies aad the nob! ee^ and acnttered at inU-Tvala along 
ihc valley were pavilions, oi rntber temporary palocea, titt?d up 
Mriih incT«lible ]ii?<ur\, tlte moat pre?cjniis stulfa bcin^ employed fur 
filing and walls. Thji marvel of all was the Eogli^h fintnce, a kind 
j^fgl^ WindfiOT, receiving and aending baok by a hundred windowa 
tfu) dasiUng aublight. 

The lounumeut brgzin, and FrimoiH displayed all hU ^ace, Heoiy 


all hia strengtb. The blowa of the latter were bo vigorooi tiut he 
Btnnaed the unfortunate knight who encountered him, and gave moh 
Bbocks to hifl own horee that chs poor unimal died tLe some night 

On B fiubsequent day the English diaplaj^ed their national ekUI 
in archery, and Henry waa in the ftacendant. Wre«tling, howerer, 
was hia ^ forte/ As it began be seized the French Icing by the 
collar. But Francis released himself by hia sjiroitcesH, and^ forget 
ting what would liave bera politic, thren^ the English monarch tt 
the ground' The attend.-tnta, making a great mistake, ru^ed is, 
separated the wrestlers, and entreated Henry not to take hia revenge, 
and he complied, hut a sense of hitter humiliation and enmiij 
nmkled in hia breHat, 

Francis had made great efforts to ensure cordiality ; he bid 
«ven viriited Henry unexpectedly in his teot before the Engtuh 
king had risen, wishing thus to show his confidence, and Henry bail 
welcomed him^ and given him a rich gold chain; whilst Francisin 
return offered to actas his valet, and proceeded to warm Henry ^s^irt 
But these were merely snrlitce civilitieis. The sovereigns putcd 
coldly. Henry could not forget that in every case in which he W 
attempted to eclipse Francis he had failed. Not only had he beai 
overthrown in wrestling, but when he wished to display his bind- 
some figure and propoAed for amnaement to CAchange coats with die 
French king, he found he was growing so stout that Frnncii^fl coit 
could scarcely be fastened without bursting. Moreover, his ^mB 
palace, of which he was so proud» was blown <?own by the wind—* 
misfortune which waa a fit en^blem of his disappointment in tbe 
whole affair. Full of vexutum, he went direct from Ardres to GiaT<k 
lines, where the emperor awaited u second interview. There was no 
rivalry here. Charles was a little plain man, dreased in black, who, 
being several years younger than Henry, thought it no buiniUatio 
to treat him with respectful deference. He was, besides, qah< 
willing to pay court to Wolsey, and the cardinal was eaaily via 
over. ]□ the conclave which was to elect a future Pope, an AustrilB 
prince who poeeeused both Naples and the north of Italy, and tbM 
held Rome im his grasp, would certainly have more inffuence than t 
monarch who was powerfil only on the further eide of the Mf^ 
After the interview at Gravelines there could be no doi^ M V* 
which Hide tlie English king wou^d take in caso of a di^^nto 
between Charles and Francis. He had, in tact, given his word io 
conclude no engagement lioatile to the imperial interests, 
j^-^.- The storm which had ao long been brooding burst forth in l£tL 
Henry d^Albret, having been diejioBscssed of his little kingdom cS 
Navarre by Ferdinand the Catholic, resolved to make an effbrt for 
the recovery of hi» throne, and called upon Francia to aaaist bus. 
A French army crossed the Pyrenees, but was driven biLok unnK- 


M the ^mo Time hostilities begun in th« Milaneei^, where 
' L&utrei:, [he French yo^^vnfjr, had iimde hiuiBdC ubiioxioua 
bj his cractiouA. 

It WAS n time of trouble throughout Europa. Already tb« nt^ife 
hftd bogun which WAR to epiit theCfiurch of Komoto itBCOUCre, The 
itbiuiefi irrf the [>iipal A^^attm hud rou^-ud the indi^aatiLPb ol Lulher m 
Germany, nmiihe doctrines of tlielletbriudtionwtrc spreading lUrutJgh- 
niu Chrinteiich'm The teaching of Liiihpr harj l^etn publicly con- 
demoed by the French tlif^lo^ifinR, but the Rpihrm^n* were protected 
bv BriconDCt, bjj^hoji of M«aux, lUid by hjs iDliiieaoQ the niiod of 
Uftiguente, the nisleT of Francis, becamtt stroji/^ly imbued vrith the 
Tkcw ductriaeB. 

GmL-(»fiiI. dpver, ciithiifiiaHiic^ und im^jiilriive, MarpicritH wna 
downed to becume ona of the leuding flpirits of (ha grvnt Uijonna- 
tjob movemtni- Ono lecllnf,' nluna intL'tlorud with her devotion to 
rsligioD^ and that -wna lur admirarion for her brother, who, in n 
devioT chotwEL by btrE<^if, vht^ dvugaated ae the soa, on wliich fli^., 
the ■unlloK^T, wflft flhvflys torninp; to guze. 

Francis was wholly unworthy of htr He pnve liia flfTcctiiirt, 
■udi na it woft to rJu^adod lavoiirittsa, and at the lime when the 
Italian war bnr^t oul tlie pereon who reigned eupieme at hm ci<urt 
wu mailame dp ChiitextubriAUil, thi; tlslvi of marshal Liiulrbv. 

The queen njother bent ;ill hor enwgieH to destroy this intluenosi 
ttd, in order to offect her purpose, detenninod fo bring diiigmce 
UfoQ Lautret', even at the riok <jf the honour of her cxiunlry. The 
jDoaey coQeiited f<jr t!ie mainlenance cif llie war wjie, untua^ii to 
FranciH, given 'wto her hand* by the olTJwr ap[x>inW to poIIpcI it, 
ind, innteiid of fL>rwHrding it to T^utrtc, she reUiined it. Lautrei-, 
unable r^ pnr hie Sweb^ tnerci^ncrios, could no longer rc;clcon on a 
foitc capable of rtfli:*tiDi! tlkomi of tJiu emperor and the Fopc, who 
hod now eiitert'd Into nn iotinialo alliance, lie waa defeated witlj 
>'^feflt kioa M ihe trd nf Ajitil lij^^^ ; ihe Milanese was abandoned To 
Ch*rl*B, and a uionlh uftbrwarda Franoia received at Lyomn a dwla- 
nidoD (if WOT from Henry VIH.. who waa upon the point of invading 
PruiOeL In the meanticie Lautrec Qirivcd at Lyuns The queen 
mother atrovf- to prett?nL an inierview between him and the king, 
but the ennsEatila De Bourbon, who waa then at the enurt^ was de- 
lermiii^d u]>on eHecling it. He wna by this lime a widowor, and 
Ixmi^ of Savoy h«d aguin rnade an effort to win bia love Tbt 
oontfable had haughtily rejected her, and dity were in couB«<|uence 
mora ihflii over enfiaiien. To tell the king nf his nioiber s irfijichery 
in withholding the riUppliee would, as the cunHtable aupposj-d, ^mm 
the downlalL of her inlluenee, and^ taking Lautreo by tlie laud, be 
iortxd hia wny into the royal proBence, and brought the iture^ial &c« 
to fic4: with the king. 


FVoneu L 

^Who has lont the Milanese?' exclaimed FraaciSf furiooilT, 
* You, git/ replied Lautrec. Ad exphkoation followed, and the king, 
utterly overvhelmed, could only excbim, ' Oh^ my mother] wbo 
would have believed it of her 7 ' 

Yet the early feeling of reapect could not at once be loot, and, on 
the mterpoajtion of Marguerite, the queen mother was outvrajidlj 
restored to ber Bon'e fuvour. She had now, however, another iqjmrj 
treasured up to rankle in her breaflt against the constable De Bour- 
bon, and, with the intense enmity of & woman whone self-respect 
has been wounded, ^e vowed to effect his i-uin. 

The way was quickly opened. Francis* had already begun to ftri 
irritated by the display of the cont^table^s weahh and dignity. Hitler 
undorrahen the office of godfather to hia child, the king saw hfmsDif 
waited upoc in the conatable^s hOte! by 500 gentlemen, Bplendtdl]^ 
dressed iu velvet, Such a body of men might easily become t 
lorce, and therefore a danger to the sovereign, and in his aniie^ 
to les&en his subject's power Francis thought of suppressing some of 
the many lucrative offices which had been conferred upon him bf 
ihe viuo tove of the qiteen mother. In the end, however, he dul 
what was much more olFenaive : he took away the peculiar privilegt 
of the constables of France, that of leading the army. From thit 
time Charles de Bourbon, as it would seem, dreamt of trcacherj' 
Negotiations were entered into with the emperoTi through the 
medium of a lady of the Croye fiunily and of Margaret of Austria; 
but they might never have assumed a tangible form but fbr the foUj 
and mad revenge of the queun mother. 

On the 12th of August, 1522, a suit was commenced in tha 
courts of law by LouisA of Savoy, as claimant of the vast estate 
which the constable possessed in right of hie wife, Suwnue de 

Th'Te wa>4 a specious pretext of right. Susanne was only four- 
teen when ahe married, ami gave over to her biiaband the wealth of 
which Louisa of Savoy, aii the niece of the last duke of BoorboDi 
would otherwise have been the lawful inheritor. The claim of the 
constable himwlf was slight^ as he was descended from a youo^ 
branch of the f^miily. The person who was at first most overwhelmed 
by the news of the suit was an old lady, once all-powerftil in 
France— Anne of Beaujeu, the daughter of Louis XL The con- 
stable Charles de Bourbon had been brought up under hor care, aod 
all her interests were centred in him. The claim now made a^Linit 
him for hU destruction was her death-blow, and she expired in the 
month of November. 

This event hastened the progress of events. The pottesuoiu ti 
Anne of Beaujeu were genei^y considered to belong to the Bourboi 
patrimony, but some of the fiefs were her own, and were now claimed 


by the crown. The constable saw in tliis th« lirBtat^p to the Peiavtre 
gf all hi& Icrntorieii, Without dthiy he acDt a inef^ge to Mudriii 
making fur the duii>;bter of tlte empuror in tumvio^e, and demuiidiitg 
the inTBuon ofFmiice by the iutperJul am] Eiigtihli Ibrci's^ 

A step EC d;in^efOiis hud iiiit botn tjilten without fareLhonght. 
Great diBOontont roigncd in Fmcce in tonaequtnttj of tIid kingV 
profliffucy and extmvngiuicCi utid mnny of tha [lobJon vrouhl, it "was 
pitibable) take ^^uiri ^iih ilii^ cocisulrk if he nei-e lo cujui; t'ur^rard a& 
ibe saviour of htB (lountr}^ Qup^ Claude aEfc whh Iiib Friend, and it 
VA« in htr preaenca ihnr thn Until rupture vitJi the king took place. 
She wafl diiiiii;:^ <»ne diiy alone, when Charlta de Boatboti entered 
mwxpecle^Uy, and tihu bi'gf^td bim to ail down with her. During 
diucer tiifl king (Lpiieftred^ und tJie cunnlable wrw itbaut to rise, * No, 
moO'^igneur," replied Fnirtia, addrearing him by n ihle due to tha 
prinwA of tl« royal fUnjily ; ^ runvuTi HuateJ. Ik it tru&, ihcii 7 Are 
you al*out t<» be maTricd ? " ' No, nre," * [ know it — I am flurc of 
11/ pemlsieil FrauciA. * I jim nwnrc of your iiLi:ret dcalinga with [he 
tmperor. Kejui^mbtr whuL I tuiy.' ' ■^iru/ i^x^luiinvd iht? conRLulde, 
■you thr^T^'n. 1 bAin? tint d«7((?rved ta be ti>?iited thW And 
dtUD^r w[ti^ no aooner ouor than be laft the ccmrt, and with him 
vreiit mAny of the chief nobica of Fmnct. Aa yet, however, tliere 
iraA DO doelared brE-ach, for Bourbcu's pretext fur dejiartur^ was 
tliflt of txtenninatijiLr the banditii uf ihe nonheni provinces. Rut 
by the middle <>f Augual nn ngreetnent with S[«iTi Etnd England 
tn^ concluded o-nd acted upon. Aa Erjgtigh armyr in concert with 
fe Fi^niinga, dxscaibiirkcd ni Caidi*', und ibu llSpaniatda entered 

The tonduct nf FmDCia is enrprinng. In the prospect of the 
inwBion hia t)ioagbts turrLed to Italy^ aad he aumnLOaed his noblea 
lo meet him there' 

Th« royal eujte travelJed hlowly, titid hnd only readied NiTCiLaiA 
wfa^n (he kbig receivEd the fidtowing htarLling latcer : — -' One of thtf 
freate^ personogfs of ihp realm, and cjf the blood royal, ban a defflgn 
fiot only to giv^ up tlie country Co its enemies, but atoo upon the 
king*v lite/ So wrote Lnuioa of Suroy. 

FrauciH, who hm] with him only u Auall force, immediately made 
hiA wav to JUuuliEi>tt where tht? dukti of Boiirbiin wap, nc^nimg tu 
reporf, lyrng ill ; and, plaeirg hia own lioTdierfl f\C the g&rea of the 
^oke^e ffiluoc, anuoimcod hie inEi?titJon of eponding (ho night there. 

Then followed an intcrvievr. Tbo pretended iiLVAhd darted not 
a^in dttjy that he had ejLt«re<i into [legotiatiuns witli the emperor, 
but he aiid thnt hir had only wutnl to ttee the hing to t^ll him alh 
PrancjH Apoke kindly, and forgivingly iis«ured the eonsiable ihut hf> 
iatonded to tabe him %viLh hito into Jialy, and give him the com- 
maud of the vanj^uurJ, as fitMarignatio. Bourbena^ked fortljc JeUy 

t ■ J 


of a few da^fti- He woa too ill, }ia Nitd^ to benr tbe mcttion of a Ifl 
And Ike king departed, leaving behind onQ of hia equir^ who 
might gi'vti him ncwa of th« dukc'a Health. 

But. the cujialable ubji.-cted lo ihe guardiaoahip of the Bqnii^ 
and when, after h few finys, he begun hia journej, he sent him Bo 
rejoin the king. Fmocis orr3*.'red tho iiiuti buck^ and the duke fbeu 
pauflO*! on his woy^ and anntiuaaed thai he was again very ill, and, 
indeed, dyin^- Cries and groans awokf the vquife la the middJo \ji 
the night. He rose quickly *nd rushed ofF wiili the doleful ttdiagi 
to the king. But nn soinra- wa'* he j/odb llian the duke jumped oM 
of bed, mounted hU horFW^ and rode off at full gallop to bis cutk of 
Chnulet(€. There the irrepreHtdblc ttqiiirCf a aecoiid tmi« aoot biA 
by the kin|j;t aguin awaited him, Ths constAble) in towering wnt^i 
threatened to hang liiui fmui the halllejoeiita, aud at len^h, too 
ihankfiil U) he nllnvted to e&cape with hie lifer tlie poor man depafWd 

llien tlie eon^tJiblo made liia final flsuipe- In the middle t^{ ibt 
nightf es<?han^Dg hia dtcsii for that of a Jicrvaut, and reversing hit 
huree'n Mhuea, n> that he might not bo tracked, he {\^ towuda die 
Boutli, and, niter many narrow ettcapea, reached ItAly and Dpedj* 
joined lie oraperor, 

Francis van erill ia the greatest danger in the north, but the d*- 
BcnaoDS between Wolsey and his master were advantageoiu lo hioL 
llenry ^ould have beea coutifiiteJ to Uka Boulogne, vrhilBr Wola^i 
ID the inteveetfl of the emperor, d^^red to hjive the Htrong toi triaa m 
oa the Sommc^. Wolesy oo doubt heli^^ved in the emperor'^ «iippoit 
of hia seanst vievvB^ hut he mn^t have bcon disahusi^d when, ca At 
death oJ'Pope Adrian VI., which look place in ihc mouth of Sep- 
itja temher 152^, Charles eulTerr^ Fm illegitimate member of the Media 
lamily to be made Pope, nnder the name of Clement VIL The elec- 
tion was irregular, but that fact ouJj rondered the Pop« mom d^ 
pondoTil on the emperor who supported him. 

The newa reached Wolfey in tlitr depth of a moat inclemeQt winiav 
HO Hev^re, indeed, that many of Lhe HtLliers were frozen tn deilh. 
Still th^y ndranced towarda Paria Wolaey allowed ihem to ptllif«k 
and they burnt what they vould not carry away. When vilbbt 
eleven leaguea of the capite.1, however, the order waa given to retnoL 
' Jt iii too cold,' wrote Wolacy to the emperor \ ' neitlier ta«n aat 
lien^t ean vtanil Kgaiust the JroBt, Your own GeriiuinH. who cmr 
from the Jtbine, are all ditpeTfied.' Aod bo die northern camuu^ 
ended on the port of tho English. 

In the meantime little had been done in Italy, Six rcotitiu 
passed in delay on both aideh^ Ah legarded Chuitsa de Bourhoui 
FranciB put a price on hia bead, and then, being mftj>ned by a riiit 
from the constabJe'B ueter, the duchess of Lorraine, pTomie^ w 

nriuiie UJC — xuiLTU iBiLflLD — mic !(;■ 11 ■■-'1 vni 

d Boarbon then took the offctielve uud 

\f,VW \*1 

comprHeil tJiC 
NierAl, Bonrivet) a mnn wrifhrnii mk-nt or pripciple, to 
A deapenil« struggle took ph.z& on the banka of ibe SpkEo. 
wflfl Tfoundod, ond otliged lo yield his command to the 
iBnyard' The ^laut knight rcaiaTcd for some tin^c the 
fof a EUj>erior rojt:e, fi.nd thu^ i^^i^iritil iha ri^trout of hiv 
ttroM riio Alftfi. But he waa himself mortally woun'Jijd by 
i balL Aa he foil the blow, h«r cried out, ^ O God 1 1 iLm 
nd, laking hold of his bvoril, kissed the criicin>n» hilt^ ex- 
[ 'Miserere mei, Di-iui^ Beciiudum magnnm nii^ricordiam 
l&t his irwu re<jui3Ht he wuA pldoeH ut \he lix^t cf n Trvft hla 
|Bd towards the foe. The conaiiihlo Dq BoL^rboa rode Up in 
.1 He puu^ed at Ihc sight of KayiirdT ^^^ ei^reued hifl 
' MoDaeignour, I need no pity/ replied EJnyird ; 
of 4 luaii of hoaour i hut I picj you, fur you nrv 
your king, your onuniry, and your f>fti.h/ The 
now came by^ and PeBcam, thtir gi^oara), oid+Ttd BnyaM 
to a pavilion and laid ou a eanip bod- A prit«t wua 
lo him^ and he made tiifl dcyoiit coalemloD, praying that 
fld be pitaeeJ Uj p^^^ vTer the faidm he had commilted, and 
nni Hiih nbmidHni demency insDead of His rigorous justice; 
coQciuaioti of tlus prayer the knight * Bans penr el saoa 
yielded up hia soul U> God» April 3(1, ^^^t- 
u iTM, indeed, more to bt pitied than Bftyard. He vjoa 
g the bitter fruiui uf his Ireuuhery. The emf«ror, m 
iinpenBe of hb Berviofls, phic:*."d him uudpr the commaod 
■, viccrtiy ofNapi^a, and IJnnoy mado him act in coocert 
jferocjouR ypaniah geniTil Antonio de Loyva, and llie intri- 
PUa leader, tiie matquia PeBwira, both of vrhom wonld fa-in 
ft^ Liu dL'iitnjciioD. BourlxJij'ft uliJniate i>bjei:t w*i* to gwm 
> King of Provecco I tlmt v/aa what he hoped Ur be, if he 
\ bo king of FraiLco. Tim emperor gnua pemiiHaion for the 
jtf Frtuice, and in iht luoatli of AugiiBt the t^^n^table^ hnv- 
fced Btvtrjl Binaller tuwoa in Provence^ liiid eiogo to Mar- 
He eipecitd tn nfiHive diput^itioua iicd propoidtn^oa from 
ibitwits, but he encountered ouly bulkt& Tho army 
m drew ihh%t, rmd retreat seemfld thi- only anrtty- An 
FU tried, but it failed, and then hurriedfcy md without 
mu]«a aud a^.^, making their w-y m beat thf.y couid 
I Comiche, and on one occawoti nmrdnng forty mil«*i m one 
Imperialist foTe<ft. "^'^^^ ^'^^ ct^usuble IX- Bo^irlioa at thei* 
v back into Italy, ^^ ~ 

* ^1 

Till? invaakio anJ. thi? retrcnt were iTie snlvaticm (^f Fmach. Frrrm 
n IciiLg di^irust^d iiad disliked Lg hcicaiite the duli-niiEr of the natioii. 
His iiobloH Mocked aroiuid liim, nod in the i^Dthti^-ias.'m of tbe m<t- 
racnl he ordered nn inimediato di-acCTit into Italy, Milaa waanacbed 
without ojtpotiUtoi]. Fr;iiicia slioppeiJ Lis suldlon at the gnie^; the 
inbabimnT!! hftd f^jil^d with both pirriefi, but Franctn va.'i niit tlii" Tbw 
metcifu! to thfin- Not tiU the next Hay vr^Te Ihe trcops ftllc^weJ 10 
ojitctf in ^fid order, arid coTumniKicd hy ihv muuh-reqwclc^ general 
La Trf'mouille. 

Thir rnorjJ effect of ihe taking of Milaa was great. Vifoie^ 
the Pnpe, Fi[id rhfl Ipbsct Afjit&i of ItaEy now tCdIt pu-t with FraneU; 
Had m onli^ (c eAFabli^h himself in hi** cotiquoflt he had only lo dift- 
perB<* the Bcnltfred remnina of ihe Imperial nrmy. The atmttijea 
force wus Ht Puvin, wbicli tha king d^btjrmieed to bB>«ltgi.', wLJIu he 
sent A liaud iif 10,000 thhh tuwai^ the south to nklly to hia nJn 
eoy doubtful fllliea. 

But lbs cnorpy which had brrjugbt the Freach king thuE fur 
Bcetned now to forjjakfl liim- F'^r four f«oat}ja he remiuQed beiun 
Pbtta. reajding chieily at ihu Vjlla MinibelEaf bdonging to llie dlikc 
of i^liJfln. The alege wpnf or slowly, hui Frnrcis e«vmed well oon- 
tent. Hi<; Italian villa wns a!! that he noi^ded. Within WL-r« niut^ 
rtntucB and ornttmenlB o* poqjhyry nnd aloba^ler, mcuy- coloured 
VtJittiaiL glu«\ the richest fufnittire of allk ftnd diiLimsk. 9:>1\ be^ 
and F]t-[ii!^h uirpi>in : >vilhi>(i^ were brOTtd t^^rrnc^^ti niid gardtrv tsA 
loiioTain^, wTth n dlmqciL^e of apen pu'^tiires and ffiiuny vilhigefl, &I 
in the frmuo of the Huowy Alpi*, which gliiioT'ed in tho fur hnriEon, 

Thi> arriiitic but sclHsh FruadB iLixuriaring in thkfi lorehD<#> 
wldcli tven vrititer could not Je«ltuyf took ii^> heed to the fujttliix 
hifl army wan nieTtinp; awny eveTi in bin vory presence. Men Wf« 
dying of cold ond hunger. The noble§ even ennte to the kloflfi 
Vjtcbun for Hhfltcr, but Fmiicia VJU4 inaenrible to thoir ai;cd£. H* 
heard thnt foiu- bodica of hin troop? hod hten ^uijrrised and drfcatn^ 
and liP wuei not a-wnkeaed from hia dii^m. He wua told thatlbt 
Swisa were ivdvnncing upon him by thouranda, niid ha did not racaS 
lo mind thai: he had acnt ]0,00C men to the boath. 

iJifi enorDicH wore u grf kt contnul. The niarquiB PeHcara bfp 
up ihc ftpirita of the ironiiin'Ti auldier^ and thou;;h he had uothinf l" 
oiTer them, paid tht^m with good wurda, Jijid when thcw fsit^d h* 
pprnnaried theofSf^tra to pa-rt with any little nnoney tbty hud^ T^ 
conblabi* had at tha m-tip time been bugy even in Germany. Hi» 
TOf^ at the ioas of Province aecmod to kDV€ given him winga- B' 
coJIecitJ money, and by every means, imi or unrnir, biioi ir^ 
truopd, brSbi-d ihi^ soklU-i^ iu thi: pa;* of Frjiucis, und euliauH] tkcts 
OIL the Ride ui' iJie emptrOT. 

Francie was at laAt ulaimedr nnd coEketing hi# forc«e Eormed & 

ibrtifibl camp, protecti^i hj tlie wnlls cf the fiurk of Mirab^iliL 
But CiCL tlie uight of the ^3nl of F«briiarj PtTacam tii'd ^iiini- iiiilsoiia, 
wh(f in an liour tlirew down a large jicriitin uf tlit w^ll^ and t)>e 
TKiperialirt troofis ihen alvnnceH c^Iobc to the Frfncb camp- The 
ffiKtnodI rarxkii, being utidor a eJiowor t»f French bulloi*;, ivara begio- 
nmf lo ilnkW boukf ^lien t'niDci^f thinking vicl<jry Bure^ threw liini- 
mJT upoa tliem, uuf-M-tuu^li^ij at thu «arac time plbcijit? liimsQif la 
ffUicb a poaitiQii tiiat Li^ l^iah cauuon could jjol bt: tired wJlhout 

Foscara made his Gva body of Spaniiih troape prfwa forvurd* A 
fierce struggle ensued, Tlie Icin^ nnd hjs great n^-blt^^ flnHbiincd it 
giJland/t but it proTF^d a auiugliier of the 6ri«t ^utieraU of FrMiceu IjU 
Tr^moiiUle* Iji F:ilis^, .iiid Bonnivet, were kiiltiLl TJie kiu^, woiicidecJ 
in i-wo pUei.'^ his lace enverpd wirh blood, and hi* borne aerereJy 
injured, aciug^t to gam the bridge and escnpe. Bnt the horae Bonkf 
adJ Frmicia full uuder hiin^ Two Spiuiiarda bad aJroidy pbindtred 
and wtre o[i ihc polcit dl' kiJIiiij; Liui, whcji a group uf FitirtbuiEn 
rode up, On<f of theuL rt-oo^iEiHL'J the kin^» and HTiti'piLl^ him To 
jield tc the coiiF^tJihli^^ Fraiiria Thfii&'?d- rflnnoy wuh HunitTmned^ 
lad g^vicg bib o^s'Q sword to Fruncifl, ho knelt and roccived thjit of 
hu rojnl primnar lo c^chjiii^c. That cvcutcg, ^hcn fho k(ngf< 
wounJs weie drtsBi'd, itiid h« wjia ab!t to fortuke of lefn.'^lLiiieQln, 
the confltuble Dv Boiirloo appeared liefore him with offem of tH.-rviL'e. 
Th« king, it is taid, receiTcd him eourleouslj ; but forgivenefla 
could K:nrct.'ly huvu bcCQ cxpcctod. Francie Ikad Eccmingiy lost t^V4]ry- 
ihjtig ; U,(*1)^J oi' his brnveat siibjtclj« had pi-f iehe^l on tlint fjifjd da^f 
and \>ii own fmun: ky djLik befurt him. lEe v.ii» conducted to n CJir^Ue 
near MJlim, .^nd thtre wrote w hie mother a Itngthy letU?rT which 
baa l>etn cundeaa^ by hJstririajiH into the fuuioua laconic n^eesage, 
'All ifl iofil uivG l>onour.^ But the cLivnirouB word^ wore belied by 
\a4 biioiiiiating i^ppral to the emperor to reslcre to fr4:edoi^ a king 
«1lo would then hv fitr e\eT hia aliiTf*. 

Krun^'iH y/a^ no hero in bis irnpliviiy. If i? ^^aid that he even Icmked 
for aiii irocu the Muhometan eulUiQf whom it hud h&va tlie Jraiim of 
faie yt>uth ti> cOD^utr. Some tboughfB of reyientonce for the dico ol^ 
bifl pa«L life ieeaj to have been awLtbeTied hi h'liu. }Ie fiiated bo 
■irii^lly Lhai when hia tUHLerMurguoriie hi^urd of itHhe wrote ivrnescly 
UXgtng brm not thufi to try hia health, but rndii^r to read rbe epE<n.l«li 
of St. Pj>iili a otjpy of which ahe Rcnt bitn. There was, n HUpfirsti- 
liciu fci'Lng count iiltid with the present, A holy hirmit had aaid 
ihAt if the king would reul St< Paul he ^vould be set fn^c. 

The <^ueen moiber took tniire active ni^auureti f^-r btr bou'e 
^eedoiu- She opened [.'OEiimiiuicatiiin with Henry of Kngland, with 
Veaice, Flor&Dce^ and eveu with thu bctltfiiL, and by August 10^5 u 
i^agic was formed between Enghuid, the Pope, iho VetieCione, uid 


Fmnc^BOO Sforsa, duke of MUaa, baving for ite objwt the delive 
of Jtiilv- from thi' cinpcTCir and the libetatioa of France. 

Cliarlet, in tliB njeuutiuit;, bad received thp news of Jiin Bucceie wilb 
apparpfiL i^olmne^ and hu:ni1ity ; but in ni^nCiiitiup he ivni4 eTcirlx- 
laQt, H# requiredthe cGs^icn of Burgurdj and ol' the norlhem pro- 
vinOGBof FniEictr for Idut^olf, Provonco a^a kingdom tor tho oonatAbld 
De Bourbon, aad the rcaloralioo lo Heoir VIILyf tbo PrGOch pn^ 
vincea Ebrmerlj po^r^^iisKxl by Englflnd- Liisll/f he deEn&nJed ihal 
FrnnciH EJhouId fuTiiinh SO^ilOO TUfn mw\ jmn awjir agiiinRtihe Tmii. 

Tht< cOQclLtiona were vholly im^omptible vdVa. the bononr of Uie 
French king, and Fraacia wn-i in dcppnir. If ho C£>uld wc Chnritf 
be thought he might obtain more favourable terms, iind he CApreascd 
bia wifih tij b^ tJiken to Madrid, LanDo^ fTirthered und carried out 
lbs plan of removiil. But the chan^a wiiR a miMrable one. L) 
Jtalj Fmncis bfid Eiy.'ked out from between thcbcrsof his priaon npoo 
tbc fimiliog pluiDii or Lombard^' nnd i}tc cb&n^inR Ixg;ht3 and ahaidfi 
which plajeil M\y^a ihf^ disULut AJfha. In Mniifid Le was placed 
in onft of thw lowers of the foriifiLiilicina^ in n amiill nbnniber hatiflf 
but nne winiJow^ and fi'om it hp wiw only ihp dn-ary wmie borJir- 
ing tha tniBorable liltk etrcatn of tho MnnRncfLms, whjkt belov mu 
a precipice of 100 fect^ with two battaUona of ff"«^ keeping w»tci 
night and day at the foot;. 

FrancU haH ^xilten prtelry in Ttnly; ho wrolp non? in Spain. 
Tbe dry, burning air of Ciulile and th+J cloucJg of hot dtisE wKwh 
poured in tliroi^gl] bis nindow ajf(.'cti.'d his hejilth. He enfreiiW^ 
hia mother to Fiait him- She could not leave Fraui'c, but ahe sOjX 
huT duugbter. 

Mnrgnerira set off with only a vague proiniae of safety Jrwia 
ChnriBB, whicli nd^ht at £tiy moment be rotra<-tpd. A long aaJ 
weary journey it waa, in the hoticEt months tit the year, over tb» 
Bacdy plaina of the oorth of Spain; but her love (fiti \i*s brotlirr 
OTtrcome all Be^^e of fati^ie. ' BtlieTe me,' aba wroffi to bitu, "tn 
do you fiervice fjotlung would be ton hard. "W'are [ calleil uj-m to 
die^ and kt my ashva be RC4Lti,ered to the windA, it would b« to o^ 
TCpoao, honour, and cDaaohtioii/ 

Her appearance at Btadrid brought renewed lienlib and hope t* 
Francis, mure tepeoiully wlitn tlie itrrriB of reltfta: begun TO lie oncp 
more diH^Hflaed. MurgueriTe appurently iljiier&d hereelJ' that, if die 
could eee the emperor ehe ehould obtain her brorJior'a fres'lom U(i^ 
honourable conditions- But Charles would not moei bi^r. She 3;ieJi^ 
lime at vrbich to be at a certain convent, but abe waited for lieunaaA 
hfl never rnme. As ibednyp won? onFranrini in his misery, began Uj 
think of ftbdicntion. 'Thfl Dauphin Rbnulil be Crowned,' bo he in 
ibrmed the enip^Tor. ' For birutielf, he only wished to know 
be was U> Epcfld the remnindcr of his captive life.' 


Hie position cF ChArlon woa not firee from embatraaMueat. The 
Lew Countries were in ret^llion- Epglimd was prepjired lo takp 

Kt with Fmttce, nnd th« Turku were nivanciu^ into Hunguj. 
K i>paniardH itiemAolvefl pitied Frnncie^ ajid the p«rtidj o£ (JharJeH 
de Bourbon wa.? w hmtcfuL Ic them that when the cotiBtable cn^ms 
to Sjain About ihh tame and iLc tmperor btgged owe of his nubles 
Ui show hira hospitolityT ^^^ ?^[jnniard replied, ' I cannot refiifle my 
b&Ufic for the twrvJoe ot jrour o^je^c^, but I tJuil be prepared to bura 
il do^rn the next day.* 

At length The diaappoinled Mor^erite rHtnm^ (o France trith 
the kiug^^ abJicutlon in her po&^eiisTan, arid Francis va& agAin lnii 
to his solitary meditntLnnH uid the dreary Tiew of the Bandy wsuteA 
uoutid hiH pnaon. Then h&look a litvf for hitneelf. 

A treaty wn* drovn np. He waa tc give up llflly and Burgundy, 
to rt-esuibn&h the iXiintaXila De BuurljL>u, to abandon hia uLlie,'^, jiod 
to attend Charles in aLaf« when lie wuDt lo he crowned at Home; 
Uid, h.\s queen Claude being dead, he woa Eo marry tlie enipoi^r'd 
ttOer Ek'tti»or, tbo widowed queen of Portugal. The nogotiiitJooH 
went on for three montbo. The enipcror introduced FmncLB to his 
propu»ed futTjfc wife, a good- hearted, dork-coLuplexioned woman, 
with ihf th'n^k lips of tlie Austrian family, and whilst the Iting wns 
■till furrouuded hy hie guardii made ber douce a. Moorish Barahaiut 
bdoTA Kim \ and Fmticta played ihc lover, and talked acriously of 
ihe treaty ; and then, on ihe morning of the 14ih of January, 1526, 
*bcn it waa to bu aigEjed and si^altid in the prepuce of Charlea Eiud 
hia miniaten, made a aeoret protefllaticn befnre n notary that he was 
about to take an oath which he had no intention of keeping. 

With Ihb fl*crct rencrvuHon he pledged himself alao to return to 
capjtivitv if be found It iiupOA^tbte to keep hi^ eogagemeata, and oven 
gave what t^med a prutz'.icul proof of h'a alncerlry by delirerlng 
op hu twn aons a^ honTjigefi. He waa set free, nitd the etchang^j took 
p[acfl in the middle of tlie frontier riTer Bidus&oa. The king jumped 
Uklo hu own boat, mode bia two children lake hia place, and once 
life on Fret^dj EK>i^, mounted an Arab horse which waa waiting for 
him, ar»d exclaiming ' I aiu again a king E' rode olf at Jiill speed to 
Elajonn?. The emperor's etivoys were afreudy there. They begged 
hioi to ratify the treaty. Froncia smiled and talked, und exctisod him- 
fclf. Hia concluidon »'ae, ' 1 toa^t conouh my people/ 

Tbo m^mins of tli!>i waa but too evident, lie would acVnow- 
Ipdge CO ties^ political or moml. Pleasure was again hia one ot>ject. 
M*r^erite retired from hia court and marri&d Jean d'Albret, the dla- 
inhcHtod king of >iavsrn?. She took up her reaidenco at Pnu, 
and bci^ine the centre of attraction to the Reibrmera throughout 
CfariBtendom; and Fnuicia, deyotiog liitnadfto a woithlf^AA fiivtiurite. 
the dcicheafio d*£tainpea, found nmuBement in bitilding ihe taa^nitiiient 


Fraitns I. 

cartle of CJliambonJ, in llie ndgbSourhood of Blnis, The vafi hn 
ing, WTili iifl u»wprs sind luriKA rind chimnpy* hidden iindfc tlis tp- 
pearnnco of eaaLeni minnretfl, mill RtanJuTii llipmidcllo oJnoob1*j«rit, 
K anniunient of the is^eto and the laviah aipondiliiro of Kraricu^ 
urbilflt the singular nrraD^nieal ot^ the inbirior* tlii^ isolnlc-J cliuinliCT; 
and ffindijifi t^UiirowHja being ao fornntl that Iho persouis may aecj-uti 
and dcBcend an ihe aamfr fimp withmit sRpjrp «ioh ntl^pr, mitrkfliJtf 
bing'fl deleroLJnution to Ibllow hia own inolincilTOiis without obfem' 
tii>n, KU whole nUtntion wna, in fact, Lnrea to the ctirj^rtiL-tion of' 
Che cJLBtld of Chiimbord. Vroia Toura to Blob he wciiL hacUwor^ 
and forwurdfl, iuotfa.sHtitly watcliitg tlm priK4:SH of Llie liiEJIding:' Oalv 
no\r and thtn h« vns Doinp^lled to tnm saide and ^v<> aorme tbon^bl 
to Ituly, For it was in lUily that Xh& cf^nsoqueuctis of this perfidj«f 
Frimci!^ were most dt-'oplj to be frit. 

WheD tihe king BU»teJ (<j tlii.^ SpriLilfili eu\oy (Jiat hiH Biir^^undiifl 
eubjifoia uuuld i>oTi allnvh biiii lci rd!enm« rl]C!du[:hy, and th^t hei^nU 
lint therefore ttep tia (■ogagemenC^ the emperor rptjuired h[in, M 
1)0 vnluod tiia hoTicur, tu Gurrctnter him^lf onco more u itruons- 
Francia took not the alightost notice of the nppcal, hut quickly foracd 
ax\ uUiHuce with the Pope:, the VeneiiiiiiH. smd Lhe duke of Mikn; 
wid hftving received from Clement V[I. a diBpenwitioti froiu ^ll 
agreenienif^ left ChaTlea to tnke whnt mesfurea Dii^^ht beat auit hiia 
lor rev*Ti^e. It wiw soon cvjdont wbut these ivoii Id be. lu Jufr 
l^'iO the Imperial troops, uridtT ibe conatahle De Bourbon, entem 
Lombardy, und dritvG Fmuc&%t> Sfor^a fioni hia dominion^i, aod 
being nftflrwiirdn i-diufnrced by a body of German Lutherao BOt- 
dieiK, who were elamoroue against IhtJ Pope, get forth for Rcmftia 
*^ the l>i tier winter of Jiinu?vry 1527. 

On ihe 5th uf May i\ic armv, awelled by b horde of acti^- 
turers and hnndit^, arrived uniJer thn wall^ nnd thf^ comulile 
Sitit n mocking me^aage to Pope Clemeni demanding permiaeion ta 
traverse theeity on bifl way to Knpkie. The Pope, alarmod, oo^leoftrf 
hia iorccB. armed hia BLTvnnta n.nd the af^rrantfi of Lhe cjtrdinali ao^ 
prolat«a, and rei^ulred even jjrduters and aitii^ta (m vtc are told by 
tlie frinjoiis fctulptor RenvGnuCo CfUini) \o aid in rhe defen^^e of tJ» 
city. Bnt reaatrinoe was folly. Tlio following momiug a Ittf 
fnvoored thp oaaault, utid it begun. The Germans adYunced aIotIt^ 
TliQ con&tnble sL-i^cd a Euddcr and mounted. The next ior>iU'«nl n 
was struck by a muhk*Jt sliot tinil fell back mortally nouiuieJ. Ha 
would tain have coTiceRled bo great n inirforcune frori htn *nlHifrr 
* Cover me, he Raid to one of hi« foUnwera who atood by bin «<(' 
vatchin^ hini- The man threw hip eio:Lk ovt*r tim, nnd at the T'OOt 
of the walls of Rome the coiisublo De Bourbon crqnrod, 

Ili» iu^uv revengurl hia di^atli by atoruiing the fi^rLific.TitionH. Tb* 
rack of the eity which followed i^ one of the most lertiblo vfvnta r^ 

ireji doria — PBapo&jiu of peace. ^13 

I *DnI«d in hidfny. The Pope flcfl txom ihe Vftrican hj a long bigh 
forndof c<iiimiiuii('«Lti[}g wt;h tbhr caeLle of St. ADgeIn, in whtcb lie tiit>k 
tt^g^ Pram ilii^ cUTTtitor hv cuuld Took down upon the horrible 
tnstchpry beTnw. Kwnpe wjui trnposntilc. Thp G^^rmnnA were mas- 
teiB trf" die city, nnd lie ivas & cloeo prisoner. For BeTcn tnoMlia 
Rome wna n aceac of bloodalied find dcarruction* vliiJc iht^ l{*-f'tnnerB 

. rtjuiued in ihe degradatickij of the lienJ oftKe Rtiiuuii Cutbulic: CtinrcEi ; 

' and The empprnr, then^li he hjpofLritiuilly ordered public prayers to 
be oGtrerl for ihr* Pope~3 rJeEiveranc^, retuHad to epeal: ibe word 
which wonJd effect iL 

France and Enplji^id, h[>weT€TT roiiped themeelres for thr li>>orfl- 
tion of Clem(?iiL. A Freocb nrmj, under Lflulirec, \v&* deMjatolieil lo 
Tnly, and ita tmcces^H induretl die emppnjr to Ml tlie Pope free, 
hut tb* mdiscretion of Fraaeia neutmlJted the advanlagsn thta 
^Loed. Latitrcc hnd received moBt cffioJcntoid frcm Andrea Dorian 
a great Gcnoefct admiral, and Dgria pcljtiontd that, as a recompense, 
certain comuji^ruial priviltj^eH wbich liud beeu Uiki-ii fruui lii^ nutivc 
city whilst Hiihj&ct to France phould htf resiorwl. Tlia requvni, ^aa 
not only refua^d, but, at the iTLrti^tL4>Ei of eome of llic king'fl corrupt 
fiiTOiiritJ^ ordem were giTon to put Dorift nnder arreat- Tbe Ge- 
IKMBC adnainkl being warned, iDnnediatplj j'p^s^d over ivitb hi? ivliotc 
vmy to the aervioe nf lb? emperor. Lautnrc, who Tvns bJockaJlng 
Napl^ found himni'lf in com^r^nenpe unnble to mainmin hia pr>Hi- 
tiOD, for proviflionB were convey<'d into tJjB city by aoa. A lerriblfc 
■□d iatal pe^ileacG iU»o broke out; Liititrec was attacked by it aad 
died. The marquis de Salacca, *ho succeeded him, Wiia cumptlli-d 
to cftpimlate, und when tliR Frencb iirniy rarreati'd at length from 
Italy scarcely 5, OIK) survived fjiit fif Bn arniy r>f 30,000. 

Doria rstamcd to Gonoa. i?xpoTJo<i the French, and reatorec) tliG re- 
publican form of government, of which ha himBtlf became ihc bend- 
The cvenld of this war had oc<;upii^ eight yearn from its coui- 
mPncement. Ac ibe end oF thnt time ihe Frt-ncb, d[&pirked and 
ejthauBted, longed lor peace, nnd the emperor, threaten^ boiii by 
German Protetlanla and the Turks, waa propired to enttr into 
>ljAtit>nB. The terms wcro promptly arranged by tho Ivo ladies 
had for bo many years intlnenced tlie aflairs of Europe— Mar- 
gnerite of Austria, regent of LhpN*?thi^rInniiH. And Louisa of Savoy , ths 
i^ueen mother of Franeia — who met nt the Imperial city of Cnmhrai- 
Louiaa of SftTf>y hnd one grent object at Ijenrt — tho release of 
hxt grandiKinpi, who were Koaiatrca in Sfflin. Bi^th w*?re ill, th^ 
cldeir especially, and even Lanuoy hiid Niid to the king tlmt tlie air 
of Spain did not anit the Danphin^nnd th;]t it nonld he we(l to treat 
With the emperor- Marguerite macfe une of thin anTiely to g^iin the 
prstCAi poflHible cenoeerionfl from Fmneo. * Asfor Milan (vrhich for 
the liuK' «'"« re*ti>red lo Ffnoccaw Sfortal, ' it was not worel while,' 




314 TEE LADlEa' F£AC£ — AMAnAPn£TS-^PER£ECCmOff. 

fVfTA At /. 

she Bald, '(br relnLiona to ifiurrel about it. It migbt be gii 
rnntely aa H clowry co iin Auntriar prinwsg. who might mnrry a French 
prince,' SbD propOK€d that Fninck EtioufJ keep Burgundy if he 
would pay two milUDOB of croons, but the French clflimd to iuly 
were entJrdy lo be eurrendered, Florenct and Venice being left W 
make the beet agreeuiant dwy coulil fur dn^mselveN, 

Upon these terms the princes were to t* reafori\i, anJ ar ^* 

Hinia tune Fmnoia vf&A to ceLcbm^ his marnogQ ivit^i EJestnorA of 


^„ The Peace of Carabrai — tlie Ladies' Peace, aa it U ofteo culled— 

tw waa signEtl in AugUiit Kj29, and Fiancis, who saw thai he had nov 

an rail Rupportor bnt. the Hopf. sorn affor ngrped to a tuarriafle 

(descjn^ in iJler jear* to w^trk wop for Europe) between Henry, U» 

Bccond son, and Cnllienne de' Me<ijci, dnughtt'r of the lare duke of 

Urbinu and & reliiiivti uf Pupe Cltiiutnt. CalLierinc wa^ only foiz^ 

X.D li^en when tTie marrlnga Wcis aolemfiised at Mar^dlL'Sf ou ihe 28lb<if 

'"> Ouwbor, 1533, 

Frrincis flattvrcd bimeolf thut thia olEianco was to bring him gral 
ndTontngeSf but the Pope died tlio fallowing jQir, and Paul ILL, Ul 
euctsarHir, wad by no nieana iQcliDod ta join France agaiuKt the em- 

After llie Peoee of Carabrai Franpe Tnight hnvo hoped fof all 
intervtJ of re|X)f4e, but in those troubled times of reltgioiia CQonf- 
veray and peraecution repoM was not to be haiJ> The king and lua 
mother were* like Mar^trlie of NKvarre, iiatunilly tLFlfimct; but 
ihe spread of the new docirinea wa^ becoming bo rapid, and tte 
cttmLty of the heada of (he Kouihq Cathohc Church bo inteD»«f di^I 
4 p^ Francia, os a inatler of ptilioy, woa induced to adopt severe mcMUi* 
lot* In June 1594 the uuLverivil topic of Interest uaa tbp inaum^' 
tion of the spct of Anahaptiatd ai Munrttr, who with their Wilu 
doctrines thNUit^Eied tn overthroiv all painfalished atithonty. On fbe 
IBth of October of the samo year the king, hririg at BEois, vv, » 
he IcFt kis room. !n tho morning;, a placard ag[i!n-.t tlic mnu affixoa 
to hia door idmtlar to tlmt which Imfil been put forth by the Ao*- 
hapIJKCa »nd iheir l^mler, John of Ley den ; And he wiu colli ifaU 
there were members of the sHme wet in Faria who iaiended t> CPW' 
aa^re the Homan Catholica and burn down Ehe Lonvre. Franda ^ 
iilreody tried ptr^culion, for, at the ioaripntion of cBrdinnl DupM 
Berquin, a learni^d traiialulor ijf some of Lutber^s treaUBCA, hadbMO 
burnE in the Place He la fJreve. The snnn? TCTTihle puni'^hmcnt ii*i 
new iigaJn rawtrt^d to. Si^ mieerable viciinia were burnt puhlicly. 
and with a retincmont of cnielt? which rendered their dcaih hn)f<?r' 
iag. The peraecuCion continued for several nioi^ths, until ibc kin^ 
foreseeing a &eah ijnarreL with the emperor, and wishing to ^lji die 
rriendflhip of the Luiher:»n princes of Gerraany, ilionghi it wise to 

nWTAlKEnLCAtI — DJ^TR Of FttAHCEiCO ifOlilA^ 315 

Ttilent, fln*i publish*^ a manifostn full of proresHions of clemency. 
Ka v*en xrrctf tc< the Gpncan jirincea in mppE-ohfltioD of tbe profefr^ 
BOfi of (kith qUIh! iht ConleeeioD of Augsburg, but ho was iii?t(t 
•bl« to tecovcr the grauod he had li^i with ihcm by hiti acU of 

It wi» nbcmt tbifl time thatFrnncw he^ntoeDlnrgetuiil benullfy 
ihfi pil9i?e of Font]i[iii>hj^ii- Th« prctiuvaqud ncepGiy of Ihe foretc, 
Uie ta«{iialid«d of the groiUidi the Lu^ i?^7 roclu petrin^ from 
MBODgBt the Splendid EncH, with the flovring rirrr formiDg the priic«- 
fU boimdary of the domolD) touchei) liin aiiiBlic JujAginalioD, 11c 
darotcd hiiriHelf 1o FontainGbleau as he had lo ChAmbord. But. 
be d«nrvd to make it ItoliAii^ and thus to rvoull the dmms 
9f hia TOQth. He fitted \tp the goIE&ritB And arcadcB id the Htyle of 
t^ Tilliis <»r IxfnbardjF rui«3 ndamed them with the works oE the 
^mt |ttinlen of the rlar. TheBnckcf Itomefanil hoea thp downfiLlloT 
mnnioT h^r: AttiAtinnd Aculptora v^rc diitperspd ; and many nought 
ftAd found dielter unJ occunition in Fmii'^fl, The king't deltgbi in 
Italy ftbd Itnliui ntt btjd, mdotd, alvnya iib«wa ilM]f. When Ihe 
imtmonu Lconiirdo di Vinci* at the ape of eighty, appeared at tht 
«DOr1, hcKC the bihion in drtat. and the kin^und coumera trimnied 
tfii^ hftir and iMvrflii, uid nrdera] ih^r coots to be cut nft«r the 
Vodcl afiLe great piinter. That vab v hen B^rsEids wa« coQjpani- 
tfrclr ^DUig; now hv whb psjwina; old ; boi hin cpjoymcnt of Alt 
VBtRMlMS even ihan before. In lits lavi^i r^kleaetieM he once aud 
to BcDTacmlo CftUinl, *I wUI siiJle ihvc witli gold,' whtlat la Boooi 
■ha painter who nmnmented FontninfMrau, 1i« gavp in joke an 
acfleainiMol eiEcOf which iho poor pnintor Of^yvt enjoyed, for, on 
OOMatMi ol acvne miafoTtiino, he cammitled euicidc- 
p It mi^t hare beeu woH for hiiiuielf and bin people if Hie 
fcftof bad never ai^D Kjuaed himself from dreaina v( ar^ io 
■hOM of nmbitian; Ymi the diitnl^>«Ting feclinga of ilUwill againat 
lb* wnpf ror, which mmirtBi^ Thcmftelvefi only occaaioD»]Jy during 
■ko ftro jf^n foNowinL; ihe Peac« of Cnmbnu, bnrril fonh m 
|]6S5 in wnjiei] iicii<:4 of an oijiin^ crxnmiTtfd by Chorla iu the 
MnvA nf a cQCfidciituI a^eixt of Fnuicin whr wu nstdin^ at the 
Ipitm rrf t'nncrwa Sibm at Milan. Without u Hhndcw of right 
BVftAcia look the ^mt step towardi war by laying claim 1o tba dtichj 
■f Saroy, and pouring his troopi into it. 'Dje dc»th of Fninceaco 
almoat at ihe tatnt niotu^nt, gav? Iiim Hie opportunity u> 
Milan for ihe dake vi Orleans. The refity of liir cniporor 
he would grSDt Milan to Ihe French kin^'o rhird wm, the 
IbIe* of jUipmli^rne^ but ih&t the Frcntih tri»[4 mu»t imm^tiftety 
bVwMBlte Savoy aad PiorimrTnC. These tcmiB n<rro rejected. 

A aifigt^AT diaplftv of miugtod cKivalQ' and inifult waa aa^9 by 
bafan boMilitin In^n. On ilii* 5th of April, lA3j, having 



^owfi through bia public: i](?voljdjis at Rome in St- Peber'a, he 
witli x\\e Po^ to the Vatii^hn, and^ in ihe mtJitt cf a grm.t HHtembly 
of Germuu uml TuUan princeis cardinfllfl, and ainbBSd&dors, auHk % 
Jjnran^G — F^^Ttlj' extempore, partly froia wrJtLoa notes. It ifM • 
kind ul" ljiwy<:r n pk*mli[ig agamat Priucia. At it* cijnclimoa be 
ofltrL*d \\i" French kin;^ a choioe (if tlir^e thiugs— eiibtr penraif with 
Mikn f>r ih*- iJiike of Angoul^me ; or war; or thfil they alifinjd 
dccido th<iir cliiibreiie&B by single comba-tT the van£|ULehf^ bclog 
bound to support tho Pof'O Agjm^ot the Turks and the heretics- ha 
tlie pledge nud ptlze of cht conleat Cborlea waa to uiler Milan imd 
FraridH Burgundy. 

Tho prppnaal louched tbe pHde of Franoift to the quick. Wht 
wiLB the nntiind choice, t^nd in the montb of July the tmpcrort lulL 
of cotiKdence, inviid<.'d Province nt the head i>f 50,000 nu:u. So 
litblt did Le t^tveni the Freudi Iruopa iLiit be said, in [»j>i;aking ^ 
them, ' If I weri* in the king's place, lind hud rir*Lhing beu*r to de- 
pend upon, I ahoulii aimplj pitme with clasped hand^ Bud a cox^ 
round my nock aad girt; myBGlf up.^ Hul ho had nab caLcuktcd 
upon any nicaiifl of ddbnce save that of warfare. The cotiBtoUl 
Montmorency wn* neui by Fra*icia lo Provi-nce with urdir* Uj \w^ 
waste tbe eouTiiry, so a* lo give no footing to i he enemy. Tbi 
unhappy p«aeunts aniight »iiSGiy in tlie great towns; by degrCEa thvM 
n^iio were aboadoncdT and everything woa burn band destroyed- Mont- 
morency «ijut him!^;ir up m an eiitrcnelisd cntnp, lu tbe irciLunr? 
that bn eiieinitn^ ^vuuld dJe of hunger, Tiifi eiiifieror endeATunn^ 
to bring eupp}i^<< for iiiM army by sea, but the urarriiig popola- 
tion Btill hnguring in tlia aoighbourharid threw iheraiolvea upon lb« 
provL^lona and devoured bbLnn. Cbarles found himulf at Ictigtk 
compelled to retrent. By the time he rendjcU iLe frontier Eu* 
forcftB, wasted by fiiniine nnd ijefltilence^ were compienely d]Siiigiii< 
iaed, and he set Eatt for Spain in a t-pirit very difi^rent from 1ta> 
ptoud confidence with which he had undertaken the expedition. & 
was about ttiia time that Frojicia lont hla ehleat »oii, who died M 
suddenly thiit a, ehnrgt- of having pfoeure<l hia di:!iiih tj poitou «ii 
Mbfliirdly brought iignm»it the emperor. The Daupbin'a dcatb wift 
reaUy oecasiened by drinking immodemteiy of iced wal*r aflv 
beating bimaclf nt u game of tennis. 

Tbe young king of Sootliind, James Vi^wo* the only person irhl 
had ithown any willingnbtia to aid FraaciH at ihe time uf ibia ini^ 
Binn, He whs prepare'] to brin^j; a eonsiderabln fciroe into FttJier, 
tint contrary winda prevented their IjLiidLng, Francig tJiuwcd hi' 
gratitude by giving bim Itis daugbter Alagdclnioe in niarrio^E. ^br 
lived, liowever, & very nhort time. James afterward* morrieJ M»rj 
of I*orniine, dnughttr of the duka of Guise. By tlii> (^ipriiop^* <i 
JAM Pope Paul III. a truce for ten years was brought about in Xh^ 

I JtHO -*- ' 

nmt>vrEtt AT PAiiis^Piioui^ea ot cvxitLts — ftKptrr^iATiov. 317 

bogyge n Ftuncis &aJ the emperor- Up to tlial time hostiliti^ had 
btwD Garri«d on tJi a iJt^fitilcoty inAnner, WLvh lIk^ trucfi wpic jvuIikj 
th» emperor T«t«iii«i] th& diiHty of Milan, and Fnuicia kept Savoj 
and I]j« grcAt^r part cf I'iediuon:. 

I' £v)Oii »ilerwnrda tho two eovereigna agrcad to bare a perBr>ajll 
iotcrvi«w At Aipuca Morlea in ProrcDCfi. 
Thi; pmpcj^ hud ti««n made by Cbirlen furtlj st ilie iQatiguiion 
i>r hi* sut*T Marj', now the r^wit of thp Kelhorlftndp, who »i#in« to 
have dr^sdod lesc Charlea nbould eMp>g« f>i □;!')«- bandied ip m contest 
ifitil lii« Turka, * It was impoi^iblc,' eho Boid, ' Ic Crujil iha hing of 
Pr«loe> NeTerthelcH^ if il could be. if ibc emperor could only see 
PrwidAAnd di«cuBH niOi him the critical qiii'tfions which conarrned 
th^TTi both — Hitt," dho added," your mfety ia of aoch Tflat import- 
ftaoc ihtt 1 dare Tii>t Bdvise il/ 

Tlio result of the inwrvinir wns tho cntirti oonvoraion of Francis 
lo Htc litjiaaa Catlhotic umsc. The uoiitable moijarUi whu bad 
hiliitrrio mid otie Lhing in th<^ mnrninp and anoihiT in th(* ^vpaing 
W iI lul Axed in the principlej^ to wki^^h ht ndherod till hii denib. 
UatIs bcu^ht him ovt-r to bin aido by the t<ynd ^tU afler of llifi 
dnohy of Milan for bin second ton, who was to marry » niece of tbt 
flDfKii'i, whilrtt FrazicuN cjn hi^ \iaTt. nutemuly t^ud pubJluly engngtid 
lo vjppnrt the emperor sf^mHt tJj« Turks, 

The king ytam now anxioivt to ahow in every vfnj hh loyaX adhft- 
wwttc* to ifae emp«ror, and vhcn^in 1539. on iho o^^casion of n revoll 
iu Ghr^t, t^ie burghers Q0ered to pUct themitvlres uadi^r hin noYe- 
rwgnlj^, he flt OQM ooinrniinicat*?d the fftct l*i Charles, propoj*iug lo 
kim ni the nkoii* timv. if iie nhould ibiak ii neenvairy to viaiC tb* 
liMhariandi, te pAH tJirmigh France &« the eui^fBT route- l-liurJea 
. #oaipi*d tbo o0cr ^Jjtdly, «nd arrivod at Paris on the lt4 of January, 
IMtf' ThediichciiBinl'lCtJfctHpejand the youap duke of Orleans irould 
fiun hairr ^jenREafivd tin- king to kei^p hiin a prin^mirr aotii M ilan liad 
W^naily l^min givi'ii up, nn^ iht^ court jfHt<>r plnctd thfr ^mprrct't 
WHM jU (he bp*d of hifl liil of foU tur huving b^en nub enough lo 
Pltarr into Fmnni, TJic Ji?it wjui ihown to Pmiicik who uAked^ 
* Wlwl if I 4iould allow him to depart frwiy }' 'In that cue,* 
ri^Ued Uie jMtr, * I kbould craac ihe emperora name nnd put youn 
im IM plww.' In apb« of thin threat Frandi aeted a* a mitn of 
bowmr. The empflfor piim]f?d hiv journey in vifely, and. in rpiuni 
Sag tlua courteey and jicoiid fuuh. no •<K>h«T tbund hiiiL^ctf \u hia ovm 
JtaMlnkma (ban bo repiidial«l at) hia cn^ascnieritd. 

Ftancna waa at Uiia timt- ill and tiillL-riirg, and had taMen inm a 

Idnl of latbargic tndiffTPnco to publio affuir^ whirh IHt him at the 

ttMCy of intrtguinfr ecnrtttira and divoputahU rnvnurii4-A ; but the 

itfaUigvnca llmt h^ hud httn duped rouai;d biin to coi^rgy. Tc rhovi 

'iam «^r Iw arran^nl tbr maimse vf bia niocc (though tutlrvly 


Agaicst the will of hb mother) with tli« duke oE Gl&r«T ^^ 
biitor enemy of Charles- _ 

A vin!i>nc scene ertiuc'd at th« vr^ding. The child, who w» 
about twelve yoiLrn old, and not bI all strong and we!!, did notchooee 
to ivalk. The k'mt* said to tli? coni^uble Montmorency, ' Tak« her 
up aJid carry her; ' and the confitablt, wiiJiing to pacify the kiug, 
whom he hnjJ lau;[y in nuiny waya ofTciided, look up the [ilile 
prmcesiB before all the court and ciirrifid }ior whither he waa direcwd. 

Tho GonatabJe did not roguin his poeitioa by tliie abedieuce ; hs 
wan diagraced, and tbc king's iavouc vds bestowed upon the cardijuil 
□f TuuraoQ and die carditial ot Lurraiiit, two membi:nd of the rldag 
faniily of Guise. DeHperately fanatical, these prelataa strotigly en- 
coUTflg^d peraiicutioTi, and Francis, in hia new-formed z^ial for ib6 
lioman Catholic Church, allowed the moat grievjua horrota to be 
pBrpelratt.'d, eapeciully a^iust tbc Vaudois — a Bimple, loyai pupula- 
bion uf the towoa and villageA uuar Avignon. 3.000 of thew un- 
happy people were hutcherad and 7U0 oondeiiwed lo ih© gaU^ 
for Lie. 

The crownins act of the poliLicut mitdt-edu of FranciB was camofL 
by Ulo perfidy ut tht iiiuperoti viho bisiuwed tho duuhy of MUeui ob 
the'arqhduke Philip of Austria. Francis then daclarsd war agaitiA 
hirri, anrl fbrmed an alliance with the Turkish unltaii S&lrrdin. 
^^ This was in IMS, and the following yuai' Europe mw wiili horrc^ 
ths flag of France aide by aide with iLe cresccuc of (he inSdai, Tbe 
fauiouH Algtrine coraair Barhnrosaa joined lbs fleet of Fraucia* be- 
Heged and sacked N^ice, wini^'red in Toulon, and carried offC^t 
fllavefl from tJis caa^la lA' Italy In UoiiataTttinople. 

Jt yrBB but a doiibtlul coimtorpajBe to iho ahamo of mich 
^_o alhaucetliat Lht; French, under the coinle d^Sughien, gained a briUiaox 
JOH victnry over the eispercr fLt Ceri&ollEH uu thf;l4thof April, 1*^4, £tflhv 
Q^udition af jiflkira in tba north was sttch \ia to reader the cfindilica 
of Francis rooat perilous. 

The Enghahj now in alliance with the omperOTi were a£UD n 
Fraijcei and the forces of Hemy VIll. were beeieging Bouloipe 
Charleo, who wa4 always reading ih« hJHjx>naD Philip ilt» CoDiin& 
knew ur«l1 ihc- faniouB saying of Louis XL, that in taking Pari* 
FfaocD would bp tdkeo. Ho onterod France abont the eame Umt 
that Henry lauded at Calais, and moved towaj-ds the capital; btd 
slowly and heavily, «.<« becaitie a uionoich who had by dui 
time lost htR youthful ardotir, who atA much and waa a prry n 

Ejut Ha had ranched Crepy^ within three It-agnea of Paria, wh«D ha 
Eord ihat the English had Uikon Boulogne. Thie was ralhermort 
than CharlcH wlalicd for. It might after nil be wiser lo aakt peiu 
with France, which, in lis [irescnc candition, could do him no harnit 
than to work for the advantage cf England, andhetnade tiphiainJnd 

;ia. be- j 






ID propofic tenuE of Agreement. MiJan vrjia stilt t^romised to thu 
iluJse of Orleans on his marriage eJlhpr vi'tih the daugLter or the 
niece of the euijwrur, and ^i\oy wuj^ ut tlie liunic time to he glrea 
up to France. A BtriDgent anide binding France to put down thtf 
Kcionnera was the moHt importaDt poinf oi ihfi tte^ty "^'hiah vraaaigDed 
al Crdpy on thi? 13lh f>f Sept^nher, 154 1. Henry VIII., howcTcr, 
declined to lie included in it, and tht French, in c&nflcijuence, made 
A descent on thel^leof Wight in thi: fnllnwing yt^flr(1546}, bui peace 
mu GhaUj ojrangi^ nw 1h^ condition thnt Boulogne ehould be 
KEtorcd within eight yeara for a p»ymt-ot of two millions of crownfl. 
The death oF the duke of Oi'ltajia in ihia aame yenr again 
reopened ihti ve?:ed queaiion ijf Milan, ' The diike died, it is aaid, 
of the plngup, which lie caught \iy boBwrfiilly tidsing up hia lodg- 
ing in an infected houae, otl the plea tlmt the disi-aflb had never 
been fatal to a 'eon of Franco.' Frnncia ■koh not, howcveri in a 
gond^tion (o enter upon a new cunteat with the cciipeior. Hjb 
intellect hadhpcome ctuuded and hi& temper dourcd by painful ill- 
neiSt the consequence of hia n* If -indulgent life, and he waa re- 
duced tc the condition of a mert pupput in the handa of (hi; Dauphin 
ftikd Diana of Potticra (the Dauphin's iavciurite), and of the Eaoiily 
of the GuiseAr vthoalreidy tuuk ujtoit theiu«dve» tu lule eYeiything. 
The ducheftw d'Etampffi Htill exercised influence orer Francis, 
bttt her povrer in the court was rapidly di mini eh lug. The Dan- 
phia eYen vent oo fikr one day as to t«il his Epeoia! friende what 
i>£c«a they were lo hold on hi^ acct&'iiou. One was to be chamber- 
[uD, another eoni^lable of France^ and a third was lo have the oom- 
mand of tbi* arrillery. One of the court jealera happened to be 
prewnt. Ue immediately ran to the hiugi excJaiming, ^Haaven 
protect thee, FianciA dc Valoia ! Thou lUt no longer king I' Frimcia 
started. *lt i»true/ continued the jcater. '1 bavo h&ud it all. The 
coTUlflble of France will be here aoon lo is@ue his comuiandH. He nr 
thotl must be a dead mnii/ Prom thut day ihe unhappy Tnonarcb 
took cflpecial core to guard himpelf from hia son's friends, who were 
quite t^pable of pcisoning himn 

Such waa tlje bilLerneAa of th^ last days of Fiancla 1. The 
o»ertlowing drop in hif* cup of sorrow mu^it have been thathougbtof 
toavicig the throne of Frunce to the weak Dauphin, 

Ho w>uid lain have given to Heniy the benelit of hia own ex- 
p?rieuc«, and hid parting ojunaela were that (he ambition of the 
Gvam ihoiild be curbed aud the eonetable Mcmtmorencj excluded 
flea power- 

Frande expired al the cactle oT BambouiUet on the 3lEt of March, 
1547, in the nl^-third year of hie age and the thirtr-lhird of his 
iclgn. At the moaient of bin djing Agf^ny Diana oi Poitleia and 
the duke of GuiM laughud and mocked, cAcIaimia^, * Hi is guing at 


last, the fiue fellow I * and the Dauphta when attending tiie A^deDdid 
funeral — the moat magnUicent that had ever been seen in Fnoce^ 
ajtolce of his own happioeba oa juat about to begin. 

Francis L ia genemlly considered one oi ^e greateat of Fraach 
monarchSf and there are two poiaia oE view in which he may be 
regurded us not unworthy of the lame he has acquired- By his Img 
struggle with the emperor Charles V. he no doubt secured ihe 
independence of his country^ and increased its temtory aud le- 
Bourcea, and by his liberal encouragement of lltervtiiro and art 1» 
merita the gratitude not only of France, but of the civitised 
world. The famona Greek acholar Bud^ or Budeeufl; Scaliger, tbe 
critic: Robert Stephens^ the printer; Kabelais, the eatiriat; and 
Clement Marot, the Calviniat poet, wore all patroniaed by him. 
The painters Leonardo da Vinci » Andrea del Sorto, and Solnatt; 
and the sculptors Benvcnuto Cellini and Jean Goujon receind 
every encouragement from hia generosity ; whilst the public build- 
ings erected by him are splendid specimens of the Itenaiaaance stjle, 
in which the pL*culiarities of Greek and Goliic architecture ■« 

But the example of an evil life more than neutralised the public 
beae£ta which Francis conferred upon his country. To hioi 
belODgs the niistirable distinction of naving been the first Frendi 
monarch to corrupt hia people by making vice so attractive by '^ 
splendour as to lead them to overlook ita degradation. 

The Koman Catholic order of the JeauitM wae founded in Spiin 
in the reign of Francis I. by Jgnatiua Loyolai a Spanish officer, who 
having been severely wounded in an engagement between tb« 
French and Spaniards in Navarre^ resolved, on hia recovery aAsri 
lingering illness, to devote himself to the interesta of the chuidit 
and with the permiBaion of Paul ITI, formed a society devoted 10 
the work of conversion and to education. The Jesidta have siooi 
BO mixed themselves up with pohtical intrigues that they ban 
been looked upon with suspicion by neaily aJt the goTonmuoli 
o£ Europe- 


A.D. 1 047-1 AAO. 

HE^aT IL was iu the twenty-ninth year of his age wImi b0 
ascended the throne of France. He had nd&er the ta^tt nor tbe 
perponal attractions of hia father. He was tall, indeed, and n^ 



propcrtiODed, And distinguir^b^d for hia akill in aTlilettc ^^arciaen, 
l^at his Bloopinj^ figure and dark Spanish fiice rooallod iho daya of 
iiis CApllvity^ iti Madrid. lb aoamcd Aa if he hud then \ofX t}ie 
lirlgbtQiefla of htH jooth, and had »n)T<r been able to recover it. He 
foOked fikc !h man who might he Pftnily led, and lie was kd— more 
diac l&d, he ^n4B nbaolutelj govwned by D1HII& df PoifieiM, a proud, 
dfiah, wortblosa ivomaTi, but poBHeeaiag ea rauch tact nnd dever- 
j«Ba« uad at llie age of fivc-and-fortj retaining so muth of the 
OtrHCtioTi of youlb, LhaL ber ioJluence exteaded over the vrliolc 

Evon the yqnng quaen Catherine wae the tlavcof Diana, though 
)n1j Irom the cvinDing policy irhich wnaEO nwrkcd a feature b. her 
Jiaracter- Slje feared the haughty fiToarite, and therefore made 
icT herfriend, 

Diana bud, howeT^r, m'flh to her pnwCT tn the Gniwa Hnd the 
lOnstAble M-mtniorency- Henry gave Edi his conHdenctr ta thosfi 
rliQ had laliGQ part with him whea Drtupbin* and if talent ftione 
gonld baye Jivailt-il fnr tlis bappurl i?i' tLe throasaud the good cf the 
Vmntry, hi^ could NZArctly hiive made a wirier chiiicF. But the am- 
>iUoii of the Guiaea wne oa gre&t aa their meDtal and periwuaJ 
[jflfl, and thf> miaery of Franco for many ituc^i^Mding years may be 
kaced to the blind coMfitlence of Ili^nry in the persons againiit 
irhom the Hiigarity of bisfilher bud aO ouruepiily wurued him. 

The family of Guitm v,'i!( onis of high dintincticn- Clande, the 
lr*t doLe, a dJetinguiAb&d eoMier, ivAa the tiflb aon of Kea^ 11., 
doke of XiOTTaiuQ. He murricd u daughter of the house of Bourbon, 
*ad left Bi'Ven rtons, the elde^ c.if wljoui, Frjiiiti.'*, cuccseded him 
in hib title and wua duke of Guiae when Heary \\. came Lo 
the throiie, ChnrlM, the se[.'i>nd aon, became idrimately eardimil of 
LorminO, vhilsc the eldent litLughCer, Mrtry, had^ aa has already been 
IbUed, manied Jumca V. of' Scotland, und now, her husband being 
dead, held ihe chief power in t,he country during the inimnitj of 
her danghtPT, Mary St;u?tri, 

Thna royally f?finni?efpd, ibe duke of GuiNe and his brothera 
miji^bt posubly havo dreamed of f*overeignCy even if they hod 
ttbl no direct pretetiaion to !t« biLt th^re waa on ancient and uioat 
(lerplexing elaim handed down lo them from tite duke of Lor- 
niint, which they were net prepirti! \ty yield without an effort. 
The family of Lorraine wore descended from the rryal house of 
AjttjaUi which had eetrtbliGliod it&jJf on (he throne of Naples. The 
ATigCTice dynasty hud^ indeed, been o?crthrown by the hinga of 
Angon, hue the claim Aiill remuiDed, and tl:e dake of Guise was 
ftnlj waiting for the fitting moment publicly U\ put it forth. Francia 
ef GriLK wa» on abta fkddier and commander, appArenlly frank Ond 

L-boorted, yet be was aloo a CAUtiousi fiaroooiug politician. Hid 

I. ifi- I 

:i22 icoirrMOftEsm: — statk qv the oocNTnY — habit smABT- 
H'lity J J. 

brother was Eihrcwd rmd IcumocI, wianing in mannorf and poMoF 
iug A wonderTut power of djHaLniulation. With such quftU^c^itiocii, 
it wGji K-arcely doub^ut iiv>v. the Guisr^s uucler vuch a prio 
Henry, would hecomo Ihe nctnaj rultrn ol rhe kingdom. 

The oSicG held by the <:onatflbl« Mootnioreiicy gave htmt in- 
deod^ YMt iTdluence ; but the conelnble nae inferior to the Gui«a m 
ftbUitj ; and although be proJet«t;d a. ccriaiP fltrictneaa <>f prindp^Ct 
hiA timcerii^ was doubted, and be won wauiiag in Lbe cijurt««;f 
wlikh won over bo many to the side of the princes of X-H^irrjiine. 
Thcv ivere BUpplaacing him even in the ey^ of Diana of PoLCiert. 
tor they yrerc Joioing with her to »miL^ nnd occupy the iradt 
Ltiug. Tbey be^aa by plauning l^(«a, taking Ileary from palaosl> 
polucG, aud leading with him the Jjrua of wduderiug ktii^hta,a 
thej rode through pnrka nnd lorentdi, and under triifinphal orthoi; 
and at length tlicy eutir^Jy engroBsed bis atUDiion m the ^roctdondT 
a kind of TU£tic puluce (or Diana M Anel^ neap Evr^iuc, whichi 
wJtJi ilB rooms and cortidars painted by Goujuu, itn terr^cea kjmI 
oopitfH. ha irim gunlcn atid va-nln vchvb, and ilie lovely Utile fhapt;! 
crowning and consecrfliing the whoTe, w&a a plAoe for perfect «njoj- 
ment, if not fcrr entiro ibrgetfulnesa- 

Doubtlcea, by bia selSeh indolence, Henry ta-Vdd himsel/ hm